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This document was written G!S managers, decisions makers, and implementers intending to build
an enterprise Geographic !nformation System (G!S) using ESR! software, the Geodatabase, and
the ArcG!S Pipeline Data Nodel (APDN). The case for using G!S in an enterprise setting is
compelling. The case for using ESR! ArcG!S software (and the Geodatabase) for an enterprise
G!S is likewise persuasive. Following these arguments to a logical conclusion dictates that, if an
organization chooses to implement an ESR! G!S System and the Geodatabase then the ArcG!S
Pipeline Data Nodel is an obvious choice. This document is divided into three sections. The first
section lists the `Top Ten Reasons to use a G!S". The second section lists the `Top Ten Reasons
to choose ESR!' and the `Top Ten Reasons to !mplement a Geodatabase'. The third section
describes the `Top Ten Reasons to !mplement the APDN'.

Top Ten Reasons to use GIS

Nost gasfliquids distribution and transmission pipeline companies are under increasing pressure
to more efficiently manage asset infrastructure to comply with operational and safety regulations
whilst meeting environmental and customerfbusiness performance standards. These
organizations face common challenges in managing millions of dollars of assets spread over
thousands of miles and meeting the service demands of clients, government and other
stakeholders. Geographic !nformation Systems (G!S) are mature technologies that are widely
used by pipeline service providers charged with managing valuable, dispersed infrastructure. G!S
provides a powerful tool to capture and record the extent of assets, schedule their replacement;
identify and mitigate potential risk; identify the impacts of failure; plan works activities, manage
customer queries and analyze environmental issues. The following is a `top ten' list of the reasons
for using a G!S within a enterprise of a pipeline service provider:

10) GIS is a computerized map

G!S is a mapping-based system that integrates features (geography as points, lines,
polygons, and continuous surfaces) with attribute information (a map and a phone book)
to build a map-based information system that can be analyzed and queried for

9) GIS manages assets

A G!S can be used to record information about assets including: location, value,
condition. G!S provides information for planning the replacement of assets, integration
with asset management systems and the location of customers and customer complaints.

S) GIS can re-combine existing data to make new data

The primary function of the G!S is to present data in a map form. These data are divided
into different map layers such as facilities, land base, environmental data, hydrology,
roads, and geopolitical boundaries. The features on these layers are depicted as
geometric elements (such as points, lines and polygons), which are stored as X and Y
(and Z) coordinate values. Features that are in proximity to each other, but are stored in
different layers, can be overlain on top of each other, intersected with each other,
merged together in union, grouped and aggregated in a similar manner to how database
tables are recombined with queries. The generalization or amalgamation of data in map
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(or geometry form) provides a powerful construct for visualizing patterns in a map that
would not normally be apparent from a database report.

7) GIS improves strategic and tactical decision making

Since G!S are map-based, questions such as `where are things?', `how much is there',
`are the clusters and patterns and densities?', `what is nearby or far away?', `what has
changed over time?' are easily depicted as `easy to understand' graphical maps. A map is
a proven tool for making better decisions. A G!S map provides the means to analyze
spatial and non-spatial information together.

6) GIS is part of the Enterprise

The primary purpose of a G!S is to link features (geography) with information. The G!S
can be considered a map-based information system. The information part of the system
is a database. Databases, by definition, are sets of tables that can be recombined to form
new sets of tables using keys. The keys (or identifiers) in these tables can be linked to
tables in external systems such as customer information system, asset management
systems, document management systems, real-time network systems (SCADA), outage
management systems, data warehouses, and inventory systems (to name a few!). The
ad-hoc or systematic combination of data from disparate systems allows integration of all
systems for access to the enterprise.

5) GIS provides advanced data structures

G!S performs complex spatial operations such as network analysis (truck route planning,
product flow, node-line connectivity), three-dimensional analysis (terrain visualization,
generation of contours from point locations, overland flow and dispersion of liquids),
topology (relationships between geometric features in space), and geometric calculations
between features (union, overlay, intersection, pass-through, etc.). Networks, continuous
surfaces, topology and geometry are not easily stored in tradition database constructs
but are simply handled in a G!S.

