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Dr.T.M

To make the material balance for a absorption system To understand the concept of equilibrium stages and their estimation

To make the material balance for a stripping system To understand the concept of equilibrium stages and their estimation

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Introduction

A mass transfer operation same category as distillation Exclusive to gas-liquid separation Distillation uses the VLE, i.e. difference in boiling temperatures Absorption uses the GLE, i.e. solubility

gas is absorbed into liquid liquid solvent or absorbent gas absorbed solute or absorbate

liquid absorbed into gas act of regenerating the absorbent

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Introduction

Absorption in the industry

Air pollution control scrubbing of SO2 , NO2 , from combustion exhaust (power plant flue gas) Absorption of ammonia from air with water Hydrogenation of edible oils H2 is absorbed in oil and reacts with the oil in the presence of catalyst

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Good product Solvent

This section can be trayed or packed Solute with inert gas unwanted gas solution to disposal or recovery

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Tray tower

Packed tower

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Tray tower: Absorption on each tray

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Tray tower: Types of tray

Sieve Valve Bubble Cap

A full tray

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Packed tower: 1. Structured packing

2. Random packing

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Packed tower: Structured packing

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Packed tower: Structured packing

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Packed tower: Random packing

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Spray tower

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Bubble Column

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Entering gas (liquid) flow rate, composition, temperature and pressure Desired degree of recovery of one or more solutes Choice of absorbent (stripping agent)

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and

15

Minimum absorbent (stripping agent) flow rate and actual absorbent (stripping agent) flow rate as a multiple of the minimum flow rate Number of equilibrium stages Heat effects and need for cooling (heating)

Diameter of absorber (stripper)

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have a high solubility for the solute have a low volatility be stable be noncorrosive have a low viscosity be nonfoaming be nontoxic and nonflammable be available, if possible, within the process

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The most widely used absorbents are: water hydrocarbon oil aqueous solution of acids and bases

The most widely used stripping agents are: water vapor air inert gases hydrocarbon gases

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Single multiple

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V1 L0 V2 L1

L0 + V2 = L1 + V1

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V1 L0

V2

L1

Mass balance: L0 + V2 = L1 + V1

involved. Let A, B and C be the components, then L0xA0 + V2yA2 = L1xA1 + V1yA1 L0xC0 + V2yC2 = L1xC1 + V1yC1 and xA + xB + xC = 1.0

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V1 L0

V2

L1

L0xA0 + V2yA2 = L1xA1 + V1yA1 L0xC0 + V2yC2 = L1xC1 + V1yC1 xA + xB + xC = 1.0 To solve these 3 equations their

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V1 L0

V2

L1

Gas phase V Components A (solute) and B (inert) Liquid phase L Components C In gas phase you have binary A-B In liquid phase you have binary A-C

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V1 L0

V2

L1

x A0 L 1 x A0

'

y A2 V 1 y A2

'

x A1 L 1 x A1

'

y A1 V 1 y A1

'

Tutorial: Derive/Proof this

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V1 L0

V2

L1

x A0 L 1 x A0

'

y A2 V 1 y A2

'

x A1 L 1 x A1

'

y A1 V 1 y A1

'

H Henrys law constant (obtainable in Handbooks eg Perrys)

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V1

1 L0 L1

V2

2

V3

Vn

n

Vn+1

VN

N

VN+1

L2

Ln-1

Ln

LN-1

LN

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L0 + Vn + 1 = Ln + V1

Making a component balance over the first n stages, L0xo + Vn + 1 yn +1 = Lnxn + V1 y1

yn

Ln x n Vn 1

V1y 1 L0 x0 Vn 1

Operating Line

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An important case in which the solute A is being transferred occurs when the solvent stream V contains components A and B with no C and solvent stream L contains A and C with no B.

y1 1 y2 2 x1 y4 y3 y2 3 y4 N=4 yN + 1 x5 y1 1 x0 x1 x2 x3 x4 3 x0 Operating line yN + 1

