You are on page 1of 61

Absorption and Stripping

Dr.T.M

The objective is:

To understand the absorption( Gas-Liquid) process


To make the material balance for a absorption system To understand the concept of equilibrium stages and their estimation

To understand the stripping process


To make the material balance for a stripping system To understand the concept of equilibrium stages and their estimation
Dr.T.M 2

Introduction
A mass transfer operation same category as distillation Exclusive to gas-liquid separation Distillation uses the VLE, i.e. difference in boiling temperatures Absorption uses the GLE, i.e. solubility
gas is absorbed into liquid liquid solvent or absorbent gas absorbed solute or absorbate

Stripping is reverse of absorption


liquid absorbed into gas act of regenerating the absorbent

Dr.T.M

Introduction
Absorption in the industry
Air pollution control scrubbing of SO2 , NO2 , from combustion exhaust (power plant flue gas) Absorption of ammonia from air with water Hydrogenation of edible oils H2 is absorbed in oil and reacts with the oil in the presence of catalyst
Dr.T.M 4

How does it work?


Good product Solvent

This section can be trayed or packed Solute with inert gas unwanted gas solution to disposal or recovery
Dr.T.M 5

How does it work?

Tray tower

Packed tower

Dr.T.M

How does it work?


Tray tower: Absorption on each tray

Dr.T.M

How does it work?


Tray tower: Types of tray
Sieve Valve Bubble Cap

A full tray

Dr.T.M

How does it work?


Packed tower: 1. Structured packing

2. Random packing

Dr.T.M

How does it work?


Packed tower: Structured packing

Dr.T.M

10

How does it work?


Packed tower: Structured packing

Dr.T.M

11

How does it work?


Packed tower: Random packing

Dr.T.M

12

How does it work?


Spray tower

Dr.T.M

13

How does it work?


Bubble Column

Liquid solvent bed

Dr.T.M

14

General Design Considerations


Entering gas (liquid) flow rate, composition, temperature and pressure Desired degree of recovery of one or more solutes Choice of absorbent (stripping agent)

Operating pressure and temperature, allowable gas pressure drop


Dr.T.M

and

15

General Design Considerations


Minimum absorbent (stripping agent) flow rate and actual absorbent (stripping agent) flow rate as a multiple of the minimum flow rate Number of equilibrium stages Heat effects and need for cooling (heating)

Type of absorber (stripper) equipment


Diameter of absorber (stripper)
Dr.T.M 16

The ideal absorbent should:

have a high solubility for the solute have a low volatility be stable be noncorrosive have a low viscosity be nonfoaming be nontoxic and nonflammable be available, if possible, within the process
Dr.T.M 17

The most widely used absorbents are: water hydrocarbon oil aqueous solution of acids and bases
The most widely used stripping agents are: water vapor air inert gases hydrocarbon gases

Dr.T.M

18

Equilibrium Contact Stages


Single multiple

Dr.T.M

19

Single Equilibrium Stage


V1 L0 V2 L1

Single equilibrium stage system above Mass balance:


L0 + V2 = L1 + V1

Dr.T.M

20

Single Equilibrium Stage


V1 L0

V2
L1

Mass balance: L0 + V2 = L1 + V1

Gas-liquid absorption usually 3 components


involved. Let A, B and C be the components, then L0xA0 + V2yA2 = L1xA1 + V1yA1 L0xC0 + V2yC2 = L1xC1 + V1yC1 and xA + xB + xC = 1.0
Dr.T.M 21

Single Equilibrium Stage


V1 L0

V2
L1

L0xA0 + V2yA2 = L1xA1 + V1yA1 L0xC0 + V2yC2 = L1xC1 + V1yC1 xA + xB + xC = 1.0 To solve these 3 equations their

equilibrium relations will be required


Dr.T.M 22

Single Equilibrium Stage


V1 L0

V2
L1

Gas phase V Components A (solute) and B (inert) Liquid phase L Components C In gas phase you have binary A-B In liquid phase you have binary A-C
Dr.T.M 23

Single Equilibrium Stage


V1 L0

V2
L1

Only A redistributes between both phases. Take mole balance of A:


x A0 L 1 x A0
'

y A2 V 1 y A2
'

x A1 L 1 x A1
'

y A1 V 1 y A1
'

where L moles of C and V moles of B


Tutorial: Derive/Proof this
Dr.T.M 24

Single Equilibrium Stage


V1 L0

V2
L1

x A0 L 1 x A0
'

y A2 V 1 y A2
'

x A1 L 1 x A1
'

y A1 V 1 y A1
'

To solve this, equilibrium relationship between yA1 and xA1 is needed.

