Go to Your user ID and password will have been set for you. You can change your user ID and password later if you know your organisation's customer password. Otherwise your i-Guide administrator can change them for you, and can remind you what they are should you forget.

Trail Selection Page
The Trail Selection page is where you create a new trail, or choose an existing trail to edit. When you log on to Trailmaker for the first time, the Trail Selection page will be blank. Click on New Trail to create your first trail. Once you have created one or more trails, they will appear on this page. Highlight an existing trail to work on it, change its name or other properties, put it up on the internet, or delete it. Page Features: New Trail Click here to create a new trail – see Creating a New Trail for more details. Edit Trail Highlight an existing trail and click here to edit it – see Page Selection Page for more details. Modify Trail Properties Click here to change the name of your trail, or alter other properties such as the audience, copyright owner, or overall trail style – see Modifying Trail Properties for more details. -2-

Delete Trail Does exactly what it says on the button. Implement Trail Click here to put your trail live on the internet: you'll need your organisation's customer password. If a trail with the same name already exists (for example if you are updating an existing trail) you will be asked if you wish to replace the existing version. Export Trail Click here to send a copy of your trail to other users within your organisation. Other Functions To use these advanced functions you'll need your organisation's customer password – see Advanced Functions for more details.

Creating a New Trail/Modifying Trail Properties
To create a new trail, first give it a name and description. The name will appear on the trail, the description is purely for your own purposes – you might want to specify the subject and age group or ability level the Trail is aimed at (History KS2, for example). The copyright ownership will default to your own name and organisation; you can include as many copyright owners as you wish (for example for photos). Note that it is your responsibility to ensure that you are entitled to use all materials in the trail. Choose whether you are creating a standard trail or a web trail. Web trails place your trail alongside existing web pages, which you select. They are not generally suited to handheld use. Check the uploads allowed box if you want your users to be able to attach files to the finished trail: photos taken on a PDA, for example, or voice recordings.


End of Trail Destination allows you to specify an address that users will go to when they choose to end their trail. Normally, this will default to your home page. The Trail Style box is an advanced feature that allows you to change the look of the entire trail – the colour of the background, the font and so on. To do so you need to enter styles in HTML format – see Styles for more detail. If you are modifying an existing trail you can change all of the above except the type of trail – standard or web. For a way round this, see Tips.

Page Selection Page
Clicking on Edit Trail will take you to the Page Selection page. In a new trail, this will initially be empty. Once you have created pages to populate your trail, they will appear in this list. Highlight a page to work on it, move it around or delete it. Page Features: New Page Click here to create a new page – you will be asked to give your page a title (which will appear at the top of the page) and can also specify a style for the page if you wish (see Styles). The new page will appear on the list, ready to edit. Edit Page Highlight a page and click here to work on its content, the heart of creating a trail – see Page Creation and Editing for more details. Modify Page Properties Allows you to change the name and/or style of the page, as well as other features such as allowing uploads. Delete Page Deletes the highlighted page. Move Page Up/Down Use this to move highlighted pages up or down your list. The order in which pages appear doesn't affect how they link to each other but is nonetheless significant. The first page in the list is always the first page -4-

seen when you take the trail. In addition, when you review trails that students have taken, you can choose to see only those pages where an input has been made. These will be displayed in the order in which they appear on this list. So if you have an overall assessment page, you might want to ensure that this appears at the end. Import/Export Page Click on these buttons to import a page from any of your existing trails, or to copy a page from this trail to another. If you want to copy a page from a trail created by someone else, you'll have to ask them to export their entire trail to you first. See also Tips. Exit Takes you back to the Trail Selection page, to quit Trailmaker or work on another trail.