4

Equilibrium line

y3

x2

xN

Note: If the streams L and V are dilute in key species, the operating line is a straight line

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Analytical Equations for Countercurrent Stage Contact (Kremser Equation) When the flow rates V and L in a countercurrent process are essentially constant, the operating line equation becomes straight If the equilibrium line is also a straight line over the concentration range, simplified analytical expressions can be derived for number of equilibrium stages in a countercurrent stage process

Overall component balance on component A: L0xo + Vn + 1 yn +1 = Lnxn + V1 y1

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Rearranging, LNxN - VN + 1 y N + 1 = Loxo - V1y1 Component balance for A on the first n stages, L0xo + Vn + 1 yn +1 = Lnxn + V1 y1 Rearranging, Loxo - V1y1 = Lnxn - Vn + 1y n+1 Thus,

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Since the molar flows are constant, Ln = LN constant = L and Vn+1= VN+1 = constant = V. L (xn - xN) = V(yn+1 - yN+1) (A)

Since yn + 1 and xn + 1 are in equilibrium and the equilibrium line is straight, yn + 1 = mxn + 1. Also, yN + 1 = mxN + 1

xn

Ax n

yN 1 m

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AxN

(B)

31

y N 1 y1 y N 1 mx0

AN 1 A AN 1 1

N

When A = 1,

y N 1 mx0 1 ln 1 y1 mx0 A ln A

1 A

y N 1 y1 y 1 mx0

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xo xN xo ( y N 1 / m )

N

When A =1,

x0 ln xN

yN 1 / m (1 A) A yN 1 / m ln(1/ A)

x0 xN yN 1 / m

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xN

A NA1

where

AN

LN mN VN 1

and

A1

L0 m1V1

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It is desired to absorb 90% of the acetone in a gas containing 1.0 mol% acetone in air in a countercurrent stage tower. The total inlet gas flow to the tower is 30.0 kg mol/h, and the total inlet pure water flow to be used to absorb the acetone is 90 kg mol H2O/h. The process is to operate isothermally at 300K and a total pressure of 101.3 kPa. The equilibrium relation for the acetone in the gas-liquid is yA = 1.5 xA. Determine the number of theoretical stages required for this separation by graphical method and compare it with Kremser equation. Estimate the minimum solvent ratio for the process. If 2 times of minimum solvent is used estimate the number of theoretical stages required.

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Problem - 1& A gas mixture of air and CO2 is contacted in a multi stage mixer with pure water at atmospheric conditions. The exit gas and liquid streams are in equilibrium. The inlet gas and liquid flow rate are 100 kg/h and 300 kg/h respectively. The entering gas contains 0.2 mole fraction of CO2. If 90 % of CO2 is observed, Calculate the composition of the leaving liquid and suggest the coordinates of the operating line. Estimate the number of stages required for the absorption.

Assume the equilibrium relation is y = 2.52x. Estimate the number of stages required if, 1.5 times of minimum solvent is required..

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An adsorption oil containing 0.12 moles of benzene per mole of benzene free oil is to be stripped by using a superheated steam at 121.1oC and at 1 atmospheric pressure. For every 200 kgmol of benzene free oil, 100 kgmol of pure steam was used. The outlet concentration of oil should not exceed 0.005 mol of benzene per mole of benzene free oil. Estimate the number of theoretical stages required for the stripping process. The equilibrium data are given below: X Y 0.02 0.07 0.04 0.13 0.06 0.22 0.08 0.30 0.10 0.40 0.12 0.51 0.13 0.58

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Solution:

V1 = 29.73 kg mol/h, yA1 = 0.00101, L0 = 90.0 and xA0 = 0. Thus,

At stage N, Thus, VN + 1 = 30.0, yAN +1 = 0.01, LN = 90.27, and xAN = 0.00300

The geometric average, A = (A1AN)1/2 = (1.20x1.19)1/2 = 1.195 For absorption and by using kremser equation,

