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1
1
UNIT – III
HALF WAVE RECTIFIER: 
V
S
= V
m
sin t ω
= V
m
Sin θ
I
max
m
s f L
V
R R R
=
+ +
(Assuming voltage drop across diode is zero)
Where R
S
is source resistance
R
f
is Diode resistance in forward bias condition
R
L
is load resistance.
Current i = 0 for π ≤ θ ≤ 2π
2) AVERAGE CURRENT I
DC.
The current shown by DC ammeter, is the average current.
2 2
max
max
0 0
1
. sin sin
2 2
I
I Sin d d d
π π π
π
θ θ θ θ θ θ
π π
(
= = +
(
¸ ¸
∫ ∫ ∫
[ ] [ ]
( )
max max
0
max max
cos cos 0
2 2
2 _________________(1)
2 2
dc
I I
Cos
I I
I
π
θ π
π π
π π
−
= − = −
= − − =
2 EDC UNITIII
2
2
3) R.M.S (ROOT MEAN SQUARE) CURRENT
1 2
2
2 2
max
0
1
sin
2
rms
i I
π
θ
π
(
=
(
¸ ¸
∫
1 2
2
max
1
sin
2
I d θ θ
π
(
=
(
¸ ¸
;
max
2
rms
I
I = (2)
max
2
RMS
V
V = (When R
S
& R
f
are negligible) (3)
4) DC OUTPUT VOLTAGE: V
RL
max
max
max
.
.
(When R & R are negligable)
L
L
R dc L L
S f L
L
R s f
i
V i R R
V
R R R
R
V
V
π
π
π
= =
+ +
=
=
(4)
5) RIPPLE FACTOR
rms value of alternate current component
r
average value
=
Total current = DC component + AC. component
1 1
( )
dc dc
i I i or i i I = + = − . (1)
i rms ′ =
2
2
0
1
( ) .
2
i
π
θ
π
′
∫
=
2
2
0
1
( )
2
dc
i I d
π
θ
π
−
∫
=
2
2 2
0
1
( 2 )
2
dc dc
i I I d
π
θ
π
− +
∫
=
2 2 2
2 2
0 0 0
1 1 1
 .2 + .
2 2 2
dc
i d I id I dc d
I II III
π π π
θ θ θ
π π π
∫ ∫ ∫
a) 1
st
Term: 
2
2 2
0
1
.
2
rms rms
i d i i
π
θ
π
= =
∫
3 EDC UNITIII
3
3
b) 2
nd
Terms: 
2 2
2
0 0
1 1
.2 2 . = 2 I I = 2 I
2 2
dc dc dc dc dc
I id I id
π π
θ θ
π π
− = − − −
∫ ∫
c) 3
rd
Term: 
2
2 2 2
. 0
0
1 1
. [ ]
2 2
dc dc
I d I
π
π
θ θ
π π
=
∫
=
2 2
.
1
.2
2
dc dc
I I π
π
=
Combining 3 terms
i rms ′ =
2 2 2
2
rms dc dc
i I I − +
=
2 2
rms dc
i I −
The ripple factor r =
1
rms
dc
I
I
2 2
=
rms dc
dc
I I
I
−
=
2 2
2 2
rms dc
dc dc
I I
I I
 
−

\ ¹
Ripple Factor r =
2
1
rms
dc
I
I
 
−

\ ¹
_______________  (5)
The above expression is independent of current wave shape and therefore not
restricted to half wave rectifier alone.
Similarly it can be expressed in terms of Voltage under: 
r =
2
1
DC
rms
V
V
 
− 

\ ¹
 (6)
6) RIPPLE FACTOR OF HALF WAVE RECTIFIER
I
rms
=
2
m
I
 eqn. No. 2
I
DC
=
m
I
π
 eqn. No. 1
Putting these values in equation No. 5
Ripple factor of half wave rectifier.
4 EDC UNITIII
4
4
HW
γ =
2
m m
I I
/ 1
2 π
 
−

\ ¹
HW
γ =
2
1
2
π  
−

\ ¹
HW
γ = 2.467 1 1.21 121% − = =
7) VOLTAGE REGULATION.
Voltage regulation
Variation of Output voltage
Full load voltage
=
Voltage regulation = 100
DCNL DCFL
DCFL
V V
V
−
×  (1)
⇒ V
DCFL
= V
DCNL
– I
DC
(R
f
+ R
S
)
8) FOR HALF WAVE RECTIFIER
( )
m
DCNL DC f S L
V
V I R R R
π
= = + +  (2)
.
DCFL DC L
V I R =  (3)
( ) ( )
DCNL DC f S DC L
V I R R I R = + + from equation No. 2
= ( )
DC f S DCFL
I R R V + +
( )
DCN DCFL DC f S
V V I R R − = +  (4)
Voltage regulation (HWR) =
( )
( )
DC f s
m
dc S F
I R R
V
I R R
π
+
− +
 (5)
For good rectifier voltage regulation must be as less as possible.
9) RECTIFICATION EFFICIENCY: 
η =
100%
DC power delivered to the load
AC power input
×
5 EDC UNITIII
5
5
= 100%
dc
ac
P
P
×
2
2
2
2
( )
( )
dc dc L
ac rms f s L
dc L
rms f s L
p I R
P I R R R
I R
I R R R
η
=
= + +
=
+ +
For a good rectifier voltage regulation must be as less as possible.
10) η OF HWR
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
2
dc dc L L
2
2
ac
2
2
L
2 2
2
2
P =I R = R
P
2
4 R
100 100
.( )
4
4
= 100 40.5%
m
m
rms f s L f S L
m L
m f s L
f s
f L L
I
I
I R R R R R R
I R
I R R R
R R R
If R R R
then
π
π
η
π
η
π
 