4) GIS maintains complex data accurately

A G!S system is an excellent tool for visually identifying poor, faulty or missing data.
Common data management issues that affect the efficiency of any organization are: data
accuracy and quality, timely updates of data, cost of data management, data sharing,
metadata, and data management. A G!S is not a panacea for solving these issues but it
is an excellent tool for quantifying and displaying the qualitative effects of these issues
on the bottom line. Bad, inaccurate, or poorly specified data stored in (or missing from) a
G!S are readily identified, quantified and can be qualified for replacement or editing.

3) GIS software provides multiple interfaces to your data

Nost G!S software packages include software that allows the dissemination of spatial
data through a variety of clients. These clients might include desktop and server tools,
!nternet web browsers, developer components and hand-held applications. The benefit
to the organization of having multiple interfaces to G!S data is that solutions can be
implemented in a manner that suits the requirements of the business without a
substantial investment in development of new, custom applications.
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2) GIS can generate real maps

Naps are the product of a G!S whether they are depicted on a computer screen, web
browser, hand-held device, or generated as hard-copy output. !f a picture is worth a
thousand words then a map is worth a million. Naps provide a synoptic view of
geography in relation to other geography. Naps show a coordinate positions and vector
direction and features in proximity to each other. Nost people are familiar and know how
to read maps in a simple and intuitive manner. Printed maps, from poster to page sized,
are effective means of communicating patterns, dispersion, aggregation, and
segmentation of events and features to a wide audience. Printed maps capture the
interest and imagination of people who want to know more about the world they live in.
A printed map allows field personnel to see the big picture when they are located in a
single spot out in the world.

1) GIS provides economic benefits

Finally, a G!S should be implemented to return economic benefit to the organization. A
simple G!S designed to track the location and attributes of assets in the field can provide
many benefits to stream lining workflow and business processes. Knowing the exact
position of an asset in the field (and generating a map to depict that location) will reduce
the time it takes to locate the asset (especially if it is buried underground). Knowing the
attributes of an asset in the field might help set a schedule for regular or proactive
maintenance thus mitigating the possibility of expensive repairs or catastrophic failure at
a later date. Knowing the location of an asset in the field in comparison to other features
will improve business planning if the asset or the other features have a desirable or
detrimental affect on each other. Knowing where assets are, in the simplest sense,
provides for inventory, categorization, organization and allotment of resources to manage
those assets. There are many economic and strategic benefits from replacing existing
information systems within the context of an enterprise geographic information system or
vice versa enabling many people in an organization to share information to conduct

Top Ten Reasons to use ESRI GIS

This section outlines the reasons for choosing ESR! G!S Software and by extension the
Geodatabase as the mechanism for managing and storing spatial data. The section describes why
an ESR! solution is a compelling one, provides a description of `What is a Geodatabase' and
outlines the `Top Ten Reasons for Choosing a Geodatabase'. The criteria for choosing an
enterprise G!S software system can be summarized by the following questions. Answers
regarding why ESR! is a viable choice are also provided.

• Does the G!S software work?

ESR! has a fully functional G!S software package that has been developed for the past 20
years and is currently released as version 8.3. ESR! also provides G!S tools for the web,
business analysis, component development, free-ware, network analysis, and complex
3D and animated visualization. All of these tools form a complete and robust set of
software to meet almost any G!S requirement. ESR! systems have been successfully
implemented in single user environments and enterprise environments with thousands of
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• !s the G!S software accessible to a variety of users with different organizational
needs and skill levels?