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1 1.195

5.04 stages

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Graphical Equilibrium-Stage Method for Trayed Towers Consider the countercurrent-flow, trayed tower for absorption (or stripping) operating under isobaric, isothermal, continuous, steady-state flow conditions

Phase equilibrium is assumed to be achieved at each tray between the vapor and liquid streams leaving the tray. ====> equilibrium stage Assume that the only component transferred from one phase to the other is the solute, For application to an absorber, let:

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L = molar flow rate of solute-free absorbent G = molar flow rate of solute-free gas (carrier gas) X = mole fraction of solute to solute-free absorbent in the liquid Y = mole ratio of solute to solute-free gas in the vapor

Note that with these definitions, values of L and G remain constant through the tower, assuming no vaporization of absorbent into carrier gas or absorption of carrier gas by liquid. For the solute at any equilibrium stage, n,

Kn

yn xn

Yn / 1 Yn Xn / 1 Xn

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X0,L

Y1,G

Yn = Xn + 1(L/G) + Y0 - X1(L/G)

XN + 1,L YN,G

1 1

YN+1,G

XN,L (bottom)

Y0,G

X1,L

top

Equilibrium curve

Operating line

Operating line

(top)

Equilibrium curve

bottom Dr.T.M

absorber

Stripper

41

YN + 1 (gas in) X0 1

Y1

YN + 1

XN

Operating line 1

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XN (for Lmin)

42

L' G' YN 1 Y1 XN X0

(C)

KN

YN 1 / 1 YN 1 XN / 1 XN

(D)

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' min

G' YN 1 Y1 YN 1 / YN 1 K N 1 K N

(E)

X0

L'min G' yN 1 yN 1 KN y1 x0

If the entering liquid contains no solute, that is, X0 0 Lmin = GKN(fraction of solute absorbed) For Stripper,

G'min L' fraction of solute stripped KN

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X0 1 Y1 XN + 1, YN, N

N Y0,

1 X1,

YN+1 YN + 1

XN

YN

Stage 1 (bottom)

Y1

Stage 1 (top)

Y0 xN Dr.T.M

x0

x1

45 xN + 1

Example: When molasses is fermented to produce a liqour containing ethyl alcohol, a CO2-rich vapour containing a small amount of ethyl alcohol is evolved. The alcohol can be recovered by absorption with water in a sievetray tower. For the following conditions, determine the number of equilibrium stages required countercurrent flow of liquid and gas.K-value=0.57. Given L/V=1.5(L/V)min . State your assumption.

Entering liquid absorbent:100% water. Required recovery of ethyl alcohol:97%

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Packed-tower performance is often analysed on the basis of equivalent equilibrium stages using packing Height Equivalent to a Theoretical (equilibrium ) Plate (staged),

HETP Packed height ( z ) Number of equivalent equilibrium stages ( N t ) z Nt

H OG N OG

where HOG is the overall Height Transfer Unit (HTU) and NOG is the overall Number of Transfer Unit (NTU)

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H OG V Ky 'a S

V; average liquid flow rate Ky; Overall transfer coefficient a: area for mass trasfer per unit volume of packed bed, S; cross sectional area of the tower

ln N OG A 1 yin Kxin A yout Kxin A 1 A 1 A

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Example: When molasses is fermented to produce a liqour containing ethyl alcohol, a CO2-rich vapour containing a small amount of ethyl alcohol is evolved. The alcohol can be recovered by absorption with water in a packed tower. The tower is packed with 1.5in metal Pall rings. K-value=0.57. Given L/V=1.5(L/V)min . If HOG = 2.0 ft, determine the required packed height. Entering gas: 180 kmol/h; 98% CO2, 2% ethyl alcohol, Entering liquid absorbent:100% water. Required recovery of ethyl alcohol:97%

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b.