\ ¹
 
= + + = + +

\ ¹
= × = ×
+ +
+ +
+ <<
× =
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
2
dc dc L L
2
2
ac
2
2
L
2 2
2
2
P =I R = R
P
2
4 R
100 100
.( )
4
4
= 100 40.5%
m
m
rms f s L f S L
m L
m f s L
f s
f L L
I
I
I R R R R R R
I R
I R R R
R R R
If R R R
then
π
π
η
π
η
π
 

\ ¹
 
= + + = + +

\ ¹
= × = ×
+ +
+ +
+ <<
× =
Note: 
1) Under ideal conditions when (R
f
+ R
S
) = 0, only 40% of power is delivered to
load.
2) Rectification efficiency should be as high as possible.
6 EDC UNITIII
6
6
11) TRANSFORMER UTILIZATION FACTOR (TUF)
DC power delivered to load
AC power rating of transformer secondary
( )
dc
ac
TUF
P
P rated
=
=
Where P
ac
rated(rms) = V
ac
(rms) x I
rms
P
dc
=
2
.
DC L
I R
12) FOR HALF WAVE RECTIFIER: 
m
I
( ) I
2
2
m
ac rms
V
V rms and = = ; I
dc
m
I
π
=
2
.
=
.
2
2
m
L
m m
I
R
TUF
V I
π
 


\ ¹
= We know ( )
m m f s L
V I R R R = + + ;
( )
2
L
2
R
.
2 2
m
m f s L
m
I
TUF
I R R R
I
π
=
+ +
2
2 2
L
f S L
R
TUF
R R R π
(
=
(
+ +
(
¸ ¸
If (R
f
+ R
S
) << R
L
2
2 2
0.287 TUF
π
= =
Transformer power rating must be much high
1
3.5
0.287
times
 
=

\ ¹
than output power required.
13) PEAK INVERSE VOLTAGE: 
PIV is the maximum voltage across the reverse biased diode (.e., during the half
cycle when diode is not conducting).
7 EDC UNITIII
7
7
In HWR PIV = V
m
When a fitter with capacitor is used with HWR then PIV = 2 V
m.
Disadvantages of HWR.
a) Very high ripple factor (r = 1.21)
b) Low rectification efficiency (η =40.5%)
c) TUF is low (0.287)
d) There is a DC current component through the winding of the transformer,
which can lead to saturation of transformer core, which is un desirable.
Full Wave Rectifier: 
1) Working Principle
1) Being a center tapped transformer V
AB
= V
BC
When A is positive with respect to B (or C)D
1
conducts (say for +Ve half
cycle)
When C is positive with respect to B (or A) D
2
conducts (say for –Ve half
cycle)
2) Voltage V
AB
is applied to D
1
& V
BC
is applied to D
2
.
3) Direction of currents i
1
& i
2
are same through R
L.
2) AVERAGE CURRENT I
DC
I
dc
[ ]
2 2
m
0 0
2
m
0
m
m m
m
1 1
I sin
2 2
I
sin sin
2
I
( 2)( 2)
2
I 2I
.4 0.637I .
2
id d
d d
π π
π π
π
θ θ θ
π π
θ θ θ θ
π
π
π π
=
(
= −
(
¸ ¸
= − −
= = =
∫ ∫
∫ ∫
8 EDC UNITIII
8
8
I
dc
= 0.637I
m
.
∴ I
DC
FWR = 2 I
DC
HWR.
3) RMS LOAD CURRENT I
RMS
m
m .
I
0.707 I
2
ax
rms ax
I = =
4) DC Output voltage V
DC.
m
2I
. . .
dc dc L L
V I R R
π
= = We know
m
I
m
S f L
V
R R R
=
+ +
.
.
.
2.
(
( )
2
0.637
0.637
m L
dc
S f L
s f L
m
dc m
dc m
V R
V
R R R
If R R R
V
V V
V V
π
π
∴ =
+ +
+ <<
= =
=
Note: V
DC
FWR is double that of V
DC
HWR.
5) RIPPLE FACTOR: 
2
1
rms
dc
I
I
γ
 
= −

\ ¹
for FWR,
m m
I 2I
&
2
rms DC
I I
π
= =
2
m m
I 2I
/ 1
2
FWR
γ
π
 
∴ = −

\ ¹
=
2
1
2 2
π  
−

\ ¹
=
2
3.1416
1 0.483
2 1.414
 
− =

×
\ ¹
∴ Ripple factor of FWR in very less (0.483) compared to that of HWR (1.21)
9 EDC UNITIII
9
9
6) VOLTAGE REGULATION: 
Voltage Regulation =
100
( )
DCNL DCNL
DCFL
DCFL DCN L DC f S
V V
V
V V I R R
−
×
= − +
For full wave Rectifier.
m
2 2.I
&
m
DCNL DC
V
V I
π π
= =
or
2. 2
.
m m
DC
f S L
I V
I
R R R π π
= =
+ +
2
( ) I ( + R +R ) = .
( ) I ( + R ) + I .R = V
( ) I ( + R ) + V = V
( ) V  V = ( + R )
DC f s L m
DC f s DC L DCNL
DC f s DCFL DCNL
DCNL DCFL f s
or R V
or R
or R
or R
π
Voltage regulation =
( + R )
2
( )
dc s f
m
DC f S
I R
V
I R R
π
=
− +
7) RECTIFICATION EFFICIENCY: 
100%
dc
ac
p
p
η = ×
For FWR,
2
2
m
2
. .I .
dc dc L L
p I R R
π
 