Use Henrys Law: yA1= H xA1


H Henrys law constant (obtainable in Handbooks eg Perrys)
Dr.T.M 25

Countercurrent Multiple-Contact Stages


V1
1 L0 L1

V2
2

V3

Vn
n

Vn+1

VN
N

VN+1

L2

Ln-1

Ln

LN-1

LN

Total overall balance: L0 + VN + 1 = LN + V1 = M where M is the total flow

Overall Component Balance: L0xo + VN + 1 yN +1 = LNxN + V1 y1 = Mxm


Dr.T.M 26

Making a total balance over the first n stages,

L0 + Vn + 1 = Ln + V1
Making a component balance over the first n stages, L0xo + Vn + 1 yn +1 = Lnxn + V1 y1

Solving for yn +1,

yn

Ln x n Vn 1

V1y 1 L0 x0 Vn 1

Operating Line

Dr.T.M

27

Countercurrent contact with immiscible streams


An important case in which the solute A is being transferred occurs when the solvent stream V contains components A and B with no C and solvent stream L contains A and C with no B.
y1 1 y2 2 x1 y4 y3 y2 3 y4 N=4 yN + 1 x5 y1 1 x0 x1 x2 x3 x4 3 x0 Operating line yN + 1

4
Equilibrium line

y3

x2

xN

Note: If the streams L and V are dilute in key species, the operating line is a straight line
Dr.T.M 28

Analytical Equations for Countercurrent Stage Contact (Kremser Equation) When the flow rates V and L in a countercurrent process are essentially constant, the operating line equation becomes straight If the equilibrium line is also a straight line over the concentration range, simplified analytical expressions can be derived for number of equilibrium stages in a countercurrent stage process
Overall component balance on component A: L0xo + Vn + 1 yn +1 = Lnxn + V1 y1

Dr.T.M

29

Rearranging, LNxN - VN + 1 y N + 1 = Loxo - V1y1 Component balance for A on the first n stages, L0xo + Vn + 1 yn +1 = Lnxn + V1 y1 Rearranging, Loxo - V1y1 = Lnxn - Vn + 1y n+1 Thus,

LNxN - VN + 1 y N + 1 = Lnxn - Vn + 1y n+1


Dr.T.M 30

Since the molar flows are constant, Ln = LN constant = L and Vn+1= VN+1 = constant = V. L (xn - xN) = V(yn+1 - yN+1) (A)

Since yn + 1 and xn + 1 are in equilibrium and the equilibrium line is straight, yn + 1 = mxn + 1. Also, yN + 1 = mxN + 1

Substituting mxn + 1 for yn + 1 and calling A = L/mV,

xn

Ax n

yN 1 m
Dr.T.M

AxN

(B)

31

For transfer of solute A from phase V to L (absorption)

y N 1 y1 y N 1 mx0

AN 1 A AN 1 1

N
When A = 1,

y N 1 mx0 1 ln 1 y1 mx0 A ln A

1 A

y N 1 y1 y 1 mx0
Dr.T.M 32

Solving (B), For transfer of solute A from phase L to V (stripping),

xo xN xo ( y N 1 / m )

(1/ A)N 1 (1/ A) (1/ A)N 1 1

N
When A =1,

x0 ln xN

yN 1 / m (1 A) A yN 1 / m ln(1/ A)
x0 xN yN 1 / m
Dr.T.M 33

xN

If equilibrium line is not straight,

A NA1

where

AN

LN mN VN 1

and

A1

L0 m1V1

Dr.T.M

34

Example: Number of stages by analytical equation


It is desired to absorb 90% of the acetone in a gas containing 1.0 mol% acetone in air in a countercurrent stage tower. The total inlet gas flow to the tower is 30.0 kg mol/h, and the total inlet pure water flow to be used to absorb the acetone is 90 kg mol H2O/h. The process is to operate isothermally at 300K and a total pressure of 101.3 kPa. The equilibrium relation for the acetone in the gas-liquid is yA = 1.5 xA. Determine the number of theoretical stages required for this separation by graphical method and compare it with Kremser equation. Estimate the minimum solvent ratio for the process. If 2 times of minimum solvent is used estimate the number of theoretical stages required.