Page Creation and Editing

The Page Editing page is at the heart of Trailmaker: this is where you build up the contents of your pages. As you work, the page you are making will appear on the right-hand side of your screen. Text in the finished trail will wrap automatically according to the size of the window on which it is viewed, so may not look exactly as it does here. Any links you insert will be live, so you can test them within Trailmaker and make sure they take you to the right place. See Planning a Trail and Choosing and Formatting Images for tips on making trails. To choose where to insert items on the page, highlight an existing object (on the left-hand side of the screen) and anything new you insert will appear -5-

immediately beneath it. Most of the features below allow you to choose whether to place an object in its own paragraph or not: if you choose not to, text and pictures will appear beside each other rather than one above the other (screen size allowing). Page Features: Modify Highlight any object on the page and click here to edit it. Delete Highlight any object on the page and click here to delete it. Up/Down Highlight any object and click here to move it up or down the page. Text Click here to write text to go on your page. You can also choose simple formatting, changing the size, colour and style of these words, or use the text style box for more complex formatting (see Styles). Image Click here to place a picture on your page. You will be able to choose from images you have already used in this trail, copy pictures from other trails, or upload new pictures from your computer or disk. See Choosing and Formatting Images for more on pictures. Link Click here to create links between your pages, or to the Internet. This is described in more detail under Links, below. You can click on any links you create to test them. Sound and Video Click here to add an audio or video file to your page. These can come from the same sources as pictures, or you can specify an address (on the internet or locally on a server, disk or memory card) where they can be found. See Sound and Video for more. Text Input Allows you to add a text box in which responses can be typed. You can specify the size and shape of the box, and also add initial text as a prompt if you wish. The size of the box does not limit how much can be typed in to it: if more text is entered than fits the box, it will automatically scroll. Horizontal Line Inserts a horizontal dividing line across the screen, whose colour and size you can choose. This is particularly useful at the bottom of a page, to separate text from links to other pages. Radio Buttons/Checkboxes These buttons create multiple choice questions. Radio Buttons allow only one answer, while with Checkboxes any number of boxes can be ticked. Enter each possible answer on a separate line, and format them if you wish. -6-

Image Map Allows you to specify a part or parts of a picture on which the student can click to be taken to another page. So in a group portrait you might be able to click on each figure to find out information about them, or you could ask students to identify a pentagon among a series of different shapes. See Image Maps for more detailed instructions. Image Input Click here to include a picture on which the student can click and have the position of their click recorded. Thus you might ask them to pinpoint the position of Barcelona on a map of Spain, say, or the right-angle in a triangle. The image is chosen in the same way as other pictures. Grid Input Lets you create a table into which students can enter information. You choose the number of rows and columns, and can also specify headings for the rows and columns if you wish. Examples might be a scientific table to record the boiling and freezing points of different substances, or a nutritional record, recording what types of food had been eaten by members of a class on a given day. Refresh Active Page Click here to return to the page you were working on, if you have tested a link and brought up another page. Switch to Displayed Page If you have tested a link and brought up another page, click here if you want to edit the new page. Track Mouse This feature will highlight objects in the list on the left-hand side of the page as you move the cursor over them on the right. If you find that you are constantly inserting items in the wrong places, you may want to turn track mouse off. Initial Web Page If you are creating a web trail, this feature will also appear. Enter the URL of the web page you wish to refer to in the box (you must include http://) and click Set. The web page will appear on the right of the window.

There are three basic types of link: Text, where you click on some words to go to another page; Image, where you click on a picture; and Button, which creates a button to click on. Any of these can link to another page within your trail or to a website. For a text -7-

link or a button, you will be asked to enter some text which will form the link or appear on the button (e.g. 'Click Here to find out about Einstein', or 'Back'). You also have to specify the page in your trail or the website to which you want to link – there are also options for a 'Back' link, which takes you to the previous page, or 'Finish Off Trail', which takes you out of the trail and back to the main menu. The Finish Trail link should be used with caution, as you don't want students accidentally leaving the trail – it is a good idea to insert an intermediate page, either one that says 'Are you sure you want to leave?', or a feedback page, to prevent this. If you put in web links note that users may find it difficult to navigate back to the trail having left it. In a standard trail the new website will replace the trail on screen and users will have to find the back button and use it to return to the trail. In a web trail the new website will appear on the right-hand side of the screen; if you want users to be able to go back to the page they were looking at, you'll need to put in another link. The simplest way to specify a web link is to copy the address from a browser: you must include http://.