The ESR! product suite includes ArcG!S: a high-end spatial analysis, data management
and mapping tool for advanced users. Other products such as NapObjects provide
programmers and developers with G!S components that can be embedded into existing
traditional non-G!S applications. The Arc!NS product allows dissimination and distribution
of spatial data analysis and mapping through the !ntranet and !nternet. ArcExplorer is a
free-ware tool that can be used to browse and map geographic data. ArcSDE is a server-
based extension to industry standard relational database management systems (RDBNS)
that allows storage and retrieval of feature geometry inside and from a RDBNS. Software
like, Business Analyst, provide `out-of-the-box' analysis tools complete with data for use
by marketing and managers for performing spatially-based business analysis. ArcPAD, a
fully functional G!S software, works on personal digital assistants (PDA's) and can be
used remotely from the enterprise data store with data check-out and check-in tools.
These are some examples of the rich and varied set of G!S products offered by ESR!.

• Does the G!S software provide a robust set of core G!S functionality?

The complete ESR! product suite provides the most comprehensive set of G!S
functionality available from a single G!S vendor.

• Can the G!S software be extended with industry standard development tools?

Almost all of ESR!'s products can be extended and modified with industry standard
development languages such as visual Basic for Applications, Nicrosoft .NET and visual
Studio, Delphi, Java and most scripting languages. ESR!'s component architecture:
ArcObjects and NapObjects are CON implementations, and Arc!NS (web) is extendable
via !nternet scripting languages, Java, ColdFusion and ASP. ESR! has written two
proprietary scripting languages: Arc Nacro Language (ANL) and Avenue specifically
written for ESR! products that allow customization without an external development

• Does the G!S software integrate with other systems?

The core of the ArcG!S software package is the server-based RDBNS extension; ArcSDE.
ArcSDE extends a RDBNS to store both feature geometry and feature attributes in a
single table. Being based on a RDBNS table allows integration with other data stored in
separate RDBNS systems. ESR! Shapefiles, the file based storage of features and
attributes (the structure of which is detailed in a freely available white paper), allows for
integration of G!S data with organizations not employing large-scale RDBNS systems.
ESR! has also migrated the enterprise ArcSDE solution to a personal format based on the
Nicrosoft Access Database. Linking database and file-based tables to external systems,
coupled with the robust and highly customizable component nature of the product allow
ESR! software to be integrated with almost any other computerized system.

• !s the software scalable to meet changing demands of the enterprise?

ESR! software are built on industry standard component architectures and standards
including CON, TCP!P, RDBNS, and the !nternet. ESR! software can be configured to
have a lighter or heavier footprint depending on the business requirements of each
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individual user. ESR! server based software can be deployed of multiple servers to meet
expanded requirements for capacity and performance.

• Does the software vendor provide a rich set of data structures and tools for handling
complex spatial data analysis and management?

ESR! provides data structures for handling basic geometric features such as point, lines,
polygons, multi-point, multi-part lines, and multi-part polygons. ESR! also provides
advanced data structures such as: continuous surfaces (raster images, grids), complex
surfaces (triangulated irregular networks), geometric networks (complex edges and
nodes, connectivity, tracing), logical networks, and annotation (intelligent text and
labels). Each of these data types are presented in a common, data management
framework and can be presented, combined, analyzed and manipulated with each other.
Coupled with the ability to manage complex spatial data is the ability to depict the results
in a variety of digital and production level cartographic map publication formats.

• !s the software vendor a financially viable company?

ESR! is the largest software vendor in the world in terms of revenue and market share.
ESR! has been a financially viable company for the last twenty years. ESR! is committed
to spending more money on research and development than any other G!S company.
ESR! is a privately owned corporation with interests in multiple G!S service providers and
specialized G!S software companies. ESR! has regional offices, re-sellers and business
partners in 87 countries around the world.

• Does the vendor have a track record for successful software deployments and

This report does not contain exact numbers of successful ESR! G!S implementations.
Given that the annual ESR! User Conference is attended by 10,000+ individuals from
private and public organizations belonging to engineering, military, environmental,
education, government, utilities, and business sectors, it is a fair statement to say that
the ESR! user community is active, vibrant, and very loyal to the ESR! software brand.
These users gather to present how they have used ESR! software to solve real-world
problems. ESR! welcomes candid feedback from its user community and is very
responsive to enhance the core software product. Third-party promotional material from
large utility companies and large governmental agencies report upwards of 3000
concurrent G!S users from a variety of departments accessing G!S data with ESR!
software tools. Based on the activity and size of the ESR! user community it is a fair
statement that ESR! software has been successfully implemented on variety of projects
from small to the enterprise.