= =

\ ¹
P
ac
= I
2
rms
(R
f
+ R
S
+ R
L
)
2
m
2
2
2 2
2 2
I
( )
2
4
.
.( )
2
( )
4 2 8
. 0.812 81.2%
1
f S L
m
L
f s L
f S L
R R R
I
R
I m
R R R
If R R R
π
η
η
π π
 
+ +

\ ¹
=
+ +
+ <<
= = = =
10 EDC UNITIII
10
10
8) TRANSFORMER UTILIZATION FACTOR (TUF)
a) TUF (Secondary) =
sec
dc
P delivered to load
AC power rating of transformer ondary
b) Since both the windings are used TUF
FWR
= 2 TUF
HWR
= 2 x 0.287 = 0.574
c) TUF primary = Rated efficiency = 100 81.2%
dc
ac
P
P
× =
d) Average =
0.812 0.574
0.693
2
+
=
9) PEAK INVERSE VOLTAGE (PIV): 
PIV = 2 V
m
10) CORE SATURATION IN FWR.
Currents i
1
, i
2
flow in opposite direction in the secondary winding. Therefore no
saturation.
11) Advantages
1) Ripple factor γ = 0.482 (against 1.21 for HWR)
2) Rectification efficiency η is 0.812 (against 0.405 for HWR)
3) Better TUF (secondary) is 0.574 (0.287 for HWR)
4) No core saturation problem
Disadvantages:
1) Requires center tapped transformer
11 EDC UNITIII
11
11
Bridge Rectifier: 
1) Diode D
1
, D
2
, D
2
, D
4
are forming four arms of bridge
* During positive half cycle (as shown) diodes D
2
& D
3
conduct through R
L
.
* During negative half cycle diodes D
4
& D
1
conduct through R
L.
* Direction of current flow through R
L
is same in both half cycles and we get
the same wave forms as that of full wave rectifier.
*Therefore, the following expressions are same as that of full wave rectifier.
a) Average current I
dc
=
2
m
I
π
b) RMS current I
rms
=
2
m
I
c) DC output voltage (no.load) V
DC
2
m
V
π
d) Ripple factor γ =0.482
e) Rectification efficiency = η = 0.812
f) DC output voltage full load.
=
2
( 2 )
m
DCFL dc S f
V
V I R R
π
= − + ; i.e., less by one diode loss.
 TUF of both primary & secondary are 0.812 therefore TUF overall is 0.812
(better than FWR with 0.693)
Comparison:
Sl.
No.
Parameter HWR FWR BR
1 No. of diodes 1 2 4
2 PIV of diodes V
m
2 V
m
V
m
3 Secondary voltage (rms) V V0V V
4 DC output voltage at no
load
m
V
π
=0.318 V
m
2
m
V
π
=0.636 V
m
2
m
V
π
=0.636 V
m
5 Ripple factor γ 1.21 0.482 0.482
6 Ripple frequency f 2f 2f
12 EDC UNITIII
12
12
7 Rectification efficiency η 0.406 0.812 0.812
8 TUF 0.287 0.693 0.812
1 Q) A diode whose interval resistance is 20 Ω is to supply power to a 1000Ω load
from a 110V (rms) source of supply calculate.
i) Peak load current
ii) DC load current
iii) AC load current
iv) DC load voltage
v) Total power input to the circuit
% regulation from no load to full load. (Nov. 2000, June 2006)
solution: 
i) Peak load current = I
m
= ?
max max
m
I ;
2
ax RMS
f L
V V
V
R R
= =
+
Or V
max
2 2 110 155.56
RMS
V V = × = × =
m
155.56 155.56
I 152.5
1000 20 1020
ax
mA = = =
+
ii) DC load current I
DC
= ?
m
I 152.5
48.54
ax
DC
I mA
π π
= = =
iii) AC load current = I
RMS
=
max
2
I
=
152.5
= 76.25 mA
2
Or AC load current γ .i
dc
( ) 1.21
HWR
γ ∴ = = 1.21 x 68.66 = 83.07mA.
iv) DC load Voltage .
dc dc L
V i R =
= 48.54 x 10
3
x 1000 = 48.54 Volts
v) Total input power to the circuit
( )
2
RMS L F
I R R + = (76.25 X 10
3
)
2
(1000 + 20) = 5.93 W
vi) % regulation
20
100 100 2%
1000
f s
L
R R
R
+  
= × = × =