Choosing and Formatting Images
When you click to insert an image in your trail, you will see a screen like the one below asking you to choose your picture or, if it is not already in your trail, to tell Trailmaker where to find it. The images that are already in the trail will appear as thumbnails in a list: highlight one and click Choose to put it onto your page. If the picture or other resource is not yet there, you can either copy it from another trail, by choosing the trail, then the picture, then clicking Copy, or find it on your computer or disk. To do this click Browse, find the image or other resource, click Open, then click Upload Resource. In either of these cases the picture will then be added to the list, and you can click Choose to put it on your page. Images for use within trails should be in JPEG or GIF format and should be


a suitable size both physically (for viewing on the screen of the device to be used) and in terms of file size (see Appendix2 for the current limits to the size of pictures that can be included). In order not to slow things down when downloading (especially if an entire class tries to do so simultaneously) images should not be over 30kb. In practice, anything over 10kb is almost certainly bigger than you need for display on a handheld screen and will provide as much detail as the screen can display. Almost any picture manipulation software, such as Photoshop, Paintshop Pro or the programmes that come with most digital cameras, will allow you to adjust the size and quality of your pictures. If your file is not in JPEG or GIF format you can usually change this too (often as an option under Save As). Most programmes will allow you to choose the size of the picture in either pixels, centimetres or inches, and its resolution, either as high, medium or low quality (low is usually fine for a computer screen), or in pixels per square inch. A quick and easy, if slightly crude, way for Windows users to adjust picture size is with Paint, which is installed on almost any Windows computer (look for it in Programmes, under Accessories). Copy your picture into Paint and use Stretch/Skew (under the Image tab) to adjust it to a percentage of its original size. You can then save it in JPEG or GIF format. Paint also allows you to crop the picture and has some very basic tools for adding text on top of an image and manipulating it in other ways.

Sound and Video
There are a number of considerations when you use audio or video with Trailmaker – primarily to do with the format of the sound or video and where you want it stored. If you are designing a Trail to be used on a specific device (i.e. those owned by your school) it obviously makes sense to ensure that any resources used are in a format that those devices can handle. Click on Sound and Video, and you will be asked whether you want audio or video and what sort of link prompt you want – prompts are either text ('Click here to hear Martin Luther King's famous speech') or a picture. If you choose text, type your words into the Link Prompt box and format them if you wish. You also have to choose where to access your sound or video from, and how to play it.


You have three basic choices of where to access your resource from. If you choose StreetAccess (Download) the sound or video will be downloaded from our servers in its entirety and then played: this has the advantage that almost any type of file can be used (e.g. Real Player, Quick Time etc), provided that the end device has a player that can handle it. However, there may be a significant wait while the clip downloads, dependent on the size of the file and the speed of the connection. StreetAccess (Stream) uses our Windows Media Server, which downloads the clip and plays it at the same time, greatly speeding up the process. Only correctly encoded Windows Media format files can be streamed, however. To use either of the above, click on Choose Resource and proceed exactly as for pictures, above. Note that there is a size limit where StreetAccess hosts the files (see Appendix2 for the current limits). The final alternative is to click on Elsewhere, which will access the clip from another source: a website, your own server, or a memory card or hard disk installed in the device itself. When you click Elsewhere a box will appear (see picture below) asking you to specify the address (URL) for your clip: this will be in a form such as, for a web link, or file://\storage card\martin-lutherking.mp3, for a file held locally on a memory card. Note that you must include the prefix, such as http:// or file://. Hosting in this way has the advantage that there are no restrictions on file size, and local hosting does away with delays while clips download, but of course you need to make sure that the files are present on the device when it is used. Having chosen your audio or video clip you now have to decide how you want it

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played. If you choose Browser Default, the device will choose the player it thinks most appropriate and open a new window in which the clip will play. For certain file types (Real player files for example), this will be your only option. However, it does require the user to close the window and find their way back to the Trail when the clip has played. Click on Flash Player or Windows Media Player and you create a player which will open and play your chosen clip within the trail. Make sure you chose a player suitable for the file to be played – for example do not try to play Flash files in a Windows Media Player! You can specify the size (height and width) of the player that will appear, which will depend on the nature of the clip and the size of the screen on which you expect it to be viewed. Pocket PC 2003 operating system does not support embedded Windows Media Player (you need Windows Mobile 5 or later); it does support Flash if you install the Flash player. Numerous utilities are available to convert media files between different formats.

