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Jaipur lies at a distance of about 200 miles from Delhi, 150 miles from Agra and 84 miles from Ajmer. Capital city of Rajasthan is located amidst the Aravali hill ranges at an altitude of about 430 m above sea level.
Latitude – 26 55’ Longitude – 75 50’
Map Showing Jaipur in Eastern Part of Rajasthan The eastern Rajasthan, lying to the east and south east of the Aravalli divide includes the modern administrative districts of – Udaipur, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand, Banswara, Dungarpur, Kota, Bundi, Baran, Jhalawar, Bhilwara, Ajmer, Jaipur, Tonk, Dausa, Dholpur, Karauli, Bharatpur and Alwar. The current district of Jaipur lies in Eastern Rajasthan, in the Banas River basin and forms a part of Eastern Plain of Rajasthan. The region is drained by a number of seasonal rivers of which Banganga, Dhundh and Bandi are prominent. From the 10th century onwards, the district referred to as Dhoondhar, formed one of the four distinguishable politico-cultural regions of Eastern Rajasthan, in addition to Mewat, Hadauti and Mewar. Dhoondhar region was roughly comprised of current districts of Jaipur, Dausa and Tonk, with Jaipur and Amber further constituting Dhoondhar subzone within the larger tract of Dhoondhar region. In Aryan epics, Dhoondhar region (called Matsya Desh/ Mina Wati) was the shortest trade route between north India and rich port cities of Gujarat and Malabar. The region was held by Badgujars, Rajputs and Minas till the 11th century. From the 11th century onwards, however, the Dhoondhar region was increasingly under the power of Kachchwaha dynasty of Rajputs.
The three main capitals of the Dhoondhar Region under the Kachchwahas – Dausa, Amber and Jaipur.
The Kachchwaha Rajputs trace their descent through the solar dynasty to Kush, one of the two sons of Lord Rama.. According to local tradition and popular bardic chronicles, Dulha/Dhola Rai (whose reign is accepted as being from 1006-1036 AD by most historians) one of the rulers of this clan, laid the foundation of Dhoondhar kingdom in 967 AD and made Dausa his capital. Kakil Dev (1036-1038) who succeeded his father Dulha Rai in 1036 AD, seized Amber from Meenas, laid the foundations of the Amber Fort and built the temple of Ambikeshwar Mahadev – one of Amber’s earliest extant monuments. The capital of Dhoondar was shifted from Dausa to Amber between 1179 and 1216 AD. By the 17th century, the Kachchwaha Rajput clan became known for political clout and importance in the Mughal administration. Raja Man Singh (1590-1614) and Mirza Raja Jai Singh (1622-1667)
seized Amber from Meenas. Kakil Dev (1036-1038) who succeeded his father Dulha Rai in 1036 AD.contributed to the financial and cultural wealth of Dhoondhar through political alliance with Mughals. . According to local tradition and popular bardic chronicles. By the 17th century. Dulha/Dhola Rai (whose reign is accepted as being from 1006-1036 AD by most historians) one of the rulers of this clan. Raja Man Singh (1590-1614) and Mirza Raja Jai Singh (1622-1667) contributed to the financial and cultural wealth of Dhoondhar through political alliance with Mughals. laid the foundation of Dhoondhar kingdom in 967 AD and made Dausa his capital. The Kachchwaha Rajputs trace their descent through the solar dynasty to Kush. laid the foundations of the Amber Fort and built the temple of Ambikeshwar Mahadev – one of Amber’s earliest extant monuments. one of the two sons of Lord Rama. the Kachchwaha Rajput clan became known for political clout and importance in the Mughal administration.. Sawai Jai Singh II (1700 – 1743) who outlived five Mughal emperors and tried to prop up the Mughal Empire from 1707 – (Aurangzeb’s death) to sack of Delhi by Nadir Shah (1739) established the city of Jaipur and strengthened the boundaries of Dhoondhar. The capital of Dhoondar was shifted from Dausa to Amber between 1179 and 1216 AD. Sawai Jai Singh II (1700 – 1743) who outlived five Mughal emperors and tried to prop up the Mughal Empire from 1707 – (Aurangzeb’s death) to sack of Delhi by Nadir Shah (1739) established the city of Jaipur and strengthened the boundaries of Dhoondhar.