\ ¹
2 Q) A half wave rectifier uses was a diode with forward resistance of 100Ω. If the AC
input voltage is 220V (rms) and the load resistance is 2 kΩ, determine.
13 EDC UNITIII
13
13
i) I
max
, I
DC
& I
RMS
.
ii) PIV of the diode when the diode is ideal.
iii) Load output voltage
iv) DC output power & AC output
v) Ripple factor
vi) Transformer utilization factor
vii) Rectification efficiency. (May, 2001)
Solution:
Case (i)
max max
m
I &
2
ax rms
f L
V V
V
R R
= =
+
∴V
max
= V
rms
x 2 = 220V x 2 = 311V
m
m
m
311 311
I 148
100 2000 2100
I 148
47.1
I 148
74
2 2
ax
ax
DC
ax
RMS
mA
I mA
I mA
π π
= = =
+
= = =
= = =
Case (ii) PIV = V
max
= 311 V.
Case (iii) Load output voltage V
DC
= I
DC
.R
L
= 47.1 x 10
3
x 2000 = 94.2 Volts.
Case (iv) DC output power P
DC
= I
DC
.V
DC
= 47.1 x 10
3
x 94.2 = 4.4 watts.
AC power output =
( )
2
2 3
. R = 74 10 2000 = 10.9 W
RMS L
I
−
× ×
Case (v) Ripple factor (HWR) = 1.21
Case (vi)
2 2
2 2 2 2 2000
2100
L
f S L
R
TUF
R R R π π
(
 
= =
(

+ +
\ ¹
(
¸ ¸
= 0.287 (0.952) = 0.273.
Case (vii) Rectification efficiency
η = DC power delivered to the load / AC power input.
2 2 6
4.4 4.4
( ) (74) 10 (200 2000)
RMS f L
I R R
−
= =
+ × +
14 EDC UNITIII
14
14
4.4
0.383 38.3%
11.5
= = =
3 Q) Show that the maximum power output P
dc
= V
DC
x I
dc
in a half wave single phase
circuit when load resistance equals diode resistance R
f
. ( Sep.06, Dec.04)
SOLUTION:
I
dc
R
f
P
dc
= V
DC
.I
DC
= I
DC
.R
L
. I
DC
= I
DC
2
R
L
.
Where I
DC
= Vs /( R
f
+ R
L
)
Or
2
.
DC L
f L
Vs
P R
R R
 
=


+
\ ¹
2 2
2 2 2 2
.
2 2
S L
f L S L f L f L
L
V Vs R
R R R R R R R R
R
= =
+ + + +
2
2
2
DC
f
L f
L
Vs
P
R
R R
R
=
+ +
PDC will be maximum if denominator is minimum according to Maxima and Minima,
denominator (D) will be minimum.
2
0
2
L
f
L
f
L L L L L
dD
If
dR
R
dR dD d d
R
dR dR dR R dR
=
= + +
2 1
2
2 1 1 2
2 2
1 ( ) 0
1
1 ( 1) 0 1 0 1
f
L
f
f L f
L L
dD d
R RL
dR dL
R
R R R
R R
−
− −
= + +
−
= + − + = + + = −
If
2
2
= 0 . .,1 0
f
L L
R
dD
i e
dR R
− =
Or R
f
2
= R
L
2
Or R
f
= R
L
15 EDC UNITIII
15
15
P
DC
will be maximum when R
f
= R
L
4 Q) A 230V, 60 Hz voltage is applied to the primary of 5:1 step down center tapped
transformer used in a FWR having a load of 900Ω. If the diode resistance and
secondary coil resistance together has a resistance of 100Ω, determine:
a) DC voltage across the load
b) DC current flowing through the load
c) DC power delivered to the load
d) PIV across each diode
e) Ripple voltage and frequency.
(May, 2006)
900Ω
Given:
AC input – 230V, 60 Hz/
R
L
= 900Ω
R
S
+ R
f
= 100 Ω
Part (a)
DC voltage across load = ?
Voltage secondary of transformer = 230/5 = 46 V.
Each of half = 23 volts,(rms); V
rms
=23V; V
m
= ? V
rms
= V
max
(0.707)
Or V
max
=
23
32.53
0.707 0.707
rms
V
Volts = =
m
32.53
I 32.53
900 100
m
L S f
V
R R R
= = =
+ + +
mA
Part (b) DC current I
DC
= I
max
(0.636)
= 32.53 (0.636) = 20.69 mA.
V
RL
= I
DC
.R
L
= 20.69 x 10
3
x 900 = 18.62 volts
Part (c) DC power P
dc
= V
dc
. I
dc
= 18.62 x 20.69 x 10
3
= 3.85 milliwatt.
Part (d) PIV across each diode = V
max
x 2 = 32.53 x 2 = 65.06 volts
Part (e) Ripple voltage = ? Ripple factor =
Ripple Voltage
Load Voltage
V
γ
= γ .VRL = 0.483 x 18.62 = 8.99 volts
Ripple frequence = 2 x Input source frequency
16 EDC UNITIII
16
16
= 2 x 60 H
z
= 120 H
z
.
5 Q) In a full wave rectifier the required DC voltage is 9V and diode drop is 0.8V.
Calculate ac rms input voltage required in case of bridge rectifier and full wave
rectifier. (Dec. 2005)
Solution: Given V
DC
required = 9V.
V
d
= 0.8V
Case – I
BRIDGE RECTIFIER:  Input DC voltage required = 9+2(0.8) = 10.6V
max
max
max
2
or V V .
2
1 10.6
. . 11.77
2 2 2 2 2
DC DC
rms DC
V
V
V
V V volts
π
π
π π
= =
×
= = = =
Case II FWR.
Input DC voltage required = 9+0.8 = 9.8
Input RMS voltage required =
. 9.8
10.88
2 2 2 2
DC
V
volts
π π
= =
In two half windings V
rms
= 2 x 10.88 = 21.76 Volts
6 Q) A full wave rectifier has a center tap transformer of 100 – 0 – 100V and each one
of the diodes is rated at I
max
= 400mA and I
ar
= 150mA. Neglecting the
voltagedrop across the diode calculate (June,2005)
a) The value of load resistor that gives largest DC power output.
b) DC load voltage
c) DC load current
d) PIV of each diode.
Diode Ratings:
I
an
= 150 mA
I
max
= 400 mA
Solution: 
a) R
L
= ? for max P
dc
. P
dc
= I
dc
2
.R
L
Max. I
dc
that can be handled by the diode = 150 mA.
Max. Peak current that can be delivered to the load = ?
17 EDC UNITIII
17
17
m
m
3
m
max
m max
max
3
m
I 2
I . 2
I 150 10 235.6
2
I ; 2 100 2 141.4
141.4
600
I 235.6 10
ax
dc
ax dc
ax
ax rms
L
L
ax
I
I
mA
V
V V volts
R
V
R
π
π
π
−
−
=
=
= × × =
= = = =
= = = Ω
×
b) Load voltage V
DC
= I
DC
.R
L
= 150 x 10
3
x 600 = 90 volts
c) DC load current I
dc
= 150 mA
d) PIV of each diode = 2V
max
= 2 x 141.4 = 282.8 volts
7 Q) Draw the circuit diagram of a FWR using center tapped transformer to obtain an
output DC voltage of 18V at 200 mA and V
DC
no load equals 20V. Find the
transformer ratings. (Dec. 2004)
Solution:
V
DC
= 18V
V
DCNL
= 20V.
I
dc
= 200 mA
V
DCNL
– V
DCFL
= I
DC
(R
S
+ R
f
)
20 – 18 = 200 x 10
3
(R
S
+R
f
) or R
S
+ R
f
= 2 / 200 x 10
3
= 10Ω
Transformer rating voltage (V
rms
) = ?
max
max
. 20
31.44
2 2
31.44
22.24
2 2
DC
rms
V
V volts
V
V volts
π π ×
= = =
= = =
∴ Transformer rating is Input 220 V Ac.
Output 22 – 0 – 22V (RMS)
DC current 200 mA.
18 EDC UNITIII
18
18
CAPACITOR FILTER WITH HWR
Cut In angle – wt
2
(a) Capacitor charging through diode
(Wt
2
– Wt
1
)
Cut out angle = Wt
1
(b) Capacitor discharging through R
L
Wt
1
= π  tan
–1
WCR
L
(Wt
1
to Wt
2
)
(c) Average (DC) voltage with fitter
(d) Average (DC) voltage without fitter.
CAPACITOR FITTER WITH FWR.
Ripple factor
1
4 3
L
r
fCR
= Ripple freq
FWR
= 2 ripple freq
HWR
.
Inductor Filter with HWR.
19 EDC UNITIII
19
19
INDUCTOR FILTER WITH FWR.
Ripple factor
1
3 2
L
L
R
W
γ =
 Ripple magnitude reduces
with increase of L