Image Maps
To make an Image Map, choose a picture in the same way as you choose any image and a small version of it will appear on the Image Map Definition page. Now select the page you want to link to and the shape of the link (either rectangular or circular), click New Link and then click twice on the picture to mark the upper left and lower right corners of your area. You will see a rectangle or circle appear where you have selected – these will not be visible in the trail. Note that when you define a circle it sits inside the area of an imaginary rectangle – so you may need to make it bigger than you expect. You can delete links or move them up and down in the box on the right of the screen: where boxes overlap, the ones higher up the list take precedence. So in the example asking students to identify a pentagon among a series of different shapes you might want one link on the pentagon (linked to a page saying That's Right!) and another covering the whole image, linked to a page saying Try Again. Put the pentagon link at the top of the list to ensure that it sits on top of the larger area and therefore takes priority.

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Advanced Functions
When you first log in, a number of functions are available which require you to enter your organisation's customer password. Import Older Trail This is only relevant if you have previously created trails in an earlier (non-web) version of Trailmaker and you wish to upload them to the new service. The trail must be in .cmp format, which you create by choosing the 'Pack Trail' option in the old Trailmaker. Manage Live Trails Lets you see the trails that your organisation currently has live, how often they have been taken and when they were last taken. You can also remove trails from the service here. Manage Trailmaker Users Allows you to add or remove users within your organisation, and to edit details such as User IDs and Passwords. Edit Overall Customer Style Here you can create or amend styles that will apply to all trails created by your organisation.

Planning your Trail
The more planning that has gone into your trail, the quicker and easier it will be to write. Initial considerations are the audience for the trail – their age and abilities – and your expectations – what areas of the curriculum are to be covered and how you will measure the trail's effectiveness. The features available to include in your trail are described under Page Creation and Editing. You also have to decide whether you are creating a standard trail or a web trail. Web trails – which are not ideally suited to handheld devices – are created around existing external web pages, providing controlled and recorded access to the internet for your students. Using a framing device, they put the trail on the left-hand side of the screen, with web pages from any site selected by the trail creator on the right. Thus you can create a study aid to any subject, from crystal formation to Roman Britain, with related internet links that you have chosen - 12 -

and vetted. Each page in the trail can be linked to a different web page, or you can reference multiple websites from within a single page of the trail. Probably the best way to structure a trail is to create a flow chart on paper. Trails are made up of individual pages, and apart from the fact that every trail must start from a single point these pages can be linked to each other in almost any way. The simplest structure is a linear trail in which students progress through a sequence of pages in a set order from beginning to end: this might be suitable for a simple test, or a scientific experiment in which instructions have to be followed in a certain order. More complex matrix structures can allow individual exploration of multiple themes within a topic. Star shapes are useful for exploring multiple sub-sections of a central subject. In practice most trails will combine all these elements, starting with initial instructions in a linear format, the heart of the trail allowing individual exploration, and ending with final testing or feedback. Don't forget to create ways out of your trail (see the caveats under Links). A menu page of some kind, which is easy to navigate back to and has options to choose a number of different topics, is often useful in a complex trail. If you are planning to use a similar page over and over again in your trail, it is a good idea to make a template page (either within the trail you are creating or elsewhere; see Tips) and use the Load Page feature to copy this as often as you want – you can then modify the contents as required. Having planned the trail, you should assemble your resources, ensuring that you have any pictures or audio and video clips available in a suitable size and format (see Choosing and Formatting Images and Sound and Video). For a web trail, it is obviously useful to have worked out in advance which sites you want to link to.

