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DHANALAKSHMI SRINIVASAN

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY


East Coast Road, Mamallapuram, Chennai-603 104 (Approved by AICTE & Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai)

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

LAB MANUAL

AE 1306

Aircraft Structures Repair Lab

AE 1306 Aircraft Structures Repair Lab


List of Experiments
(As per the Anna University syllabus - Regulation 2004)

Introduction Terms involved in riveting 1. Lap joint by riveting 2. Butt joint by riveting 3. Butt joint by TIG welding 4. Surface patch repair on perpex 5. Flaring of aluminium pipes 6. Making of channel section by hand forming 7. T- Joint by MIG welding 8. Bending of aluminium tube

INTRODUCTION

Aircraft structural members are designed to perform a specific function. The prime objective of aircraft is to restore damage parts to their original condition. Very often replacement is the only way to obtain the original condition. First study the parts carefully so that its purpose or function is fully understood. Strength may be principle requirement in the repair of certain structures. INSPECTION OF DAMAGE When visually inspecting damages resembles that there may be caused by impact of foreign objectives. A rough landing gear may be over loaded and causing it to damage the spring. They would be classified as load damage during inspection considers that this damage extends to supporting structural members. This will cause a huge damage a shock can extend through a length hence a close examination for failed rivets and elongated hole is very important. CLASSIIFICATION OF DAMAGE After the extent of damage has been found, it should be of one of these categories: o o o o Negligible damage Damage repairable by patching Damage repairable by insertion Damage requiring replacement of part

It is necessary that manual must be consulted before applying structural repair of necessary products and material to be used. NEGLIGIBLE DAMAGE It is the damage or distortion that may be allowed to exist or corrected by some simple procedures without placing a restriction on the flight status of airplane. Before classifying damage as negligible ensure that the damage complies with manufacture specified unit and limit of negligible damage. DAMAGE REPAIRABLE BY PATCHING Any damage exceeding negligible limits and that can be required by bridging the damage of the component with a material piece. Reinforcement member are attached to the damaged portion of the component to restore e the characteristic and air-worthiness of the aircraft. The

patch materials used are usually same as that of the damaged part but one gauge heavier. In a patch repair, filter plates of the same gauge may be used for bearing purpose or to return the damaged part to its original contours. Damage repaired by patching is specified for each member of air frame DAMAGE REPAIRABLE BY INSERTION: Damage that is extensive enough to penetrate to a major portion of the member but which is not so extensive as to require requirement is classified as damage repairable by insertion. The repairs are made by inserting a new-alike section and secure the insertion by splicing the insertion at each end. DAMAGE REQUIRING REPLACEMENT OF PARTS: Damage that cannot be repaired by any practical means is classified under this category. The replacement of an entire part is considered with one or more of the following conditions: y y y y When a complicated part has been extensively damaged When surrounding structure or the in accessibility make repair impractical When damaged part is relatively easy to replace When forged or cast fitting are damaged beyond the negligible limits.

Also short structural members usually must be replaced because repair of such member is generally impractical.

TERMS INVOLVED IN RIVETING:


PITCH: The distance between the centres of the adjacent rivets in the same row. SPACE: The distance between the rows of the rivets. LAND \ MARGIN: The distance from the edge of the plate to the nearest rivet centre. ALLOWANCE: The protruding length of the rivet after the rivet is inserted in the hole of the plate to be attached. Usually it should be 1.5 -1.75 times the diameter of the rivet. SPHERE OF INFLUENCE: The area in which the closed rivets maintains the plates in close proximity.

LAP JOINT BY RIVETING

AIM: To carry out the repair on an aircraft metallic skin by making a lap joint. REQUIREMENT: MATERIAL: y y Aluminium sheets: 2 nos of 80 x 80 x 0.2 mm Aluminium rivets: 10 nos of 25 x 3 mm

TOOLS: y y y General hand tool Snap and dolly Cutter

DIMENSIONS y y y y y y Land or margin = 10 mm Pitch = 15 mm Space = 20 mm Hole diameter = 3.2 mm Tolerance = 0.02 mm Allowance = 4.5 mm

PROCEDURE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Size the given plates to necessary dimensions Make the margin, pitch and space to find the hole centres Clean both the plates Hold the sheets in C Clamps Size the rivets length as per the allowance Place the sized rivets in the hole and rivet them using snap and dolly and ball piece hammer

RESULT: Thus a repair on the aircraft metallic skin by making a lap joint is done.