L Section Filter π ππ π Section Filter
r = 0.83 / LC Critical Inductance γ = 3300/C
1
C
2
L.R
L
L
C
= R
L
/1130
COMPARISON OF FILTERS: 
1) A capacitor filter provides V
m
volts at less load current. But regulation is poor.
2) An Inductor filter gives wire ripple voltage for low load currents. It is used for
high load currents
3) L – Section filter gives a ripple factor independent of load current. Voltage
regulation can be improved by use of bleeder resistance
4) Multiple L – Section filter or π filters give much less ripple the single L –
Section.
BLEEDER RESISTANCES: 
1) V
o
of L Section filter at no load = V
m
.
V
o
of L Section filter at any load
2
m
V
π
The output voltage falls sharply from no load to same load.
By adding bleeder resistance R
B
, I min. is increased and thereby avoiding sudden
fall of output voltage V
o
.
R
B
< 800 Lc
2) For L – section filter to work properly LC ≥
3
RL
ω
.
In the absence of R
L
(When no load ES connected keeps the filter functioning
properly.
20 EDC UNITIII
20
20
SUMMARY OF FILTER INFORMATION: 
Sl.
No
Parameter None L C L
Section
π section
1 V
DCNL
0.636 V
m
0.436 V
m
V
m
V
m
V
m
2 V
DCNL
0.636 V
m
0.636 V
m
V
m
– 4170
I
dc
.C
RL
0.636V
m
4170
dc
m
I
V
C
−
3 Ripple
factor γ
0.48
16000
L
R
L
2410
L
CR
0.83
LC
1 1
3330
L
CC L R
Where C in µ F and f = 60 Hz.
L om Henms
R ohms
V
m
Volts
EMITTER FOLLOWER REGULATIOR
Un Regulated power supply unit consists of transformer, rectifier and filter.
PROBLEMS:
Output voltage varies as the load current varies
 Output voltage varies as the input voltage varies
 Output voltage varies with the temperature
REMEDY:

