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TRAILMAKER

USER GUIDE

www.trailmaker.co.uk

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Log-in
Go to www.trailmaker.co.uk. Your
user ID and password will have been
set for you.
You can change your user ID and
password later if you know your
organisation's customer password.
Otherwise your i-Guide administrator
can change them for you, and can
remind you what they are should you forget.

Trail Selection Page

The Trail Selection page is where you


create a new trail, or choose an
existing trail to edit. When you log on
to Trailmaker for the first time, the
Trail Selection page will be blank.
Click on New Trail to create your first
trail.

Once you have created one or more


trails, they will appear on this page.
Highlight an existing trail to work on
it, change its name or other
properties, put it up on the internet,
or delete it.

Page Features:

New Trail Click here to create a new trail – see Creating a New Trail for more
details.

Edit Trail Highlight an existing trail and click here to edit it – see Page
Selection Page for more details.

Modify Trail Properties Click here to change the name of your trail, or alter
other properties such as the audience, copyright owner, or overall trail style –
see Modifying Trail Properties for more details.

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Delete Trail Does exactly what it says on the button.

Implement Trail Click here to put your trail live on the internet: you'll need
your organisation's customer password. If a trail with the same name already
exists (for example if you are updating an existing trail) you will be asked if you
wish to replace the existing version.

Export Trail Click here to send a copy of your trail to other users within your
organisation.

Other Functions To use these advanced functions you'll need your


organisation's customer password – see Advanced Functions for more details.

Creating a New Trail/Modifying Trail


Properties
To create a new trail, first give it a
name and description. The name
will appear on the trail, the
description is purely for your own
purposes – you might want to
specify the subject and age group or
ability level the Trail is aimed at
(History KS2, for example).

The copyright ownership will


default to your own name and
organisation; you can include as
many copyright owners as you wish
(for example for photos). Note that it is your responsibility to ensure that you
are entitled to use all materials in the trail.

Choose whether you are creating a standard trail or a web trail. Web trails
place your trail alongside existing web pages, which you select. They are not
generally suited to handheld use.

Check the uploads allowed box if you want your users to be able to attach
files to the finished trail: photos taken on a PDA, for example, or voice
recordings.

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End of Trail Destination allows you to specify an address that users will go to
when they choose to end their trail. Normally, this will default to your home
page.

The Trail Style box is an advanced feature that allows you to change the look
of the entire trail – the colour of the background, the font and so on. To do so
you need to enter styles in HTML format – see Styles for more detail.

If you are modifying an existing trail you can change all of the above except
the type of trail – standard or web. For a way round this, see Tips.

Page Selection Page


Clicking on Edit Trail will take
you to the Page Selection
page.

In a new trail, this will


initially be empty. Once you
have created pages to
populate your trail, they will
appear in this list. Highlight
a page to work on it, move it
around or delete it.

Page Features:

New Page Click here to create a new page – you will be asked to give your
page a title (which will appear at the top of the page) and can also specify a
style for the page if you wish (see Styles). The new page will appear on the list,
ready to edit.

Edit Page Highlight a page and click here to work on its content, the heart of
creating a trail – see Page Creation and Editing for more details.

Modify Page Properties Allows you to change the name and/or style of the
page, as well as other features such as allowing uploads.

Delete Page Deletes the highlighted page.

Move Page Up/Down Use this to move highlighted pages up or down your
list. The order in which pages appear doesn't affect how they link to each other
but is nonetheless significant. The first page in the list is always the first page

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seen when you take the trail. In addition, when you review trails that students
have taken, you can choose to see only those pages where an input has been
made. These will be displayed in the order in which they appear on this list. So
if you have an overall assessment page, you might want to ensure that this
appears at the end.

Import/Export Page Click on these buttons to import a page from any of your
existing trails, or to copy a page from this trail to another. If you want to copy a
page from a trail created by someone else, you'll have to ask them to export
their entire trail to you first. See also Tips.

Exit Takes you back to the Trail Selection page, to quit Trailmaker or work on
another trail.

Page Creation and Editing

The Page Editing page is at the heart


of Trailmaker: this is where you build up the contents of your pages. As you
work, the page you are making will appear on the right-hand side of your
screen. Text in the finished trail will wrap automatically according to the size of
the window on which it is viewed, so may not look exactly as it does here. Any
links you insert will be live, so you can test them within Trailmaker and make
sure they take you to the right place. See Planning a Trail and Choosing and
Formatting Images for tips on making trails.