BUTT JOINT BY RIVETING

AIM: To carry out the repair on an aircraft metallic skin by making a butt joint of single strap type. REQUIREMENT: MATERIAL: y y Aluminium sheets: 3 Nos of required size Aluminium rivets: 20 Nos of 25 x 3 mm

TOOLS: y y General hand tool Snap and dolly

DIMENSIONS: y y y y y y Land or margin= 5 mm Pitch = 10 mm Space = 20 mm Hole diameter = 3.2 mm Tolerance = 0.02 mm Allowance = 4.5 mm

PROCEDURE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Size the given plates within its tolerance limit Make the margin, pitch and space to find the hole centres Grip all the 3 plates with the C clamp and drill holes Clean the turns from all the plates Size the length of the rivet as per the allowance. Rivet the holes using snap and doley.

RESULT: Thus a repair on the aircraft metallic skin by making a single strap butt joint is carried out successfully.

BUTT JOINT BY TIG WELDING

AIM: To carry out the repair by TIG welding on damaged aluminium sheets of an aircraft through butt joint. REQUIRMENTS: MATERIALS: y y Aluminium plates of 3mm thickness. Inert gas (argon).

EQUIPMENTS: y y y TIG weld plant TIG/ fixture Safety tools

PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Size the given plates to the required dimension( 50 x 50 mm ) Hold the job in figure after cleaning. Check the water level in auxiliary unit Ignite the torch after ensuring no look in the lose joint and torch Cool the job and clean the weld

RESULT: Thus the butt joint using TIG welding is completed successfully.

Tungsten Inert gas Welding plant

SURFACE PATCH REPAIR ON PERPEX

AIM: To carry out a repair on aircraft damaged transport panel. REQUIRMENT: MATERIAL: y 3mm thick Acrylic sheet.

TOOLS: y y General hand tool 45 chamfer

MAN POWER: y y 1 Technician 1 Supervisor

PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Dress the damage in to a shape to avoid sharp corner. Prepare a surface patch to overlap all around the damage by or . Bevel the periphery of the patch by 45 . By using C clamp apply uniform pressure of 5-10 psi for a minimum of 3 hours. Polish the bevelled surface if visibility is required.

RESULT: Thus the aircraft damaged transparent panel repair is carried out.

FLARING OF ALUMINIUM PIPES

AIM: To renew a damaged pipe length in an aircraft with necessary flaring and end fitting to prevent leakage. REQUIREMENTS: TOOLS: y y y y Smooth file Filter square Steel rule Hack saw MATERIAL: y y Aluminium pipe Nipple and nut EQUIPMENT: y y Bench wise Hand flaring tools

PROCEDURE: 1. Size the pipe into required dimensions. 2. Slide the nut on the pipe. 3. Open the saw of the flaming tools insert the pipe into the fix, with in the correct hole of the pipe. 4. Allow concentrated angle 37 which must be perpendicular to pipe centre.

RESULT: Thus the damaged pipe is renewed with necessary flaring to prevent damage of leakage.

MAKING A CHANNEL SECTION BY HAND FORMING

AIM: To fabricate a channel section by hand forming method. REQUIRMENT: MATERIALS: y Aluminium sheet

EQUIPMENT: y y Radius bend bar Mallet

DIMENSION: y y y y y Sheet thickness = 0.039 Length of sheet = 5.684 Angle of bend = 90 Bend radius = 0.25 Bond allowance = 0.42

PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Prepare a layout with all dimensions File the two adjacent sides flat and perpendicular Make the third and fourth side to shear out. Make the bend tangent line as shown in figure. Select the desired radius at the bottom bend bar. Insert the strip creeping the right line just in line with radius bar. Repeat the operation for other end. Check the length of the end.

RESULT: A hand forming a channel section is successfully completed.

T JOINT BY MIG WELDING

AIM: To design a T joint by MIG welding for the required dimension of aluminium as material. REQUIRMENTS: MATERIAL: y y Aluminium sheet of 75 x 60 x 3 mm Aluminium sheet of 75 x 50 x 3 mm

TOOLS: y y y y Scale L Square File MIG welding unit

PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The given aluminium is filed properly on the edges It is then fixed in the bench vice The edges are filed using file Two such joints are made for required dimensions MIG welding is used to weld the two jobs as T- joints First two edges are welded No need of chipping formation

RESULT: Thus the given aluminium material is made into T joint using MIG welding unit.

BENDING OF ALUMINIUM TUBE

AIM To carry out a bending of aluminium tube with the help of bending machine REQUIREMENTS MATERIAL y y Aluminium pipe Filler material

TOOLS y y y y Radius bend bar Bench vice Hack saw Smooth file

PROCEDURE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Size of the pipe to correct length. Clean the pipe and check it for any dimension. Hold the pipe in the radius bend bar as per the producer given in the manual. Select the former guide adjustable shape as per the diameter of the tube. Check the locking nut before use.

RESULT: Thus the pipe bending carried out successfully as per the requirements.

BENDING OF ALUMINIUM TUBE