• !s the software being enhanced with additional functionality and stability on a regular

ESR! generates one major release of each software product every one or two years. The
content of these products is the result of a comprehensive beta testing program that
actively seeks input and involvement from the ESR! user community. ESR! is committed
to spending a significant portion of revenue for research and development of new G!S
data structures, algorithms and software deployments. ESR! is committed to providing
regular service patches to existing software and will release Quick Engineering Fixes
(QEF) to business partners and large clients as needed.

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• Does the software vendor provide excellent on-line technical resources and effective
user support and technical assistance?

ESR! provides a large and complete set of printed and on-line documentation with each
software product. ESR! also provides a very comprehensive support web site containing
white papers, downloads, code samples, user discussion forums, beta testing reporting,
web-based seminars and training. Training classes are available from regional offices and
authorized resellers. ESR! operates a user support help desk and usually responds within
2+ hours to a request for technical support. ESR! also provides consulting to
organizations implementing G!S systems.

• Summary

ESR! is a world leader in G!S software. ESR! has a strong reputation within the G!S user
community. ESR! is committed to spending the most on G!S research and development.
ESR! has a network of proven business partners and resellers who provide compatible
software and extensions to the core ESR! software products to a highly diversified
market. ESR! can leverage resources to provide a complete consulting and software
solution providing a strong cost advantage. ESR! is dedicated to providing software that
is open and scalable, utilizing known and accepted software and hardware technologies.
ESR! is also committed to providing a standard set of data models that support most
spatially defined subject matter areas. ESR! presents a compelling case as the viable and
effective choice for choosing a G!S software system.

What is the Geodatabase?

The Geodatabase is a component of ESR!'s ArcG!S Software package. A Geodatabase is a
construct that stores feature (geographic features) data as part of a table stored in a relational
database management system (RDBNS). The Geodatabase also extends the behavior of the
features (and attributes) stored in the table by providing constructs to break down the features
into subtypes, to restrict data entered in attributes (fields) with valid value domains, and to
manage the creation and behavior of relationships between tables. The Geodatabase is also
strongly tied to the underlying component architecture of ArcG!S and thus, through
programmatic mean, additional behavior (properties, methods and events) can be ascribed to
each table through the use of special extensions. !n a nutshell, the Geodatabase transforms
regular RDBNS tables into object-relational tables where the features (rows) in the tables
become objects with discernable behavior.

The purpose behind the Geodatabase is to bridge the gap between the traditional G!S approach
of storing features and attributes in separate tables or files. !t also allows an organization to
abstract business process and real-world features as objects with attributes and behavior. The
behavior of each feature is encapsulated in the database and is invoked when a feature is added,
updated or deleted. !n effect, the Geodatabase is an object-oriented data model or an object-
relational data model. Every table in the Geodatabase becomes a class with properties (physical
attributes that describe the rows in the table), methods (actions that the feature performs), and
events (messages that the feature sends out when something occurs to the feature). Each time a
user adds a feature to a Geodatabase table then certain behavior is executed through the use of
subtypes, domains and relationships (out-of-the-box) or via custom code written as class
extensions (using ArcObjects). Each time the geometry or other attribute of the feature is altered
then other behavior is executed in a similar fashion. Each time a feature is deleted from a class
(table) then other behavior is likewise executed. The idea behind the Geodatabase is to provide a
uniform approach to reducing the complex behavior of the real world to a set of tables in a
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database with extended and customizable behavior. One of the biggest benefits of the
Geodatabase is that it unifies in a common location and in a common format all relevant
geographic data which is accessed by a common set of tools: ArcG!S. Having spatial data that
can be manipulated and accessed by a common tool suite greatly improves data management
and maintenance.

