You are on page 1of 2

THE

CHANGE IN RELATIVE POPULARITY OF THE OFFICIAL


Authors: William Sullivan & Christopher R. Bellon. Department of Exercise Science & Physical

KEY KNOWLEDGE

In 2002, the InternaNonal Olympic CommiOee (IOC) approved a measure to limit the Summer Olympic Programme (SOP) to the following (IOC, 2009): o 28 sports. o 301 events. o 10,500 athletes. In 2004, the IOC approved the Olympic Programme Commissions (OPC) plan for a quadrennial evaluaNon of the ocial medal sports in the following seven categories (IOC, 2009): o History & TradiNon (7 variables). o Universality (40 variables). o Popularity (30 variables). o Image & Environment (4 variables). o Athlete Welfare (5 variables). o Development (4 variables). o Costs (3 variables). The following acNons were taken aber the publicaNon of the 2005 versus 2009 quadrennial OPC report (IOC, 2009): o 2005 report baseball & sobball were eliminated as ocial medal sports. o 2009 report golf & rugby were added to the 2016 SOP.

HOW THIS WORK ADDS TO THE FIELD

Both the 2005 & 2009 OPC quadrennial report: Include raw scores for the popularity variables for each ocial medal sport. But do not include an analysis of the relaNve popularity among the sports of the SOP. For each ocial medal sport of the SOP, this study quanNes relaNve popularity by adding the following informaMon: o The cumulaNve percent for the raw score (among all sports raw scores) for each popularity variable (2005 versus 2009). o The mean cumulaNve percent for the raw scores of the popularity variables (2005 versus 2009). o The 2005 versus 2009 popularity ranking, based on the mean cumulaNve percent of the popularity raw scores. The popularity raw scores analyzed in this study were those reported for the post-Sydney (2000) through the Athens (2004) games (Olympic Programme Commission, 2005) versus the post Athens through Beijing (2008) games (Olympic Programme Commission, 2009). The quadrennial OPC reports are available in the public domain online at the IOC website. ObjecMves The objecNves of this study were to determine the relaNve popularity for each ocial medal sport of the SOP & the change in relaNve popularity for each sport from the 2005 to the 2009 OPC report. Popularity Variables (2005 n = 27, 2009 n =30) Olympic Mcket sales & aWendance. o The number of Nckets available per sport. o The number of Nckets sold per sport. o The percentage of the total Nckets sold for all sports that were sold for a given sport. o The percentage of Nckets available for a given sport that were sold (2005 only). Olympic television coverage. o The mean number of hours of TV coverage per day of compeNNon. o The mean number of viewers per hour of prime Nme TV broadcast per day of compeNNon (2004 only). o The mean number global viewers per minute of TV broadcast (2008 only).

METHODS

Olympic press coverage. o The number of print media arNcles during the six-week period around the Olympic games. o The number of print media arNcles, by conNnent (Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, South America, Oceana), during the six-week period around the Olympic games (2005 only). World championships media accreditaMon requests. o The mean number of media accreditaNon requests for the last world championships World championships TV broadcast. o The number of territories (number of countries in 2005 report) where the last two world championships were broadcast on TV. o The number of territories, by conNnent (Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceana), where the last two world championships were broadcast on TV (2009 only). o The number of territories where TV rights were paid to broadcast the last two world championships. New media coverage. o The mean number of visits to the IFs ocial website (2003 versus 2008). o The mean number of daily visits to the IFs website during the last world championships. o The number of visits to a given sports page within the ocial IOC website (1 January 2004 through 11 February 2005 versus 2008). o Of the total number of visits to the ocial IOC website, the percentage of those visits that linked to a given sports page (2005 only). Major sponsors. o Cash. o Value in Kind. o Discounts. o Services. o Other. Data Handling Total data. Some sports reported total data for all variables. Other sports reported total data for some variables, but event-only (e.g., beach versus indoor volleyball) or gender- only data for other variables in both the 2005 & the 2009 OPC report. When total data were available, total data were used in this analysis. Event-only/gender-only data. o Where sports reported data by event only (e.g., freestyle versus Greco-Roman wrestling) or gender only, data were handled in the following manner in order to put the sport in the best light: We dened the dominant event/ gender within the sport as the event/gender with highest score for the majority of variables where event/gender data were available & used this events/genders data throughout the study when total data were not available. Volleyball & wrestling included both event-only & gender-only data. We rst determined the dominant event & then the dominant gender in the manner described above. Data Analysis The following were analyzed via the IBM SPSS StaNsNcs Version 19 sobware program: o The cumulaNve percent for each sports raw score for a given variable. o The mean cumulaNve percent for the popularity variables for each sport.