Voltage stabilization ratio Sv = ∆Vo / ∆Vi ≈ Rz / (RZ + R.)
Distance of Emitter follower regulator.
1) i.e., S
v
requires increase of R → V
CE
↑ →Power dissipation ↑.
2) Output voltage cannot be varied i.e., variable power supply is not possible.
3) Changes in V
BE
and V
R
due to temperature variations appear at the output.
4) An electronic control (feed back) is used to counter above problem.
21 EDC UNITIII
21
21
SERIES VOLTAGE REGULATOR.
Vo =
1
2
1 2
R BE
R
V R Vo
R R
+ +
+
Or
1
2
1 2
o o R BE
R
V V V V
R R
− = +
+
( )
1
2
1 2
1 2 1
2
1 2
2
2
1 2
2 1
2
2
1
2
2
1
( )
1
o R BE
o R BE
o R BE
o R BE
o R BE
R
V V V
R R
R R R
V V V
R R
R
V V V
R R
R R
V V V
R
R
V V V
R
 
− = +

+
\ ¹
  + +
= +

+
\ ¹
 
= +

+
\ ¹
  +
= +

\ ¹
 
= + +

\ ¹
11 Q) If η = 0.8, V
BB
= 15V and V
D
= 0.7V. Find the value of V
P
.
Vp = η V
BB
+ V
D
= 0.8 x 15 + 0.7 = 12.7 Volts
22 EDC UNITIII
22
22
RELAXATION
OSCILLATOR
PNPN DIODE (SHOCK LEY DIODE)
Initially UJT is cut off and capacitor
is charging slowly.
*Anode is applied with +V
e
voltage (Wrt
to cathode)
 When Ve = V
P
, UJT conducts
heavily and capacitor discharges
completely,
*J
1
is forward biased J
2
is reverse biased
 UJT cut off and capacitor charges
slowly again.
*Anode current is very small (leakage
current of J
2
(equivalent to switch off)
 Output across capacitor is a saw
tooth wave.
*When you increase anode volt everse bias of J
2
increased and it breaks
down (Avalanche BD)
*Heavy anode current flows (and equivalent to on
switch)
*To make it switch off,wehave to reduce the
anode voltage such that anode current is very
small less than holding Current I
H
23 EDC UNITIII
23
23
6 a) Q)TUSIII
Define the terms as referred to FWR circuit.
i) PIV
ii) Average DC voltage
iii) RMS current
iv) Ripple factor. ( May 2007)
A. i) PIV
Peal Inverse voltage (PIV) is the maximum voltage across the reverse biased
(diode during the half cycle when diode is not conducting).
It is equal to 2 V
m
for full wave rectifier.
ii) Average DC voltage (V
DC
)
It is the voltage measured by a D
C
voltmeter across the load resistance R
L
.
V
DC
= I
DL
. R
L
. & V
DC
= 0.636 V
max.
for FWR.
iii) RMS current ( I
RMS
)
If the root of mean of square of instantaneous current and given by
( )
1/ 2
2
2
m m
0
1
I sin 0.707I
2
RMS
I
π
θ
π
(
= =
(
¸ ¸
∫
for FWR.
iv) Ripple Factor (r)
It is defined as the ratio of RMS value of alternate current component and average
current component flowing through the load resistance.
2
1
rms
dc
I
I
γ
 