To choose where to insert items on the page, highlight an existing object (on
the left-hand side of the screen) and anything new you insert will appear

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immediately beneath it. Most of the features below allow you to choose whether
to place an object in its own paragraph or not: if you choose not to, text and
pictures will appear beside each other rather than one above the other (screen
size allowing).

Page Features:

Modify Highlight any object on the page and click here to edit it.

Delete Highlight any object on the page and click here to delete it.

Up/Down Highlight any object and click here to move it up or down the page.

Text Click here to write text to go on your page. You can also choose simple
formatting, changing the size, colour and style of these words, or use the text
style box for more complex formatting (see Styles).

Image Click here to place a picture on your page. You will be able to choose
from images you have already used in this trail, copy pictures from other trails,
or upload new pictures from your computer or disk. See Choosing and
Formatting Images for more on pictures.

Link Click here to create links between your pages, or to the Internet. This is
described in more detail under Links, below. You can click on any links you
create to test them.

Sound and Video Click here to add an audio or video file to your page. These
can come from the same sources as pictures, or you can specify an address (on
the internet or locally on a server, disk or memory card) where they can be
found. See Sound and Video for more.

Text Input Allows you to add a text box in which responses can be typed. You
can specify the size and shape of the box, and also add initial text as a prompt
if you wish. The size of the box does not limit how much can be typed in to it: if
more text is entered than fits the box, it will automatically scroll.

Horizontal Line Inserts a horizontal dividing line across the screen, whose
colour and size you can choose. This is particularly useful at the bottom of a
page, to separate text from links to other pages.

Radio Buttons/Checkboxes These buttons create multiple choice questions.


Radio Buttons allow only one answer, while with Checkboxes any number of
boxes can be ticked. Enter each possible answer on a separate line, and format
them if you wish.

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Image Map Allows you to specify a part or parts of a picture on which the
student can click to be taken to another page. So in a group portrait you might
be able to click on each figure to find out information about them, or you could
ask students to identify a pentagon among a series of different shapes. See
Image Maps for more detailed instructions.

Image Input Click here to include a picture on which the student can click and
have the position of their click recorded. Thus you might ask them to pinpoint
the position of Barcelona on a map of Spain, say, or the right-angle in a
triangle. The image is chosen in the same way as other pictures.

Grid Input Lets you create a table into which students can enter information.
You choose the number of rows and columns, and can also specify headings for
the rows and columns if you wish. Examples might be a scientific table to record
the boiling and freezing points of different substances, or a nutritional record,
recording what types of food had been eaten by members of a class on a given
day.

Refresh Active Page Click here to return to the page you were working on, if
you have tested a link and brought up another page.

Switch to Displayed Page If you have tested a link and brought up another
page, click here if you want to edit the new page.

Track Mouse This feature will highlight objects in the list on the left-hand side
of the page as you move the cursor over them on the right. If you find that you
are constantly inserting items in the wrong places, you may want to turn track
mouse off.

Initial Web Page If you are creating a web trail, this feature will also appear.
Enter the URL of the web page you wish to refer to in the box (you must include
http://) and click Set. The web page will appear on the right of the window.

Links
There are three basic types of link: Text, where you click on some words to go
to another page; Image, where you
click on a picture; and Button, which
creates a button to click on. Any of
these can link to another page within
your trail or to a website. For a text

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link or a button, you will be asked to enter some text which will form the link or
appear on the button (e.g. 'Click Here to find out about Einstein', or 'Back'). You
also have to specify the page in your trail or the website to which you want to
link – there are also options for a 'Back' link, which takes you to the previous
page, or 'Finish Off Trail', which takes you out of the trail and back to the main
menu. The Finish Trail link should be used with caution, as you don't want
students accidentally leaving the trail – it is a good idea to insert an
intermediate page, either one that says 'Are you sure you want to leave?', or a
feedback page, to prevent this.

If you put in web links note that users may find it difficult to navigate back to
the trail having left it. In a standard trail the new website will replace the trail
on screen and users will have to find the back button and use it to return to the
trail. In a web trail the new website will appear on the right-hand side of the
screen; if you want users to be able to go back to the page they were looking
at, you'll need to put in another link. The simplest way to specify a web link is
to copy the address from a browser: you must include http://.