CITY AND ITS EVOLUTION .
which might be required in the times to come . A site at the South of Amber ensured greater distance from Delhi and also prevented the expansion of the city in that direction. So this flat site with a basin like shape was chosen.Site selection Reasons for Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh to change his capital from Amber to Jaipur: Military Reasons Defence was an important consideration. It was an open plain bounded on the north-west and east by hills. Geographical Reasons The rocky terrain of Amber restricted expansion. Earlier rajput capitals were established in the hills. Its rugged hills also ensured a constant supply of building material. and so moving capital to the plains was an ex of Sawan Jai Singh's boldness. Jaipur had the potentialities of developing into a city with adequate drinking water due to the presence of a perennial stream nearby and good drainage system. It was clear that the out skirting hill ranges (Nahargarh hills) shaped as a horseshoe would allow the new city to expand only in the South.
. Sawai Raja Jai Singh’s vision of the new capital as a strong political statement at par with Mughal cities and as a thriving trade and commerce hub for the region.Two significant facts responsible for the origin of the city and its subsequent layout: 1. The need of a new capital for 18th century Dhoondhar as the earlier one of Amber built on a hill was getting congested. 2.
The site with the natural east west ridge and the surrounding forts as defense feature .
PLANNING OF THE CITY .The site selected for establishing the new capital of Jaipur was a valley located south of Amber and the plains beyond. and the hills on the east. the Darbhavati river in the north was dammed to create the Jai Sagar and Man Sagar (that later housed the Jal Mahal) lakes. Later the Jhotwara River in the north west was diverted through the Amani Shah Nallah and a number of canals were channelised through Brahmapuri and Jai Niwas to supply water to the city. a terrain that was the bed of a dried lake. The physical constraints that informed the building of Jaipur city included the hills on the north that housed the fort of Jaigarh and the Amber palace beyond. There used to be dense forest cover to the north and the east of the city. To facilitate water supply to the new city. which contained the sacred spot of Galtaji.
as in Dausa and Amber (TOP) The hill town of Dausa with an organic layout guided by the topography (BELOW) Amber Town with the Fort on top of the hill and the walled town down the slopes .The generic plan of a medieval Rajasthani hill town.
mercantile or religious nature. . whose planning was guided by topographical structure of the areas. the two previous capital cities of the Dhoondhar region established on hill-top. Unlike Dausa and Amber. The medieval towns of Rajasthan were of military. Jaipur city was revolutionary both in terms of its grid-iron pattern planning and its location at the base of the hills. The presence of a deity marked the reference point for the ruler’s abode and the rest of the city. The name of the town was usually associated with the political or religious centre (with the Ambikeshwar temple in the case of Amber and with Sawai Jai Singh in the case of Jaipur). agrarian.
the length of a side of a square and so establishes the size of the unit or module of the city. However . The layout of the city of Jaipur wonderfully links the concept of a Shastric city with the practicalities of the chosen site. This road had to be preserved and controlled and therefore had to fall within the city’s boundaries A second road ran E to W between the Mughal cities of Agra and Ajmer and placing the new city on this already established communication line would help secure its economic success. First. There was also a significant economic shift from an agricultural base in Dausa and Amber to trading in the capital of Jaipur. their extents were yet to be defined. the principal trading town.the capital to Sanganer. the straight line of the ridge suggested itself as the route for one of the main east-west thorough fares and building a road along its crest makes best possible use of the topography for the purpose of drainage. It was the king’s wish that this establishment come within the city. A hunting lodge known as Jai Niwas. What followed then was to regularize the Amber-Sanganer road as a north-south route at right angles to it. The point of intersection would be one of the city’s main cross-roads (chaupar) Although the location of the axes was determined. The southern boundary of the city had to lie within the line of the Agra-Ajmer road. A road cutting the plain from N to S linking Amber. So by extending the NS road as far as possible southwards gives the first fixed dimension.