Dr.T.M

35

Problem - 1& A gas mixture of air and CO2 is contacted in a multi stage mixer with pure water at atmospheric conditions. The exit gas and liquid streams are in equilibrium. The inlet gas and liquid flow rate are 100 kg/h and 300 kg/h respectively. The entering gas contains 0.2 mole fraction of CO2. If 90 % of CO2 is observed, Calculate the composition of the leaving liquid and suggest the coordinates of the operating line. Estimate the number of stages required for the absorption.

Assume the equilibrium relation is y = 2.52x. Estimate the number of stages required if, 1.5 times of minimum solvent is required..

Dr.T.M

36

An adsorption oil containing 0.12 moles of benzene per mole of benzene free oil is to be stripped by using a superheated steam at 121.1oC and at 1 atmospheric pressure. For every 200 kgmol of benzene free oil, 100 kgmol of pure steam was used. The outlet concentration of oil should not exceed 0.005 mol of benzene per mole of benzene free oil. Estimate the number of theoretical stages required for the stripping process. The equilibrium data are given below: X Y 0.02 0.07 0.04 0.13 0.06 0.22 0.08 0.30 0.10 0.40 0.12 0.51 0.13 0.58

Dr.T.M

37

Solution:
V1 = 29.73 kg mol/h, yA1 = 0.00101, L0 = 90.0 and xA0 = 0. Thus,

A1 = L/mV = L0/mV1 = 90.0 / (2.53 x 29.73) = 1.20


At stage N, Thus, VN + 1 = 30.0, yAN +1 = 0.01, LN = 90.27, and xAN = 0.00300

AN = LN/mVN + 1 = 90.27/(2.53 x 30.0) = 1.19


The geometric average, A = (A1AN)1/2 = (1.20x1.19)1/2 = 1.195 For absorption and by using kremser equation,

0.01 2.53(0) 1 ln 1 0.00101 2.53(0) 1.195 ln (1.195)


Dr.T.M

1 1.195

5.04 stages
38

Graphical Equilibrium-Stage Method for Trayed Towers Consider the countercurrent-flow, trayed tower for absorption (or stripping) operating under isobaric, isothermal, continuous, steady-state flow conditions

Phase equilibrium is assumed to be achieved at each tray between the vapor and liquid streams leaving the tray. ====> equilibrium stage Assume that the only component transferred from one phase to the other is the solute, For application to an absorber, let:

Dr.T.M

39

L = molar flow rate of solute-free absorbent G = molar flow rate of solute-free gas (carrier gas) X = mole fraction of solute to solute-free absorbent in the liquid Y = mole ratio of solute to solute-free gas in the vapor
Note that with these definitions, values of L and G remain constant through the tower, assuming no vaporization of absorbent into carrier gas or absorption of carrier gas by liquid. For the solute at any equilibrium stage, n,

Kn

yn xn

Yn / 1 Yn Xn / 1 Xn
Dr.T.M 40

O.P: YN + 1 = Xn(L/G)+ Y1 - X0(L/G)


X0,L
Y1,G

Yn = Xn + 1(L/G) + Y0 - X1(L/G)
XN + 1,L YN,G

1 1

YN+1,G

XN,L (bottom)

Y0,G

X1,L
top

Equilibrium curve

Operating line

Operating line

(top)

Equilibrium curve

bottom Dr.T.M

absorber

Stripper

41

Minimum Absorbent Flow Rate


YN + 1 (gas in) X0 1

Moles solute/mole solute-free gas, Y Y1 (gas out)

Y1

YN + 1

XN

Operating line 1

Moles solute/mole solute-free liquid, X X0


Dr.T.M

XN (for Lmin)