MEDAL SPORTS OF THE SUMMER OLYMPIC PROGRAMME


EducaNon. Montclair State University. Montclair, NJ USA
RESULTS

The mean cumulaNve percent for the popularity variables, the popularity ranking, & the change in popularity ranking from the 2005 to the 2009 OPC report for each ocial medal sport of the SOP are reported in Table 1. Table 1. The mean cumulaNve percent of the raw scores for the popularity variables, the popularity rank, & the change in popularity rank for each ocial medal sport of the Summer Olympic Programme (2005 versus 2009).

!"#$%& && !"#$%"&'() 233"45$$).61) !<=5"&'().>?1) B5(C%"45$$).61) D3$$%E45$$).FG61) L%II&().61) HE'$&IJ).K1) MENI5("&'().!1) O3'C%E).61) Q%&J#"$&R"&IJ) K3?&IJ) H5I3%).>V1) S<=%("T&5I).U1) U=P3) QT%("$&IJ).2>G61) L54$%)L%II&() >#33"&IJ) B5PN&I"3I).61) O5IP45$$).61) LT&5"#$3I).61) B3W&IJ) B5(%45$$) >5&$&IJ) !T'#%TE) 63P%TI)X%I"5"#$3I) L5%C?3IP3) >3R"45$$) 2%I'&IJ).61)

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

2005 = 2005 OPC report data; 2009 = 2009 OPC report data; Rank = change in popularity rank; Cum % = cumulaNve percent; n = number of variables for which data were available; M = male; Sw = swimming; I = indoor; R = road; A = arNsNc; Sp = sprint; J = jumping; FS = freestyle; No = no change in ranking; * = 2005 score below both baseball & sobball; NA = data not provided by IOC.

This is the rst study to determine the following for each ocial medal sport of the SOP: o The cumulaNve percent for the raw score for each popularity variable. o The mean cumulaNve percent for the raw scores of the popularity variables. o The 2005 versus 2009 popularity ranking for each ocial medal sport of the SOP. The major limitaNon of this study was that aquaNcs, badminton, basketball, canoe, cycling, equestrian, fencing, football, gymnasNcs, handball, hockey, tennis, triathlon, volleyball, & wrestling reported event-only/gender-only raw scores for some variables. RecommendaMons The IOC should require standardized reporNng of data for all variables in order to allow a comprehensive analysis of the popularity data. The leaders of each ocial medal sports IF should consider using these data to help guide the development of the IFs strategic plan.
References InternaNonal Olympic CommiOee. (2009). Factsheet: the sports on the Olympic programme update September 2009. Lausanne: Author. Retrieved from InternaNonal Olympic CommiOee website: hOp://www.olympic.org/ioc-commissions/documents-reports-studies-publicaNons Olympic Programme Commission. (2005). Olympic Programme Commission report to the 117th IOC session. Lausanne: Author. Retrieved from InternaNonal Olympic CommiOee website: hOp://www.olympic.org/ioc-commissions/documents-reports-studies-publicaNons Olympic Programme Commission. (2009). Report on the 26 core sports for the games of the XXXI Olympiad. Lausanne: Author. Retrieved from InternaNonal Olympic CommiOee website: hOp://www.olympic.org/ioc-commissions/documents-reports-studies-publicaNons

DISCUSSION