this is an ideal arrangement as declivity towards the north-east Is considered the best site. .since this was an imperial road that could not be encroached on. The intersection of the axes to define the Badi Chaupar (City Square). In practical terms. The area to its S is flat while that to its N slopes down gently. N of the road and parallel to it. Also. from the cardinal axes). thus the city had to be contained to the north of this line. in a roughly EW alignment (with a slight deviation of15 deg. a natural ridge runs across the plain. the ridge too had to be accommodated. In Shastric terms.
which gives prominence to the cardinal directions.according to this shastra the site should be divided into grids or mandalas rangung from 2x 2 to 10 x 10. . Thus plan of jaipur is a grid of 3x3 with gridlines being the city’s main streets. Planned according to the Prastara type of layout. ends of the roads marked by Gates in the City Wall CONCEPTUAL PRASTARA PLAN It is a model of town planning.the first planned city in India. an ancient Indian treatise on architecture .Division in to eight portions. It is based on Hindu systems of town planning and followed the principles prescribed in the Shilpa-shastra.
The central axis of the town was laid from East to West between the gates of the Sun(Suraj pol) and the moon(Chandpol) This was crossed by two roads at right angles dividing the town into nine almost square. . which were further sub divided by lanes and alleys all at right angles. almost equally sized blocks.
But by building the western boundary of the city right up to the hill’s southern apex. The town has around it a masonry wall. thick. high & 9ft. Ajmeri Gate. The mandala could not be complete in the NW due to the presence of the hills. it provided a continuous line of defense. On the other hand in the SE an extra square has been added that plugged the gap between the city and the eastern hills. Surajpole Gate. The gates are: Chandpole Gate. . 25ft. Sanganeri Gate. with eight gates. Ghat Gate.
Thus altogether there are now five rectangles on the south of the main road called Chowkris. The principal bazaar leads from the . Following the directions of the Hindu Shilpa shastra. Thus the main streets of the city were 111ft. which necessitated the segregation of people belonging to different communities and ranks. and New Gate. The city’s division into nine wards was also in conformity with the Hindu caste system. making the shape of the plan as a whole asymmetrical rather than square. On the North of the main road from West to East are the Purani Basti. South of the main road were four almost equal rectangles. So this North-West ward was transferred to the South-East corner of the city. Gangapole Gate. the Palace and Ramchandraji. wide. The rectangle opposite the palace has been broken up into two equal and smaller rectangles by the Chaura Rasta. Even the lanes were named after the occupations of inhabitants such as Maniharon ka Rasta. the town six and the remaining ninth block was not usable on account of steep hills. Thatheron ka Rasta & many others. Zorawar Singh Gate. width of the main streets & other lanes were fixed. wide. secondary streets 55 ft. The palace building covered two blocks. wide & the smaller ones 27ft.
passing in front of the Tripolia Gate. the lake was made the tank of palace garden. Indeed. the Surajpole. which formed a part of the pleasure garden around which the city was built. Another constraint was the position of the lake. This lake lay close to the hillside. . To the NW of this lay the Jai Niwas. given the wish to locate the palace centrally. to the eastern city gate. Given that its royal association meant that it had to be within the palace compound. In the original design it fell outside the main block of the city. The serving class occupied the peripheral areas. the position of the brahmasthana was also established. The Chandpole.western gate in the city wall. A wall surrounds the palace buildings. but due to Jai Singh’s wish to include the old garden in the city. the site of the palace was established.
PICTURE IN BRIEF .