= −

\ ¹
and γ = 0.483 for FWR.
1 b) Q) (TUSIII)
A full wave rectifier circuit is fed from a transformer having a center tapped
secondary winding. The rms voltage from either end of secondary to center tap is
30V. If diode forward resistance is 5Ω and that of secondary is 10Ω for a load of
900Ω calculate.
i) Power delivered to the load
ii) % regulation at full load
iii) efficiency at full load
iv) TUF of secondary (August, 2007)
24 EDC UNITIII
24
24
SOLUTION: 
Part (i)
Power delivered P
dc
2
.
DC L
I R =
I
dc
=I
m
x 0.636
m
I
m
S f L
V
R R R
=
+ +
V
m
= ? V
rms
= 0.707 V
m
or
0.707
rms
m
V
V =
or
30
40.43
707
m
V = = volts
m
2 3 2
40.43
I 44.18
10 5 900
0.636; Im 0.636 44.18 28.09
(28.09 10 ) .900 710 .
m
S f
L
dc
dc dc L
V
mA
R R R
I mA
P I R mw
−
= = =
+ + + +
= = × =
= = × =
Part (ii)
% Regulation =
5 10
100 1.67%
900
f S
L
R R
R
+
+
= × =
Parr (iii)
Efficiency at full load η
0.812
900
0.812 79.86%
900 5 10
L
f S L
R
R R R
= ×
+ +
= × =
+ +
Part (iv)
TUF of Primary = 81.2% = 0.812
TUF of Secondary = 2 x 0.287 = 0.574
Average TUF =
0.812 0.574
0.693
2
+
=
3 b) Q) TUSIII
A 3 K resistive load is to be supplied with a DC voltage of 300V from ac voltage
of adequate magnitude and 50Hz frequency by full wave rectification. The LC
filter is used along the rectifier. Design the Header resistance, turns ratio of the
transformer, VA rating of transformer and PIV rating of the diodes.
(August 2007)
25 EDC UNITIII
25
25
Solution: 
V
DC
= 300V
R
L
= 3K
To find out
i) R
B
= ? (ii) N
1
:N
2
= ? (iii) VA rating of transformer (iv) PIV of diode
(V
rms
, I
dc
)
Part (iii) V
rms
= ? I
dc
= ? I
dc
=
300
100
0.636
dc
L
V
mA
R
= =
With LC filter (FWR)
2
.
m
dc dc
V
V I R
π
= −
Where R = r
s
+r
f
+r
L
where r
L
is the internal resistance of L
Let us assume R = 0 Ω
Then
2
0.636
m
dc m
V
V V
π
= =
Or
300
471.69
0.636 0.636
m
m
V
V volts = = =
V
rms
= 0.707, V
m
= 0.707 x 471.69 = 333.5 volts ≈ 330V
∴ VA rating of transformer is 220V/330 – 0 – 330V, 100 mA.
PARTII
Input is 220V Ac.
Then turns ratio N1:N2 = 220 : 660 = 1:3
iv) PIV of each diode in FWR = 2V
m
= 2 x 471.69 = 943.38 Volts.
Part – I
RB < 800 LC Where Lc = R
L
/ 3w = 3000/3 x 2 x π x 50 = 10/π = 3.18
RB < 800 x 3.18 = 2544 Ω ≈ 2500Ω.
4.b) Q)TUSIII
A HWR circuit has a filter capacitor of 1200µF and is connected to a load of 400.
The rectifier is connected to a 50Hz, 120 vrms source. It takes 2 m.sec. for the
capacitor to recharge during each cycle. Calculate the mini value of the repetitive
surge current for which diode should be rated. (August, 2007)
26 EDC UNITIII
26
26
Solution: 
Given:
Frequency = 50Hz. Time T = 1/f = 1/50Hz =
1000
50
m/sec. = 20 m/sec.
Capacitor charges to V
m
and discharges through R
L
.
Surge current = ?
m c
S
S f
V V
I
R R
−
=
+
Where Vc is voltage across the capacitor at the end of previous cycle.
V
rms
=
2
m
V
or V
m
= 2 x V
rms
= 2 x 120 = 240 Volts
V
c
= V(e
t/cR
) – Capacitor discharges through R
L
.
Here V = 240 V 1/= V
m
.
t = T discharging = Time – T charging
= 20 – 2 = 18 msec.
CR = 1200 x 10
6
x 400 = 480 m/sec.
3
3
18 10 18
480 10 480
240 240
240 0.963 231.12 231
Vc e e
volts
−
−
×
− −
×
 
 
 = =


\ ¹
\ ¹
= × = ≈
Surge current =
m c
s
S f
V V
I
R R
−
=
+
Where R
s
& R
f
are not given. Let us assume R
S
= 0Ω & R
f
= 25Ω
Then
240 231 9
360 .
25 25
s
I mA
−
= = =
5 b) Q)TUSIII
A FWR circuit uses two silicon diodes with a forward resistance of 20Ω
each. A DC volt meter connected across the load of 1 KΩ reads 55.4 volts.
Calculate
i) Irms (ii) Average voltage across each diode
iii) Ripple factor (iv) Transformer secondary voltage ratings.
27 EDC UNITIII
27
27
Solution: 
Given:
R
f
= 20Ω
V
DC
= 55.4 Volts
R
L
= 1 KΩ
Part – I
I
rms
= I
m
x 0.707 I
DC
= 0.636 I
m
. Or I
m
= I
DC
/0.636
I
DC
= V
DC
/ R
L
= 55.4 / 1000 = 55.4 mA.
I
m
= I
DC
/ 0.636 = 55.4/0.636 = 87.1mA.
I
rms
= 0.707 x I
m
= 87.1 x 0.707 = 61.58 mA,
Part – II
Average voltage (V
DC
) across each diode V
d
(
DC
) = ?
V
d
(
DC
) = I
DC
.R
f
= 55.4 x 10
3
x 20 = 1.1 volts
Part – III
Ripple factor γ for FWR is 0.482.
Part – IV
Transformer secondary ratings voltage are in rms volts
V
rms
= 0.707 of V
m
& V
m
0.636
DC
V
=
V
DC
across one half of secondary = V
RL+
V
d
= 55.4 + 1.1 = 56.5 volts
88.84
0.636
DC
m
V
V Volts = =
V
rms
= 0.707 x 88.84 = 62.8 ≈ 63 volts
Transformer secondary voltage rating is 63 – 0 – 63 Volts (rms).
3 a)Q) Derive the expression for ripple factor for FWR with L section filter.
(August, 2007)
Solution:
28 EDC UNITIII
28
28
 Ripple factor
rms
DC
V
V
γ
′
=
 Object of LC filter here is to suppress the ripple frequency components i.e.,
2f.
 To suppress 2f, the reactance offered by L must be very very high compared
to reactance offered by C. i.e., X
L
>> X
C
and R=(r
f
+r
s
+r
L
) is also negligible
 Then alternating current through the filter circuit is given by
4 1
.
3 2
2 2 1 2 1
. . .
3 3
m
rms
L
m
dc
L L
V
I
X
V
V
X X
π
π
′ =
= =
 Ripple voltage across R
L
= Ripple voltage across X
C
=
1
rms
V
 Or
1 1
2
2 1
. . .
3
rms ms C dc C
V I x V x
x
= =
 Ripple factor
1
2 2
. . .
3 3
rms dc c C
dc dc L L
V V X X
V V X X
γ = = =
 Or
2 1 1
. .
3 2 2 wc wL
γ =