Choosing and Formatting Images


When you click to insert an image in your trail, you will see a screen like the
one below asking you to choose your picture or, if it is not already in your
trail, to tell Trailmaker where to find it. The images that are already in the trail
will appear as thumbnails in a list: highlight one and click Choose to put it onto
your page. If the picture or other resource is not yet there, you can either copy
it from another trail, by choosing the trail, then the picture, then clicking Copy,
or find it on your computer or disk. To do this click Browse, find the image or
other resource, click Open, then click
Upload Resource. In either of these
cases the picture will then be added
to the list, and you can click Choose
to put it on your page.

Images for use within trails should be


in JPEG or GIF format and should be

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a suitable size both physically (for viewing on the screen of the device to be
used) and in terms of file size (see Appendix2 for the current limits to the size
of pictures that can be included). In order not to slow things down when
downloading (especially if an entire class tries to do so simultaneously) images
should not be over 30kb. In practice, anything over 10kb is almost certainly
bigger than you need for display on a handheld screen and will provide as much
detail as the screen can display.

Almost any picture manipulation software, such as Photoshop, Paintshop Pro


or the programmes that come with most digital cameras, will allow you to
adjust the size and quality of your pictures. If your file is not in JPEG or GIF
format you can usually change this too (often as an option under Save As).
Most programmes will allow you to choose the size of the picture in either
pixels, centimetres or inches, and its resolution, either as high, medium or low
quality (low is usually fine for a computer screen), or in pixels per square inch.

A quick and easy, if slightly crude, way for Windows users to adjust picture
size is with Paint, which is installed on almost any Windows computer (look for
it in Programmes, under Accessories). Copy your picture into Paint and use
Stretch/Skew (under the Image tab) to adjust it to a percentage of its original
size. You can then save it in JPEG or GIF format. Paint also allows you to crop
the picture and has some very basic tools for adding text on top of an image
and manipulating it in other ways.

Sound and Video


There are a number of considerations when you use audio or video with
Trailmaker – primarily to do with the format of the sound or video and where
you want it stored. If you are designing a Trail to be used on a specific device
(i.e. those owned by your school) it obviously makes sense to ensure that any
resources used are in a format that those devices can handle.

Click on Sound and Video, and you will be asked whether you want audio or
video and what sort of link prompt you want – prompts are either text ('Click
here to hear Martin Luther King's famous speech') or a picture. If you choose
text, type your words into the Link Prompt box and format them if you wish.
You also have to choose where to access your sound or video from, and how to
play it.

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You have three basic
choices of where to
access your resource
from. If you choose
StreetAccess (Download)
the sound or video will
be downloaded from our
servers in its entirety
and then played: this
has the advantage that
almost any type of file
can be used (e.g. Real
Player, Quick Time etc),
provided that the end device has a player that can handle it. However, there
may be a significant wait while the clip downloads, dependent on the size of the
file and the speed of the connection. StreetAccess (Stream) uses our Windows
Media Server, which downloads the clip and plays it at the same time, greatly
speeding up the process. Only correctly encoded Windows Media format files
can be streamed, however. To use either of the above, click on Choose Resource
and proceed exactly as for pictures, above. Note that there is a size limit where
StreetAccess hosts the files (see Appendix2 for the current limits).

The final alternative is to click on Elsewhere, which will access the clip from
another source: a website, your own server, or a memory card or hard disk
installed in the device itself. When you click Elsewhere a box will appear (see
picture below) asking you to specify the address (URL) for your clip: this will be
in a form such as http://www.hpol.org/mlk/test.smil, for a web link, or
file://\storage card\martin-lutherking.mp3, for a file held locally on a memory
card. Note that you must include the prefix, such as http:// or file://. Hosting in
this way has the advantage that there are no restrictions on file size, and local
hosting does away with delays while clips download, but of course you need to
make sure that the files are present on the device when it is used.