Styles allow you to customise almost every aspect of your trails, from the background colour to the font, headings, appearance of buttons and so on. They can be applied at almost every level, from a style that will apply to every trail created by your organisation to one applied to an individual trail or even a single page or item on a page. This more sophisticated formatting is achieved by applying style sheets to your trail. These work by defining various styles (font, colour, size, frame or border, background colour etc) which are assigned to different classes of object. So you define a style and give it a class name, and every object which has that class name will adopt that style. - 13 -

Styles can be defined at an organisational level, under Overall Customer Style; at Trail level, from the New Trail/Modify Trail Properties screen; or at page level, under New Page/Modify Page Properties. These act as cascading style sheets (CSS), which means that an entry at a lower level (an individual page, say) will override one at a higher level (the whole trail). Each individual object on a page, such as a piece of text, a link or an image has a class name which refers back to a definition in these defined styles. If you don't define any styles, the system will simply apply its default styles; basically black text on a white background. But you will notice that each object still has a class name associated with it - for example text objects have a default class name of TMTEXT and image objects have a default class name of TMIMAGE. In order to format text, you can either define the style to be applied to these existing classes (see Appendix 1 for a list of them) or assign a new class name to a particular object or objects and define a style for that new class name. So to take a simple example, if you wanted all the text in a trail to be bold, blue and 14 point, you would add a definition of TMTEXT at trail level. There's more on exactly how to create styles below, but try pasting the following into a trail, in the Trail Style box under Modify Trail Properties: .TMTEXT {color: blue; font-size: 14pt; font-weight: bold;}. And if you now want to make the background for the whole trail yellow, try this: .TMTRAILBODYCSS {background color: yellow}. Note that the full stop before the class name is important, as are the semi-colon delimiters between style attributes; and that spellings often have to be American. Styles such as those above can also be applied to every trail created by your organisation (for which you'll need your organisation's password), or to individual pages. If you want to create a style that only applies to certain objects, then you should create a new class name. Put this name and its definition into a - 14 -

style sheet at any level, and you can apply the class name to any object that you want to format that way. For example, to put some white text on a red background into the blue and yellow page just created, define a new style name such as TMTEXTWHITEONRED on one of the style sheets, and then change the class name of any text you want to appear like that to TMTEXTWHITEONRED. To do this paste the following into the trail style sheet: .TMTEXTWHITEONRED {background-color: red; color: white}. Now add some text and give it this class name. On the sample page (see picture), this text has also been made bigger using simple formatting. Perhaps the easiest way to create styles like those above is to use a style editing programme such as Microsoft's Front Page to create the styles and then copy and paste them into the Trailmaker (there's more on this in Appendix 1). Your school may already have some styles or standard fonts – used on the school website for example – that can be supplied by your IT staff or web designers and pasted in. Once you have some styles of your own, they can be easily copied and pasted from one trail to another: or copy them all into a single Word document with a brief description of what they do. Bear in mind that not all style commands work with all browsers – so test them out on the browsers your students will use. Watch out for mistakes such as assigning text to the same colour as its background, thus rendering it invisible! If you want to delve into this further, and start to add frames to your pages or to pictures, change the look of the buttons, or use a picture as the background to your pages (to take just a few examples), there's a host of information on the web (type CSS into a search engine). The rules governing the syntax of a style command are defined by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), whose own website,, has lots of useful links. Good tutorials are available at and, while more unusual effects are discussed at sites such as See Appendix 1 for a list of the default i-Guide class names and more on how to use them.

Tips and Shortcuts
Your work is saved automatically every time you leave a page. Shortcut keys can be used throughout the Trailmaker, wherever you see a letter underlined on a button. Press ALT and the letter to use the shortcut.