8 a)Q) TUSIII
In a full wave single phase bridge rectifier circuit, can the transformer and
load be interchanged? Justify your statement.
Solution: 
Circuit Diagram of bridge rectifier with transformer and load interchanged
is given below.
If Transformer and load are interchanged as shown in the figure (b) above, for
positive half cycle, i.e., point D is positive wrt point C, current flows through D1 and
D2. At the same time current also flows through D4 and D3. The potential at point A
is equal to point B and there is no current through RL and no output voltage available.
29 EDC UNITIII
29
29
The current through the diodes will be very high as diode resistance ® is very small.
Therefore diodes may be burnt.
For negative half cycle, when point ‘D’ is negative not ‘C’, all the diodes will be
reverse biased and only reverse saturation current flows. Again points ‘A’ and ‘B’
will be at same potential and no current flows through R
L
. No output voltage
available.
Therefore, there will not be any output voltage if we interchange the load and the
transformer.
5 a) Q) TUSIII
Explain about regulation characteristics of a zener diode with a circuit and
wave forms.
Characteristics of Zener Diode.

As shown in the graph zener
diode works as a normal
diode when it is forward
biased.
 In reverse bias, when it
breaks down,voltage across it
will be constant.

 This phenomenon is used for
oltage regulation.
Regulated out put.
As shown in the graph above, a regulated output voltage (10V) can be obtained
being a zener regulation. If the input voltage is less than zener voltage output voltage is
approximate is equal to input voltage and will be varying with input voltage. Once input
30 EDC UNITIII
30
30
voltage is more than the zener voltage (V2) the zener diode conducts heavily and voltage
across it will be constant at V
Z
.
Remaining voltage i.e., V in – V
Z
will be developed across the series resistance
Rs. The value of Rs is such selected that the current flowing if (which is equal to the
current flow through zener when no – load) should be less than the rated (maximum
current) of zener diode.
6 b) Q. TUSIII
A full wave rectifier (FWR) supplies a load requiring 300 V at 200 mA, Calculate
the transformer secondary voltage for?
(i) a capacitor input filter using a capacitor of 10 µ F
R
L
= 300/200x10
7
= 1.5 K
300V
1
200mA
10µF
Where R = X
S
+X
f
+X
L
; 50
4
dc
dc m
I
V V f Hz
fc
= − =
2
.
dc dc
Vm
V I R
π
= −
3
5
200 10
300
4 10 10
m
V
−
−
×
= −
× ×
2
300 200.0
m
V
π
= −
= V
m
– 100 V
m
= 300 x π/2 = 471
V
rms
= 0.707 Vm V
rms
= 0.707 x 471
= 0.707 x 400V = 282.8 ≈ 283 V. = 333 Volts
Transformer sec voltage = 2x283 = 566 volts Tr. rating 333 – 0 – 333 V.
7(b) Q. A full wave rectified voltage of 18 V peak is applied across a 500 F µ filter
capacitor. Calculate the ripple and D.C.voltages if the load takes a current of 100
mA
V
m
= 18V V
r
= ? V
r
= I
dc
/ Zfc.
C = 500µF V
dc
= ? V
dc
= V
m
– I
dc
/4fc.
I
dc
= 100 mA
3
6
100 10
2
2 50 500 10
V V
γ
−
−
×
= =
× × ×
3
3
100 10
18
4 50 500 10
dc
V
−
−
×
= −
× × ×
= 18 – 1 = 17V.
IV
15V I
dc
= ?
100Ω 10000 V
dc
= ?
µF
4
dc
m
I
V
fc
−
31 EDC UNITIII
31
31
V
rms
= 0.707 V
m
.
4
dc
dc L m
c
I
I R V
f
= −
15
21.2
0.707 0.707
rms
m
V
V V = = =
6
.100 20.2
4 50 10000 10
dc
dc
I
I
−
= −
× × ×
V
dc
= I
dc
.R
L
100 I
dc
= 20.2 – I
dc
/2
= 212 x 10
–3
x 100 100 I
dc
=(I
dc
)/2 = 21.2
= 21.2 Volts 100 I
dc
= 20.2
I
dc
= 21.2/100.5 = 212 mA.
9b) Q. Draw the circuit diagram of a full wave rectifier using center tapped transformer
obtain an output DC voltage V
dc
= 18 V at 200 mA and V
dc
no load = 20V also
mention transformer rating and sketch the input and output wave forms.
Solution:
V
DCNL
= 20V V
rms
= 0.707V
m
18V1 V
rms
= ? V
DC
= 636 V
m
.
200 mA. V
rms
= 0.707 V
m
= 0.707 x 31.45
= 22.24
11C)Q.TUSIII
In a full wave rectifier using an LC – filter L = 10H, C= 100µ F and R
L
=
500Ω. Calculate I
dc,
V
dc,
for an input V
i
= 30 sin (100 t π )
Solution:
10H
I
DC
= ?
100µF V
dc
= ?
500 Ω
V
i
= 30 sin (100 πt) V
m
= 30 V
32 EDC UNITIII
32
32
f = 50 Hz.
V
dc
= 2 V
m
/π  I
dc
. R. When R = r
s
+ r
f
+ r
L
Say R = 0
2 30 2
19.1
19.1
38.2 .
500
m
dc
dc
dc
L
V
V Volts
V
I mA
R
π π
×
= = =
= = =
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