Having chosen your audio


or video clip you now have
to decide how you want it

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played. If you choose Browser Default, the device will choose the player it
thinks most appropriate and open a new window in which the clip will play. For
certain file types (Real player files for example), this will be your only option.
However, it does require the user to close the window and find their way back to
the Trail when the clip has played. Click on Flash Player or Windows Media
Player and you create a player which will open and play your chosen clip within
the trail. Make sure you chose a player suitable for the file to be played – for
example do not try to play Flash files in a Windows Media Player! You can
specify the size (height and width) of the player that will appear, which will
depend on the nature of the clip and the size of the screen on which you expect
it to be viewed. Pocket PC 2003 operating system does not support embedded
Windows Media Player (you need Windows Mobile 5 or later); it does support
Flash if you install the Flash player. Numerous utilities are available to convert
media files between different formats.

Image Maps
To make an Image Map, choose a
picture in the same way as you
choose any image and a small version
of it will appear on the Image Map
Definition page. Now select the page
you want to link to and the shape of
the link (either rectangular or
circular), click New Link and then click
twice on the picture to mark the
upper left and lower right corners of
your area. You will see a rectangle or
circle appear where you have selected
– these will not be visible in the trail.
Note that when you define a circle it sits inside the area of an imaginary
rectangle – so you may need to make it bigger than you expect. You can delete
links or move them up and down in the box on the right of the screen: where
boxes overlap, the ones higher up the list take precedence. So in the example
asking students to identify a pentagon among a series of different shapes you
might want one link on the pentagon (linked to a page saying That's Right!) and
another covering the whole image, linked to a page saying Try Again. Put the
pentagon link at the top of the list to ensure that it sits on top of the larger area
and therefore takes priority.

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Advanced Functions
When you first log in, a number of functions are available which require you to
enter your organisation's customer password.

Import Older Trail This is only relevant if you have previously created trails in
an earlier (non-web) version of Trailmaker and you wish to upload them to the
new service. The trail must be in .cmp format, which you create by choosing the
'Pack Trail' option in the old Trailmaker.

Manage Live Trails Lets you see the trails that your organisation currently has
live, how often they have been taken and when they were last taken. You can
also remove trails from the service here.

Manage Trailmaker Users Allows you to add or remove users within your
organisation, and to edit details such as User IDs and Passwords.

Edit Overall Customer Style Here you can create or amend styles that will
apply to all trails created by your organisation.

Planning your Trail


The more planning that has gone into your trail, the quicker and easier it will be
to write. Initial considerations are the audience for the trail – their age and
abilities – and your expectations – what areas of the curriculum are to be
covered and how you will measure the trail's effectiveness. The features
available to include in your trail are described under Page Creation and Editing.

You also have to decide whether you


are creating a standard trail or a web
trail. Web trails – which are not ideally
suited to handheld devices – are
created around existing external web
pages, providing controlled and
recorded access to the internet for
your students. Using a framing device,
they put the trail on the left-hand side
of the screen, with web pages from
any site selected by the trail creator on
the right. Thus you can create a study
aid to any subject, from crystal
formation to Roman Britain, with related internet links that you have chosen

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and vetted. Each page in the trail can be linked to a different web page, or you
can reference multiple websites from within a single page of the trail.

Probably the best way to structure a trail is to create a flow chart on paper.
Trails are made up of individual pages, and apart from the fact that every trail
must start from a single point these pages can be linked to each other in almost
any way.

The simplest structure is a linear trail in which students progress through a


sequence of pages in a set order from beginning to end: this might be suitable
for a simple test, or a scientific experiment in which instructions have to be
followed in a certain order. More complex matrix structures can allow individual
exploration of multiple themes within a topic. Star shapes are useful for
exploring multiple sub-sections of a central subject. In practice most trails will
combine all these elements, starting with initial instructions in a linear format,
the heart of the trail allowing individual exploration, and ending with final
testing or feedback. Don't forget to create ways out of your trail (see the
caveats under Links). A menu page of some kind, which is easy to navigate
back to and has options to choose a number of different topics, is often useful
in a complex trail. If you are planning to use a similar page over and over again
in your trail, it is a good idea to make a template page (either within the trail
you are creating or elsewhere; see Tips) and use the Load Page feature to copy
this as often as you want – you can then modify the contents as required.

Having planned the trail, you should assemble your resources, ensuring that
you have any pictures or audio and video clips available in a suitable size and
format (see Choosing and Formatting Images and Sound and Video). For a web
trail, it is obviously useful to have worked out in advance which sites you want
to link to.