A tray tower is used to absorb SO2 from an air stream by using pure water at 25oC. The entering gas contains 20 mole percent of SO2. The tower is designed to absorb 90% of SO2. The flow rate of pure air is 150 kg/h.m2. The entering water flow rate is 6000 kg water/h.m2. The equilibrium data are on solute free basis are given below

Equilibrium data for SO2 - water Mole fraction of SO2 in water, X 0.00000 Mole fraction of SO2 in vapour, Y 0.00000

0.00150

0.00200 0.00280 0.00420 0.00700

0.03420

0.05140 0.07750 0.12140 0.21200

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i. Estimate the concentration of SO2 in the exit water leaving the tower. ii.i. Estimate the number of theoretical stages required for the desired absorption. iii. If the overall efficiency of the tower is 40%, how many number of actual stages are required. I

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Since the equilibrium data are given in molar units, calculate the molar flow rates

V = 150/29

Y N+1 = 0.20; X0 = 0; Y1 = 0.02

XN = ????

y3

3 y4

x2

333

0 1 0

5.18

0.20 1 0.20

333

xN 1 xN

5.18

0.02 1 0.02

x5 N=4

XN = ----------- ????

yN + 1

xN

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Operating line

yN + 1

4 Equilibrium line y3 y2 y1 1 x0 x1 x2 x3 xN 2

y4

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Acetone is being absorbed by water in a packed tower having a cross-sectional area of 0.186m2 at 293 K and 101.32 kPa. The inlet air contains 2.6 mol% acetone and outlet 0.5 mol%. The gas flow is 13.65 kgmol air/h. The pure water flow is 45.36 kgmol/h. Film coefficients for the given flows in the tower are kya = 3.78x10-2 kgmol/s.m3.mol frac and kxa = 6.16x10-2. Calculate packing height, z. The equilibrium relation is given by y = 1.186x.

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Solution: First calc HOG

V1 V' 1 y1 13.65/3600 1 0.026

H OG

V Ky 'a S

3.892 x 10 -3 kgmol/s

V2

V' 1 y2

13.65/3600 1 0.005

3.811 x 10 -3 kgmol/s

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Solution: First calc HOG H OG

1 K' y a 1 k' y a m k' x a 1 3.78 x 10 -2

V Ky 'a S

45.7

1.186 6.16 x 10 -2

is from

y = mx = 1.186x

relation established

So,

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Solution: Next calc NOG :

NOG 1 1 ln 1 ln A A yin mxin yout mxin 1 A

A = L/mV = (45.36/3600)/(1.186)(3.852x10-3)

= 2.758

N OG 1 1 ln 1 ln 2.758 2.758 0.026 1.186 x0 0.005 1.186 x0 1 2.758

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Solution:

z H OG NOG

So,

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Problem - 1 (Assignment) A tray tower is used to absorb the ethanol vapors from an inert gas stream using pure water at 30oC and atmospheric pressure. The concentration of ethanol vapors in the gas stream is 2.2 mol %. The gas stream flow rate is 100.Kg mol/h. It is desired to recover 90% of the alcohol. The equilibrium relation is Y* = 0.68 X. If 1.5 times of the minimum water flow rate is used, estimate the number of theoretical stages required for the absorption. Calculate the number of stages using kremsers equation.

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Problem - 2 (Assignment) A hydrocarbon oil containing 4.0 mol % propane is being stripped by direct superheated steam in a tower to reduce the propane content to 0.2 mol %. A total of 11.42 kg mol of direct steam is used for 300 kgmol of entering liquid. An equilibrium relation of Y = 25x may be assumed. Steam can be considered as an inert gas and will not condense. Find out the number of theoretical stages needed for the operation

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Problem- 3 When molasses is fermented to produce a liqour containing ethyl alcohol, a CO2-rich vapour containing a small amount of ethyl alcohol is evolved. The alcohol can be recovered by absorption with water in a sievetray tower. For the following conditions, determine the number of equilibrium stages required countercurrent flow of liquid and gas.K-value=0.57. Given L/V=1.5(L/V)min . State your assumption.

Entering liquid absorbent:100% water. Required recovery of ethyl alcohol:97%

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