42

Consider, for n = N X0L + YN + 1G = XNL + Y1G or


L' G' YN 1 Y1 XN X0

(C)

For stage N, for the minimum absorbent rate,

KN

YN 1 / 1 YN 1 XN / 1 XN

(D)

Solving for XN in (D) and substituting it into (C) gives


Dr.T.M 43

' min

G' YN 1 Y1 YN 1 / YN 1 K N 1 K N

(E)

X0

For dilute solution, where Y y and X x, (E) becomes


L'min G' yN 1 yN 1 KN y1 x0

If the entering liquid contains no solute, that is, X0 0 Lmin = GKN(fraction of solute absorbed) For Stripper,
G'min L' fraction of solute stripped KN
Dr.T.M 44

Number of Equilibrium Stages


X0 1 Y1 XN + 1, YN, N

N Y0,

1 X1,

YN+1 YN + 1

XN

YN

Stage 1 (bottom)

Y1

Stage 1 (top)

Y0 xN Dr.T.M

x0

x1

45 xN + 1

Example: When molasses is fermented to produce a liqour containing ethyl alcohol, a CO2-rich vapour containing a small amount of ethyl alcohol is evolved. The alcohol can be recovered by absorption with water in a sievetray tower. For the following conditions, determine the number of equilibrium stages required countercurrent flow of liquid and gas.K-value=0.57. Given L/V=1.5(L/V)min . State your assumption.

Entering gas: 180 kmol/h; 98% CO2, 2% ethyl alcohol,


Entering liquid absorbent:100% water. Required recovery of ethyl alcohol:97%
Dr.T.M 46

Packed absorption tower design


Packed-tower performance is often analysed on the basis of equivalent equilibrium stages using packing Height Equivalent to a Theoretical (equilibrium ) Plate (staged),
HETP Packed height ( z ) Number of equivalent equilibrium stages ( N t ) z Nt

H OG N OG

where HOG is the overall Height Transfer Unit (HTU) and NOG is the overall Number of Transfer Unit (NTU)
Dr.T.M 47

HOG , Height Transfer Unit (HTU)


H OG V Ky 'a S

V; average liquid flow rate Ky; Overall transfer coefficient a: area for mass trasfer per unit volume of packed bed, S; cross sectional area of the tower

NOG , Number of Transfer Unit (NTU)


ln N OG A 1 yin Kxin A yout Kxin A 1 A 1 A

K ; equilibrium ratio A, absorption factor = L/KV


Dr.T.M 48

Example: When molasses is fermented to produce a liqour containing ethyl alcohol, a CO2-rich vapour containing a small amount of ethyl alcohol is evolved. The alcohol can be recovered by absorption with water in a packed tower. The tower is packed with 1.5in metal Pall rings. K-value=0.57. Given L/V=1.5(L/V)min . If HOG = 2.0 ft, determine the required packed height. Entering gas: 180 kmol/h; 98% CO2, 2% ethyl alcohol, Entering liquid absorbent:100% water. Required recovery of ethyl alcohol:97%

Dr.T.M

49

b.

A tray tower is used to absorb SO2 from an air stream by using pure water at 25oC. The entering gas contains 20 mole percent of SO2. The tower is designed to absorb 90% of SO2. The flow rate of pure air is 150 kg/h.m2. The entering water flow rate is 6000 kg water/h.m2. The equilibrium data are on solute free basis are given below
Equilibrium data for SO2 - water Mole fraction of SO2 in water, X 0.00000 Mole fraction of SO2 in vapour, Y 0.00000

0.00150
0.00200 0.00280 0.00420 0.00700

0.03420
0.05140 0.07750 0.12140 0.21200

Dr.T.M

50

i. Estimate the concentration of SO2 in the exit water leaving the tower. ii.i. Estimate the number of theoretical stages required for the desired absorption. iii. If the overall efficiency of the tower is 40%, how many number of actual stages are required. I

Dr.T.M

51

Since the equilibrium data are given in molar units, calculate the molar flow rates

V = 150/29

= 5.18 Kg mol inert air/m2 h y1 1 y2 x1 2 x0

L = 6000/18.0 = 333 Kg mol inert water/ m2 h


Y N+1 = 0.20; X0 = 0; Y1 = 0.02

XN = ????