Styles
Styles allow you to customise almost every aspect of your trails, from the
background colour to the font, headings, appearance of buttons and so on. They
can be applied at almost every level, from a style that will apply to every trail
created by your organisation to one applied to an individual trail or even a
single page or item on a page.

This more sophisticated formatting is achieved by applying style sheets to


your trail. These work by defining various styles (font, colour, size, frame or
border, background colour etc) which are assigned to different classes of object.
So you define a style and give it a class name, and every object which has that
class name will adopt that style.

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Styles can be defined at an organisational level, under Overall Customer Style;
at Trail level, from the New Trail/Modify Trail Properties screen; or at page level,
under New Page/Modify Page Properties. These act as cascading style sheets
(CSS), which means that an entry at a lower level (an individual page, say) will
override one at a higher
level (the whole trail).
Each individual object on
a page, such as a piece of
text, a link or an image
has a class name which
refers back to a definition
in these defined styles. If
you don't define any
styles, the system will
simply apply its default
styles; basically black text
on a white background.
But you will notice that each object still has a class name associated with it - for
example text objects have a default class name of TMTEXT and image objects
have a default class name of TMIMAGE.

In order to format text, you can either define the style to be applied to these
existing classes (see Appendix 1 for a list of them) or assign a new class
name to a particular object or objects and define a style for that new class
name. So to take a simple example, if you wanted all the text in a trail to be
bold, blue and 14 point, you would add a definition of TMTEXT at trail level.
There's more on exactly how to create styles below, but try pasting the
following into a trail, in the Trail Style box under Modify Trail Properties:
.TMTEXT {color: blue; font-size: 14pt; font-weight: bold;}. And if you now want to make
the background for the whole trail yellow, try this: .TMTRAILBODYCSS {background
color: yellow}. Note that the full stop before the class name is important, as are
the semi-colon delimiters between style attributes; and that spellings often
have to be American.

Styles such as those above can


also be applied to every trail
created by your organisation (for
which you'll need your
organisation's password), or to
individual pages. If you want to
create a style that only applies to
certain objects, then you should
create a new class name. Put
this name and its definition into a

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style sheet at any level, and you can apply the class name to any object that
you want to format that way. For example, to put some white text on a red
background into the blue and yellow page just created, define a new style name
such as TMTEXTWHITEONRED on one of the style sheets, and then change the
class name of any text you want to appear like that to TMTEXTWHITEONRED. To
do this paste the following into the trail style sheet: .TMTEXTWHITEONRED
{background-color: red; color: white}. Now add some text and give it this class name.
On the sample page (see picture), this text has also been made bigger using
simple formatting.

Perhaps the easiest way to create styles like those above is to use a style
editing programme such as Microsoft's Front Page to create the styles and
then copy and paste them into the Trailmaker (there's more on this in Appendix
1). Your school may already have some styles or standard fonts – used on the
school website for example – that can be supplied by your IT staff or web
designers and pasted in. Once you have some styles of your own, they can be
easily copied and pasted from one trail to another: or copy them all into a
single Word document with a brief description of what they do. Bear in mind
that not all style commands work with all browsers – so test them out on the
browsers your students will use. Watch out for mistakes such as assigning text
to the same colour as its background, thus rendering it invisible!

If you want to delve into this further, and start to add frames to your pages or
to pictures, change the look of the buttons, or use a picture as the background
to your pages (to take just a few examples), there's a host of information on
the web (type CSS into a search engine). The rules governing the syntax of a
style command are defined by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), whose
own website, www.w3.org, has lots of useful links. Good tutorials are available
at www.w3schools.com/css/ and www.albinoblacksheep.com/livedesign/, while
more unusual effects are discussed at sites such as
www.draac.com/css/csstricks.html.

See Appendix 1 for a list of the default i-Guide class names and more on how to
use them.

Tips and Shortcuts


Your work is saved automatically every time you leave a page.

Shortcut keys can be used throughout the Trailmaker, wherever you see a
letter underlined on a button. Press ALT and the letter to use the shortcut.

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To convert a web trail into a standard one, or vice versa, the easiest
method is to create a new trail in whatever format you wish to create, and then
copy the pages you want from the existing trail to the new one. They will
appear in the new format.