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To convert a web trail into a standard one, or vice versa, the easiest method is to create a new trail in whatever format you wish to create, and then copy the pages you want from the existing trail to the new one. They will appear in the new format. To share pages with colleagues you'll need to export your trail to them – they can then edit it, or copy individual pages into new trails. If you have pages that you reuse frequently in different trails (a feedback page for example), it may be a good idea to create a trail simply to store them, so that they are always easily found. Paragraphs and spacing To create spaces between objects you can simply put in some text consisting of one or more carriage returns or, for horizontal separation, spaces. More sophisticated positioning of individual items can be achieved using Styles.

Can I download the trail to a handheld? No. The essence of i-Guide is that it is interactive, and student responses are recorded live over the internet. Underlying the service is a complex database. This functionality is simply not available unless you are connected to the internet Do I always have to be connected? In short, Yes. See Can I download the Trail? What sort of computer equipment should I use? Trails should be accessible on any device, using any browser. However, unusual combinations may throw up unexpected results; please let us know if they do. For the Trailmaker, we recommend using Internet Explorer as your browser, even if you are working on an Apple: Firefox and Safari may not fully support every feature. I am trying to create an image map, but no boxes appear. If you are using the Firefox browser, you may find that the image map feature doesn't work properly. We suggest that you use another browser when creating image maps. Is there a limit to the size of pictures I can use? Yes, see Appendix 2 for current details. - 16 -

How long do you store User IDs and records of completed Trails? See Appendix 2 for current details.

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APPENDIX 1 Default i-Guide Class Names
The following is a list of the default i-Guide class names, each with a blank style definition and relevant comments. The style commands go within the brackets. E.g. .TMTEXT {font-family: Arial; font-size: 10pt}. One way to create styles is to create a style sheet (a document with a .css suffix) with a definition for these class names, and edit them in a style editor such as Front Page. Thereafter the definitions can be modified and copied into the Trailmaker as required. StreetAccess can supply such a file (i-Guide classes.css) for you to edit. The first three class names below are ones that cannot be changed for individual items. /* Overall page content style, encapsulates the whole page. Use this to set overall styles for entire trails */ .TMTRAILCONTENTCS {} /* Overall page style. Affects the same items as trail contents and is interchangeable in normal use. However Trailbody sits outside Trailcontents and can therefore be used for adding an extra frame or border to your pages */ .TMTRAILBODYCSS {} /* Page title; styles the title of your page, the name of which is specified when you create the page */ .TMPAGETITLECSS{} /* Horizontal line*/ .TMHRCSS{} /* Text Object */ .TMTEXT{} /* Image Object */ .TMIMAGE{} /* A text prompted trail link */ .TMTILINK{}

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/* An image prompted trail link */ .TMIILINK{} /* A Button prompted trail link */ .TMBILINK{} /* A text prompted web link */ .TMTXLINK{} /* An image prompted web link */ .TMIXLINK{} /* A button prompted web link */ .TMBXLINK{} /* A text prompted audio resource */ .TMTSLINK{} /* An image prompted audio resource */ .TMISLINK{} /* A button prompted audio resource */ .TMBSLINK{} /* A text prompted video resource */ .TMTVLINK{} /* An image prompted video resource */ .TMIVLINK{} /* A button prompted video resource */ .TMBVLINK{} /* A text input */ .TMTINP{} /* An image input */ .TMIMAGEINP{} /* Radio Buttons */ .TMRBS{} /* Check boxes */ .TMCBS{}

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/* Image Map */ .TMIMAGEMAP{} /* Grid Input */ .TMGRIDINPUT{}

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APPENDIX 2 File size limits and storage periods
The following is a list of the current limits on file sizes and the periods for which User and Trail information will be stored. These details may be amended from time to time, and the latest information will be added to this User Guide as downloadable from Trails: Recorded trails are kept for two years from the date when they were started. Attachments to Trails: Attachments to trails (uploaded photos, for example) are kept for 28 days. Uploads: Uploads are limited to five per trail and 256kb file size. Users: Users are automatically deleted if they have not been active for two years. Pictures/Resources: Pictures for inclusion in trails are limited to 300kb file size per picture. Audio and video hosted by i-Guide within a trail are limited to 3mb per file.

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