A GeoDatabase allows organizations to physically store the geometry of a feature (point, line,
polygon, annotation) and the attributes that describe that feature (properties) inside a relational
database management system (RDBNS) as a single row in a table. The Geodatabase also models
the relationships between each feature and each other features in the Geodatabase model (eg.
pipes are connected to valves which are connected to other pipe segments). The Geodatabase
increases the capabilities of the RDBNS system by implementing:

• Relationship classes - model the connectivity and inheritance between parents and
children features, or between connected features,
• Domains - restrict the valid values for feature attributes (fields),
• Subtypes - specialized versions of features that act the same as their parents with
different domains, and relationships for each subtype,
• Geometric networks -an ankle-bone-to-leg-bone-to-foot-bone connectivity between
features that serves two purposes: firstly, to manage data editing so that some
features can only be placed, moved, deleted if other features are present, and
secondly, for the tracing of flow paths along connected features. Flow paths might
include the flow of product (water, gas), the flow of current (electricity, cathodic
protection current). Tracing flow paths allow for complex spatial analysis and `what-
if?' modeling such as; "!f ! close this junction, what is affected downstream?".
• Topology - the rules which govern how features are spatially organized in relation to
each other to form valid relationships in two dimensional space. Topology is an
invaluable tool for maintaining data consistency, validity and accuracy.

Although the Geodatabase is implemented in a industry standard RDBNS (such as Oracle, SQL
Server, DB2 etc.) most of the access to the data within the Geodatabase is constrained to being
accessed fully by using special Geodatabase clients. The most common client is the ArcG!S suite
of products (ArcNap, ArcCatalog, ArcToolBox). Other clients include NapObjects, Arc!NS and
ArcExplorer. The underlying component architecture for all of these products is ArcObjects. A
CON-based set of programming Lego blocks that are used to build all these other products and
any custom class extensions or model behavior. The attributes and table structure of the
Geodatabase are still available through industry standard database access technologies such as
ODBC - but only ArcObjects allows access to both the geometry and attributes of a record within
a Geodatabase. There are are advantages and disadvantages to this approach. The advantages
to the Geodatabase is that access to the geometry of features stored in the Geodatabase is
expedited via ArcObjects in an efficient manner. ArcObjects allows each organization unlimited
flexibility to extend the behavior of the Geodatabase to meet specific business requirements. The
disadvantages of this approach are:

• ArcObjects are required to fully access the Geodatabase (quasi-proprietary solution),
• Significant time must be spent in analysis and design to properly design a
Geodatabase model,
• Development time is required to built a custom solution.

The Geodatabase is an ESR! solution and is therefore proprietary but ample hooks and links are
provided from the Geodatabase to other database systems and programming environments. A
scalable, understandable, and flexible data model requires iteration and detailed, analysis and
design cycle to be effectively implemented, the Geodatabase is no exception. Any custom
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solution requires development time. ESR! has been very proactive in developing and providing
`free' (downloadable from the !nternet) industry specific data models which can be used as
templates or `starting places' in which to develop custom models as needed.

Some of the major benefits of the Geodatabase are:

• Centralized management of a wide variety of geographic information in a RDBNS
• Nanagement of very large data sets in an integrated, continuous environment
(rasterfvector data stored as a seamless layer - no tiling or segregation)
• Full support for multi-user editing in an advanced versioning environment
• Support for advanced data types and geometry (i.e., the ability to store three
dimensional coordinates, measures and true curves)
• Faster and more efficient data entry with data rules and relationships
• Create and edit feature-linked annotation
• Create and edit geometric networks
• Relationships with tabular data sources in any industry-standard RDBNS
• Create and edit topologically integrated features
• Create subtypes and domains for maintaining database integrity
• Support for the development of industry-standard data models
• Fully customizable and extendable object behavior using industry standard
development tools

Top Ten Reasons for Using a Geodatabase

The following is a listing of the top ten reasons for using a Geodatabase.