To share pages with colleagues you'll need to export your trail to them – they
can then edit it, or copy individual pages into new trails. If you have pages that
you reuse frequently in different trails (a feedback page for example), it may be
a good idea to create a trail simply to store them, so that they are always easily
found.

Paragraphs and spacing To create spaces between objects you can simply
put in some text consisting of one or more carriage returns or, for horizontal
separation, spaces. More sophisticated positioning of individual items can be
achieved using Styles.

FAQs/Troubleshooting
Can I download the trail to a handheld?
No. The essence of i-Guide is that it is interactive, and student responses are
recorded live over the internet. Underlying the service is a complex database.
This functionality is simply not available unless you are connected to the
internet

Do I always have to be connected?


In short, Yes. See Can I download the Trail?

What sort of computer equipment should I use?


Trails should be accessible on any device, using any browser. However, unusual
combinations may throw up unexpected results; please let us know if they do.
For the Trailmaker, we recommend using Internet Explorer as your browser,
even if you are working on an Apple: Firefox and Safari may not fully support
every feature.

I am trying to create an image map, but no boxes appear.


If you are using the Firefox browser, you may find that the image map feature
doesn't work properly. We suggest that you use another browser when creating
image maps.

Is there a limit to the size of pictures I can use?


Yes, see Appendix 2 for current details.

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How long do you store User IDs and records of completed Trails?
See Appendix 2 for current details.

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APPENDIX 1
Default i-Guide Class Names
The following is a list of the default i-Guide class names, each with a blank style
definition and relevant comments. The style commands go within the brackets.
E.g. .TMTEXT {font-family: Arial; font-size: 10pt}.

One way to create styles is to create a style sheet (a document with a .css
suffix) with a definition for these class names, and edit them in a style editor
such as Front Page. Thereafter the definitions can be modified and copied into
the Trailmaker as required. StreetAccess can supply such a file (i-Guide
classes.css) for you to edit.

The first three class names below are ones that cannot be changed for
individual items.

/* Overall page content style, encapsulates the whole page. Use this to set
overall styles for entire trails */
.TMTRAILCONTENTCS {}

/* Overall page style. Affects the same items as trail contents and is
interchangeable in normal use. However Trailbody sits outside Trailcontents and
can therefore be used for adding an extra frame or border to your pages */
.TMTRAILBODYCSS {}

/* Page title; styles the title of your page, the name of which is specified when
you create the page */
.TMPAGETITLECSS{}

/* Horizontal line*/
.TMHRCSS{}

/* Text Object */
.TMTEXT{}

/* Image Object */
.TMIMAGE{}

/* A text prompted trail link */


.TMTILINK{}

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/* An image prompted trail link */
.TMIILINK{}

/* A Button prompted trail link */


.TMBILINK{}

/* A text prompted web link */


.TMTXLINK{}

/* An image prompted web link */


.TMIXLINK{}

/* A button prompted web link */


.TMBXLINK{}

/* A text prompted audio resource */


.TMTSLINK{}

/* An image prompted audio resource */


.TMISLINK{}

/* A button prompted audio resource */


.TMBSLINK{}

/* A text prompted video resource */


.TMTVLINK{}

/* An image prompted video resource */


.TMIVLINK{}

/* A button prompted video resource */


.TMBVLINK{}

/* A text input */
.TMTINP{}

/* An image input */
.TMIMAGEINP{}

/* Radio Buttons */
.TMRBS{}

/* Check boxes */
.TMCBS{}

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/* Image Map */
.TMIMAGEMAP{}

/* Grid Input */
.TMGRIDINPUT{}

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APPENDIX 2
File size limits and storage periods
The following is a list of the current limits on file sizes and the periods for which
User and Trail information will be stored. These details may be amended from
time to time, and the latest information will be added to this User Guide as
downloadable from www.streetaccess.co.uk.

Trails: Recorded trails are kept for two years from the date when they were
started.

Attachments to Trails: Attachments to trails (uploaded photos, for example)


are kept for 28 days.

Uploads: Uploads are limited to five per trail and 256kb file size.

Users: Users are automatically deleted if they have not been active for two
years.

Pictures/Resources: Pictures for inclusion in trails are limited to 300kb file


size per picture. Audio and video hosted by i-Guide within a trail are limited to
3mb per file.

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