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C. FOUR LAWS GOVERNING LOGICAL OPPOSITIONS 1. Law of Contradiction 3. Law of Sub-Alternation 2. Law of Contrariety 4. Law of Sub-Contrariety 1. Law of Contradiction Two contradictory propositions cannot be both true and both false at the same time. * If A is true, O is false * If A is false, O is true * If O is true, A is false * If O is false, A is true * If E is true, I is false * If E is false, I is true * If I is true, E is false * If I is false, E is true 2. Law of Contrariety States that two contrary propositions cannot be both true but they may be both false at the same time. * If A is true, E is false * If E is true, A is false * If A is false, E is doubtful * If E is false, A is doubtful 3. Law of Sub-Alternation a) States that the truth of the universal carries or implies the truth of the particular but not vice versa.

* If A is true, I is true * If E is true, O is true * If I is true, A is doubtful * If O is true, E is doubtful b) States that the falsity of the particular carries or implies the falsity of the universal but not vice versa. * If I is false, A is false * If O is false, E is false * If A is false, I is doubtful * If E is false, O is doubtful 4. Law of Sub-Contrariety States that two contrary propositions can not be both false but they maybe both true at the same time. * If I is false, O is true * If O is false, I is true * If I is true, O is doubtful * If O is true, I is doubtful RULES IN TRANSLATING ORDINARY STATEMENTS INTO THE STANDARD FORM OF CATEGORICAL PROPOSITION 1. Translate universal statements as universal propositions unless the statement points to a particular usage. Examples: Dogs bark. All dogs are barking animals. Filipinos are hospitable people. Some Filipinos are hospitable people Men are stronger than women. Some men are people stronger than women 2. Add the missing complement to an adjective or to a describing phrase to show that they refer to classes/terms. Examples: All lions are fierce. All lions are fierce animals. Mothers love their children. Some mothers are children lovers. 3. Singular statements should be treated as universal statements. Examples: The first lady is very extravagant person. The first lady is very extravagant person. A proposition The author of Don Quijote is a good writer. The author of Don Quijote is a good writer. A proposition

This student is not lazy. This student is not a lazy guy. E proposition 4. Quantifiers that refer to universal or particular should be replaced by: all, no or some respectively. Examples: Almost 50% of the students in logic are members of the debate team. Some students in logic are members of the debate team. Most of the teachers are nationalists. Some teachers are nationalists. Every student is a learner. All students are learners. 5. Exclusive statements should be translated into universal statements by reversing the order of the original statement. Examples: None but men are priests. All priests are men. Only voters are citizens. All citizens are voters 6. Exceptive statements should be translated to an E statement. Examples: All except seminarians are members of the club. No seminarian is a member of the club. Everybody except the judges are members of the administration No judge is a member of the administration. 7. Not all should be translated as an O proposition Examples: Not all applicants are qualified workers. Some applicants are not qualified workers. Not all politicians are liars. Some politicians are not liars.

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