10. You want to use a fully functional GIS for analysis and mapping of your
transmission pipeline data

ArcG!S is a fully functional Geographic !nformation System. There is no other G!S
software system that offers as many off-the-shelf applications and products as the ESR!
G!S product suite. ArcG!S supports many G!S data formats and provides a complete
solution for storing these data in a unified, industry-standard RDBNS environment.
ArcG!S, ArcSDE and the Geodatabase share the same component architecture
(ArcObjects) and are designed to work together as a complete product. A Geodatabase is
a scalable, functional, customizable, secure structure for modeling and storing data in an
enterprise setting using ArcG!S.

9. You need quality data that is precise and accurate.

The whole idea behind the Geodatabase is not only to allow organizations to model
geographic features in an RDBNS system but to provide built-in functionality for maintain
geographic data in an accuracy and concurrent state. The Geodatabase provides
relationship classes, domains, and subtypes to enforce data accuracy and integrity. The
Geodatabase uses relationship classes (to enforce connectivity, relationships, inheritance.
messaging) between different objects in the database. Geodatabase domains are used to
constrain the allowable values for any attribute field of any feature (table, or object) to a
limited set of values. Geodatabase subtypes perform three functions. Firstly, each
subtype potentially applies different domains to any of the attributes of the feature
depending on the subtype of the feature. Secondly, each subtype can have different
rules connecting or relating the subtype of the feature to other features and feature
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subtypes. Lastly, subtypes require users to only add features to the Geodatabase from
the available subtypes for a feature. Subtypes dictate exactly what kind of data can be
stored in the Geodatabase.

S. You have well defined data input and editing procedures that you want to

A Goedatabase is the structure or construct that contains the model designed to support
the operations and functions of a business domain. One facet of business operations is
the entry and editing of data in the model. The Geodatabase is designed to facilitate data
entry and editing so that the integrity and validity of this data is maintained. The
Geodatabase and the ArcG!S software allow for a construct where the user can take a
snapshot of the data, a ¨version", for the purposes of performing specific edits. The users
version of the database allows editing of the enterprise data repository without affecting
the base version of the data. A normal editing operation might consist of the user
creating a version, adding features, editing features, andfor deleting features. Once the
user has completed the required edits against the version of the database the user can
opt not to save any of the changes or they can post the changes to the base version of
the Geodatabase. A supervisor might even inspect the changes in the version before the
user is allowed to post the changes back to the base version. The idea of versioning,
coupled with Geodatabase domains, relationship classes, subtypes, geometric networks,
and topology allow for the creation of standardized data entry and editing procedures
that are enforced and guided by the Geodatabase itself. Standardized data editing and
entry procedures allow an organization to maintain the accuracy and validity of data as it
is placed in the Geodatabase.

7. You want to model exactly what geographic data your enterprise requires

The Geodatabase, complete with domains, subtypes, relationship classes, networks and
topology, almost forces an organization to take a hard look at what data it absolutely
requires for its business processes. One standard modeling technique used to reduce
extraneous data from a model is to ask the following questions: ¨Do you have the data
now?", ¨Do you need the data now?", ¨!f yes to either then who is going to maintain it?
and who is going to pay for it?". !f the answer to any of these questions is a `no' then the
data is not required. By asking these questions and by examining the end results of
existing business processes (eg. reports and map output) it will become apparent which
data are to be stored in the Geodatabase. !t is possible to store almost any kind of data
in the Geodatabase. The Geodatabase will perform better and meet business needs when
the data stored within is identified as having a benefit to the bottom line. The built-in
Geodatabase data management constructs will act as a filter to help refine the
organizational data requirements to the salient elements.