URBAN FORM AND ARCHITECTURAL IDENTITY .
and temples.WHY PINK? Jaipur is known as the Pink City. . a rather idealized description of the terra-cotta-colored lime plaster that coats the old part of the city's walls. buildings.
but various theories have been tossed about. Others believe Singh wanted to imitate the color of the sandstone used in the forts and palaces of his Mughal emperor-friends. to Jai Singh II's apparent devotion to Lord Shiva (whose favorite color is reputedly terra cotta). and the city was freshly painted and paved with pink gravel to warmly welcome Edward VII for his visit here in 1876. URBAN FORM AND ARCHITECTURAL IDENTITY ROAD NETWORK . from using pink to cut down glare. The most popular reason (spread no doubt by "Britishers" during the Raj era) is that pink is the traditional color of hospitality.The reasons for painting the town pink are unknown.
It has controlled façade treatment enveloping it. Jaipur’s road network follows a definite hierarchy. These were later named as Johri bazaar. An orthogonal grid of 8.00m roads in the prastara-chessboard pattern further divide sectors into Mohallas. wide. Kishan pole Bazaar & Gangori Bazaar On the main streets strict control was exercised on the street façade. but beyond the frontage the buildings could be of any height or any shape. PUBLIC SPACES Public spaces can be divided into Chaupars Bazaars Mohallas Streets Temples CONCEPTUAL PLAN . Section through Ram Ganj Bazaar BAZAARS .25mx4. The major east-west and north-south road . Sireh Deori Bazaar.one storey high. along which were located shops and arcades. some built with flat roofs & others with traditional chattris.CHAUPAR CHAUPAR – It’s a square that occurs at the intersection of east west roads with three north south roads.form the sector boundaries and are called Rajmarg as they lead to the city gates. Next there is a network of 16. Each chaupar is around 100m x 100m. Were used for public gathering on festive occasions.5m wide which runs north-south in each sector linking the internal areas of the sectors to the major activity spine. These measure 33m. .Originally only four bazaars were planned for the city. The distance between two chaupars is about 700m which is ideal for pedestrian movement.
URBAN FORM AND ARCHITECTURAL IDENTITY STREETSCAPES AND CHOWKS .
during the reign of Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh II.View (above) of a main bazaar street . Junctions of the main axial streets formed the two square civic open spaces called chaupars (Badi chaupar and Chhoti chaupar).54 feet.the width of the main roads was kept 39 1/4 gaz . the city was painted pink to celebrate the visit of the Prince of Wales in 1876. According to a popular belief. the tertiary roads are 27 feet and the inner mohalla streets are 13 feet wide. havelis and temples on the main streets in Jaipur were constructed by the state in the 18th century. lending the city the name of ‘Pink City’. secondary roads are half this size . The widths of roads were predetermined. View of a chaupar today The main markets. thus ensuring that a uniform street facade is maintained. .108 feet. The width of the square chaupars was three times that of the main street.
. Historically. with the basic unit of built form being the rectangular haveli. the centre of each chaupar has square enclosures with ornamental fountains. supplying numerous sources of drinking water at street level. The streets and chowks (central open squares in a town) of the internal chowkries (sectors) with numerous clusters or mohallas were not predetermined. the chaupars were outlets for intense social use with water structures connected by underground aqueducts. Presently. hence show a mix of grid iron and organic pattern.
projecting vertical blocks on brackets. Johari bazaar. along the main north-south and east-west axes that intersect at Chhoti and Badi Chaupars. . a modular system of arches filled with delicate latticed screens to cut direct sun and glare of reflected sun in the street.use of chhajjas (sunshades) resulting in strong horizontal lines.URBAN FORM AND ARCHITECTURAL IDENTITY 1. Gangauri bazaar. 2. BAZAARS Original markets in the city include Kishanpole bazaar. Sireh Deorhi bazaar. Typical architectural features of the bazaar streets are .
religious festivals and public celebrations Uniform planned shop fronts on bazaar streets with upper floors in interesting juxtaposition. . Space above shops at first floor level originally functioned as galleries for watching royal processions.Bazaar streets have temples above shops with wide staircase starting from pavement to the temple level.
Defined street façade at a chaupar with sunshades and latticed colonnades at upper floors and shop fronts on the ground floor. .