substituting into the material balance equation

y3
3 y4

x2

333

0 1 0

5.18

0.20 1 0.20

333

xN 1 xN

5.18

0.02 1 0.02

x5 N=4

XN = ----------- ????
yN + 1

xN

Dr.T.M

52

Operating line

yN + 1
4 Equilibrium line y3 y2 y1 1 x0 x1 x2 x3 xN 2

y4

Number of theoretical trays = 2.4

Dr.T.M

53

Packed Tower Design


Acetone is being absorbed by water in a packed tower having a cross-sectional area of 0.186m2 at 293 K and 101.32 kPa. The inlet air contains 2.6 mol% acetone and outlet 0.5 mol%. The gas flow is 13.65 kgmol air/h. The pure water flow is 45.36 kgmol/h. Film coefficients for the given flows in the tower are kya = 3.78x10-2 kgmol/s.m3.mol frac and kxa = 6.16x10-2. Calculate packing height, z. The equilibrium relation is given by y = 1.186x.

Dr.T.M

54

Packed Tower Design


Solution: First calc HOG
V1 V' 1 y1 13.65/3600 1 0.026

H OG

V Ky 'a S

3.892 x 10 -3 kgmol/s

V2

V' 1 y2

13.65/3600 1 0.005

3.811 x 10 -3 kgmol/s

Vav = (V1 + V2)/2 = 3.852 x 10-3 kg mol/s

Dr.T.M

55

Packed Tower Design


Solution: First calc HOG H OG
1 K' y a 1 k' y a m k' x a 1 3.78 x 10 -2

V Ky 'a S
45.7

1.186 6.16 x 10 -2

is from

y = mx = 1.186x

relation established

Kya = 2.19 x 10-2 kgmol/s.m3.mol frac


So,

HOG = 3.852 x 10-3/(2.19 x 10-2 x 0.186) = 0.947 m

Dr.T.M

56

Packed Tower Design


Solution: Next calc NOG :
NOG 1 1 ln 1 ln A A yin mxin yout mxin 1 A

A = L/mV = (45.36/3600)/(1.186)(3.852x10-3)
= 2.758
N OG 1 1 ln 1 ln 2.758 2.758 0.026 1.186 x0 0.005 1.186 x0 1 2.758

NOG = 1.28 transfer units

Dr.T.M

57

Packed Tower Design


Solution:
z H OG NOG

NOG = 1.28 transfer units HOG = 0.947 m


So,

z = 0.947 x 2.043 = 1.935 m

Dr.T.M

58

Problem - 1 (Assignment) A tray tower is used to absorb the ethanol vapors from an inert gas stream using pure water at 30oC and atmospheric pressure. The concentration of ethanol vapors in the gas stream is 2.2 mol %. The gas stream flow rate is 100.Kg mol/h. It is desired to recover 90% of the alcohol. The equilibrium relation is Y* = 0.68 X. If 1.5 times of the minimum water flow rate is used, estimate the number of theoretical stages required for the absorption. Calculate the number of stages using kremsers equation.

Dr.T.M

59

Problem - 2 (Assignment) A hydrocarbon oil containing 4.0 mol % propane is being stripped by direct superheated steam in a tower to reduce the propane content to 0.2 mol %. A total of 11.42 kg mol of direct steam is used for 300 kgmol of entering liquid. An equilibrium relation of Y = 25x may be assumed. Steam can be considered as an inert gas and will not condense. Find out the number of theoretical stages needed for the operation

Dr.T.M

60

Problem- 3 When molasses is fermented to produce a liqour containing ethyl alcohol, a CO2-rich vapour containing a small amount of ethyl alcohol is evolved. The alcohol can be recovered by absorption with water in a sievetray tower. For the following conditions, determine the number of equilibrium stages required countercurrent flow of liquid and gas.K-value=0.57. Given L/V=1.5(L/V)min . State your assumption.

Entering gas: 180 kmol/h; 98% CO2, 2% ethyl alcohol,


Entering liquid absorbent:100% water. Required recovery of ethyl alcohol:97%
Dr.T.M 61