6. You want to share your pipeline data with the enterprise

ArcSDE (Spatial Database Engine) resides at the core of the Geodatabase. ArcSDE was
designed to store geometry in a RDBNS and to utilize industry standard network
protocols such as TCPf!P so that the data stored within could be disseminated of local
area networks and wide area networks and the !nternet. ArcSDE is designed for the
quick retrieval of data from the server to the client application. ArcSDE and the
Geodatabase provide hooks so that tools such as Arc!NS (!nternet Nap Server), ArcPAD
(hand-held G!S), and other ESR! client tools can access the data through a network.
ArcSDE can be accessed by the industry standard ODBC (open database connectivity)
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protocol and Nicrosoft's OLEDB data access protocol. ESR! also provides a custom
OLEDB provider that allows access to a version within the Geodatabase using a standard
SQL tool. ArcG!S has tools to import and export data in a disconnected state to laptops
and other mobile technologies. The Geodatabase acts as a repository for enterprise data
that when coupled with other ESR! software allows users to access the data utilizing a
variety of protocols and software tools. ArcSDE was also designed to be a scalable
technology that could grow to meet increasing demands for performance and data

5. You want to protect the integrity of your data

ArcSDE forms the core of the Geodatabase and is built upon existing industry-standard
RDBNS technology. At the heart of any RDBNS is the kernel which is designed to process
queries against the database while managing user access and privileges. The security of
a database depends on the users having meaningful access to the data required to
execute daily tasks. Data security is maintained by granting and restricting view, read
and write access to objects in the database and the data contained therein. The
Geodatabase utilizes the RDBNS model for restricting access to data according to the
needs and privileges of the users accessing it.

4. You require long transactions

Organizations may require complex editing operations or scenario-based `what if'
modeling that may take days, weeks, or even months to complete. These tasks are
typically not performed against the enterprise data store that is used for daily operations.
The use of versions allows editors in these instances to make a copy of the data store for
a long transaction that requires complex editing or strenuous approval processes before
it can be posted and reconciled with the base data. The Geodatabase provides the
`versioning' mechanism for long transactions.

3. You want to make really cool looking maps

Albeit the Geodatabase does not create maps but it stores the data the are used to in
maps. The Geodatabase is designed to hold a wide variety of data types including
geometric features, continuous raster surfaces, events, networks, and annotation. The
Geodatabase coupled with the ArcG!S ArcNap software tool allows users to integrate the
data stored in the Geodatabase with other file-based data sources (shapefiles, CAD data)
and data layers served through Arc!NS web servers. These data can be projected and
transformed on-the-fly into a common coordinate system and merged into a visually
appealing and informative map. The gestalt of information is the strength of G!S and at
the heart of the ESR! G!S implementation is the Geodatabase.

2. You want to integrate your GIS with other software

Since the Geodatabase (and ArcSDE) reside in an RDBNS it is quite simple to relate data
stored here with data in other external database systems through the use of primary and
foreign keys (common values stored in columns in different tables). Commercially
available middleware technologies (eg. ODBC, SOAP, ADO, OLEDB) can be used to
access and combine the information in disparate systems via relates and table joins via
SQL queries. ArcObjects, the underlying component architecture, based on the industry-
standard CON model (Nicrosoft Component Object Nodel) can be used to further extend
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the ArcG!S software or external software to create additional hooks and links between
the G!S and other systems.

1. You already use ESRI software products in your organization

The most compelling reason for utilizing the Geodatabase for organizations already
utilizing ESR! G!S software is that the Geodatabase is core of the entire ArcG!S software
platform. Every ESR! client is being designed so that it can read and write data stored in
the Geodatabase. Advanced functionality are being added to ESR! client software will
only work when executed against a Geodatabase. There is a trend in the pipeline G!S
community to keep a separation between a data stored in a RDBNS system (!SAT or
PODS) model and features stored in an ArcSDE implementation. (Note - it is possible to
implement ArcSDE without implementing a Geodatabase). Applications and scripts are
written to manage the connectivity and interaction between the data stored in a pure
RDBNS system and ArcSDE. These systems are fairly robust and flexible. However,
handling the interaction between these data manually or programmatically requires
extensive effort and development. The Geodatabase manages both attributes and
feature as a single object. Although a Geodatabsae requires careful `up-front' work and
planning, the results, in terms of data organization, storage, management, integrity and
accuracy are more than worth the time spent in planning and designing the

Reasons to use the ArcGIS Pipeline Data Model

The purpose of the ArcG!S Pipeline Data Nodel (APDN) is to model liquids and gas transmission
pipelines within the ESR! Geodatabase. The APDN was created as a template from which
organizations could build a custom model to meet business and operational requirements such as
map display, investigative querying, data editing, data analysis, and regulatory reporting.. The
APDN has a core set of features that model the pipeline centerline (accounting for linear
referencing eg. stationed position of features along the centerline) and the pipeline hierarchy
(pipeline systems, discharge subsystems, line loops etc.). The APDN also models several
conceptual classes from which all other featureclasses in the model are derived. The APDN
conceptual classes are: online point, online polyline, offline point, offline polyline, and offline
polygon. All featureclasses in the model belong to one of; the centerline, the hierarchy or one of
these conceptual classes.

The strength of the Geodatabase model is that it allows real world behaviors and relationships to
be captured within a data model. Encapsulating behavior in the model establishes rules for
maintaining data integrity (both geo-position and attribute) between related features inside the
Geodatabase. The APDN also allows pipeline companies to leverage the full functionality from
the ArcG!S product suite. The current trend in Pipeline G!S data management is to employ one of
the industry standard relational database models coupled with a graphics package. One limitation
of this model is that the graphic features and attribute data are stored separately resulting in
extra effort to maintain the links between the two. The Geodatabase combined with the
industry leading ArcG!S software allows users to store, manage, and analyze their geographic
information as single records in a industry-standard RDBNS (such as Oracle or NS SQL Server).
The APDN is a robust solution for managing the mountain of data necessary to conduct the
operation of a transmission pipeline system. The APDN model is owned and endorsed by ESR!,
which provides a stable environment with support from an active technical and steering

Top Ten Reasons 10J7J2004
ArcGIS Pipeline Data Model {APDM) Technical Committee Paper Page 12
The benefits gained from using the APDN are (Top Ten Reasons):

1) The model is built on the ESR! Geodatabase which allows it to function with all ESR!
2) The model is a template with core tables that can be expanded to meet business needs
of a transmission pipeline company. The core elements will remain intact through the
evolution of the model. The remainder of the model is customizable or even optional to
suit the business and operational needs of any pipeline company.
3) The model can store both features and events. The implementation of the model works
well for both `event' based display of features using `event tables' andfor storage of
features as geometry within feature classes.
+) Provides easy links to existing pipeline data model for data conversion. APDN data
structures and tables map simply to tables and structures within both PODS and !SAT.
The model provides a hierarchical set of tables and relationships to store virtually any
level of business and geographical hierarchy within a pipeline organization. Provides a
simple and expandable construct for multiple forms of linear referencing along a
5) The model is a true G!S model - features and attributes are stored as single rows in the
database. The power of G!S (visual display of features in connection, conjunction and
proximity to each other) is provided out-of-the-box and takes precedence over tabular
storage of features first and display considerations second.
6) The model is a template not a standard. The technical committee has committed itself to
creating a model that meets business needs in an intuitive and flexible manner. The
committee is not concerned with creating the de facto model to meet all needs rather the
model is designed to be shaped according to the needs of the end user community.
There is no political agenda or history behind the model other than to create a solution
for the ESR! G!S user community.
7) APDN by virtue of being stored in the Geodatabase (and ultimately a RDBNS) is part of
an integrated enterprise solution.
8) APDN provides out-of-the-box functionality for data maintenance, spatial analysis,
mapping, reporting, linear referencing and dynamic segmentation without the need for
code or custom application development.
9) The APDN is part of the ESR! data model family. ESR! has been proactive in the creation
and standardization of many data models supporting a wide variety of domain areas
(cadastre, geology, petroleum, gasfelectric distribution, telecom, transportation, etc.).
These models can be integrated into one or more co-incident Geodatabases providing
data for a wide variety of G!S applications.
10) Finally, the APDN is just COOL (Cost-effective, Object-Oriented, Linear Referenced
Pipeline Transmission Data Nodel).

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