# Math 444 Homework #4

**(1.4) #1. Find the quotient and remainder, according to the division algorithm,
**

when n is divided by m.

n = 42, m = 9

Solution: The multiple of 9 that is just to the left of 42 on the number line is 36 = 4 9,

so q = 4. The remainder is r = 42 −36 = 6.

(1.4) #2. Find the quotient and remainder, according to the division algorithm,

when n is divided by m.

n = −42, m = 9

Solution: The multiple of 9 that is just to the left of −42 on the number line is −45 =

−5 9, so q = −5. The remainder is r = −42 −(−45) = 3.

(1.4) #14. Find the number of generators of a cyclic group having order 12.

Solution: In Z

12

, the generators are the numbers 0, . . . , 11 that are relatively prime to

12. These are 1, 5, 7, 11.

If we write the group multiplicatively, G = ¸a) where the order of a is 12, then the

generators are those a

i

where i is relatively prime to 12. So the generators are a, a

5

, a

7

, a

11

.

(1.4) #15. Find the number of generators of a cyclic group having order 60.

Solution: In Z

60

, the generators are the numbers 0, . . . , 59 that are relatively prime to

12. These are 1, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 49, 53, 59.

Written multiplicatively, G = ¸a) where the order of a is 60, the generators are

a, a

7

, a

11

, a

13

, a

17

, a

19

, a

23

, a

29

, a

31

, a

37

, a

41

, a

43

, a

47

, a

49

, a

53

, a

59

.

(1.4) #16. Find the number of elements in the cyclic subgroup of Z

30

generated by

25.

Solution: The “hard” way to do this is to actually list all the elements of ¸25) ≤ Z

30

.

This isn’t actually diﬃcult, since the subgroup is so small, ¸25) = ¦25, 20, 15, 10, 5, 0¦. The

order of the subgroup is 6.

The clever way to ﬁnd the order is to use the theorem: In Z

n

,

¸

¸

¸i)

¸

¸

=

n

gcd(n, i)

. Hence,

¸

¸

¸25)

¸

¸

=

30

gcd(30, 25)

=

30

5

= 6.

(1.4) #19. Find the number of elements in the cyclic subgroup of C

∗

generated by

1 + i

√

2

.

Solution: Let’s list the cyclic subgroup. Call α =

1 + i

√

2

. Then

α =

1 + i

√

2

α

2

=

_

1 + i

√

2

_

2

= i

α

3

= α

2

α = i

_

1 + i

√

2

_

=

−1 + i

√

2

α

4

= (α

2

)

2

= i

2

= −1

α

5

= α

4

α = −α =

−1 −i

√

2

α

6

= (α

2

)

3

= i

3

= −i

α

7

= α

6

α =

−i(1 + i)

√

2

=

1 −i

√

2

α

8

= (α

4

)

2

= (−1)

2

= 1 Aha!

The smallest exponent n such that α

n

= 1 is 8, so the order of the subgroup generated by

α is 8.

(1.4) #20. Find the number of elements in the cyclic subgroup of C

∗

generated by

1 + i.

Solution: If we consider the complex numbers to be a plane, so that the number a + bi

corresponds to the point (a, b), then the distance between a + bi and 0 is

_

a

2

+ b

2

. For

example, the distance from 1 + i to 0 is

_

1

1

+ 1

2

=

√

2. Let’s denote this distance by

|a + bi| =

_

a

2

+ b

2

. Notice that |a + bi| =

_

(a + bi)(a −bi). Hence,

|(a + bi)(c + di)| =

_

(a + bi)(c + di)(a −bi)(c −di)

=

_

(a + bi)(a −bi)(c + di)(c −di) = |a + bi| |c + di|

But then |(1 + i)

n

| = |1 + i|

n

=

_

√

2

_

n

for all n ∈ Z

+

. Hence, (1 + i)

n

,= 1 for all

n ∈ Z

+

, since |1| = 1 ,=

_

√

2

_

n

for n ≥ 1. That is, just ‘half’ of the cyclic subgroup

generated by 1 + i contains an inﬁnite number of elements, so ¸1 + i) is inﬁnite.

(1.4) #21. Find all subgroups of Z

12

and draw the lattice diagram for the subgroups.

Solution: Since Z

12

is cyclic, all its subgroups are cyclic. Hence, it’s reasonably easy to

ﬁnd all the subgroups. From Exercise 14, we know that the generators are 1, 5, 7, 11, so

¸1) = ¸5) = ¸7) = ¸11) = Z

12

. We use the formula [a[ =

12

gcd(12, a)

to ﬁll in the following

table:

a 2 3 4 6 8 9 10

[a[ 6 4 3 2 3 4 6

Now, ¸2) = ¦0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10¦. Since 10 also generates a subgroup of order 6, we have

¸10) = ¸2).

Inside this subgroup, ¸4) = ¦0, 4, 8¦ ⊆ ¸2). Since 8 also has order 3, ¸4) = ¸8).

Next, look at ¸6) = ¦0, 6¦ ⊆ ¸2).

We still need to look at ¸3) = ¦0, 3, 6, 9¦. Since 9 also has order 4, ¸3) = ¸9). Notice also

that ¸6) ≤ ¸3).

The diagram is:

Z

12

¸ ¸

¸3) ¸2)

¸ ¸ ¸

¸6) ¸4)

¸ ¸

¸0)

(1.4) #27. Find all orders of subgroups of Z

20

.

Solution: Since Z

20

is cyclic, it’s subgroups are all cyclic. In fact, we know that the

orders of subgroups are given by

20

gcd(20, i)

, where i = 0, 1, . . . , 19. These numbers turn

out to be: 1, 2, 4, 5, 10, 20.

(1.4) #30. List the elements of the subgroup of Z

12

generated by ¦4, 6¦.

Solution: Notice that 2 4 + 6 = 2 in Z

12

, so the subgroup contains 2, and hence ¸2).

We also see that we’ll never get odd numbers (mod 12), so ¸2) = ¦even numbers¦ is

as big as the subgroup could be. That is, the subgroup of Z

12

generated by ¦4, 6¦ is

¸2) = ¦0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10¦.

(1.4) #36. Give an example of a ﬁnite group that is not cyclic, or explain why no

example exists.

Solution: The smallest example is V , the Klein 4-group. Call the elements of V =

¦e, a, b, c¦. The group table is:

e a b c

e e a b c

a a e c b

b b c e a

c c b a e

Notice that ¸e) = ¦e¦, ¸a) = ¦e, a¦, ¸b) = ¦e, b¦, ¸c) = ¦e, c¦. That is, V fails to be

generated by any of its elements. So V is not cyclic.

(1.4) #37. Give an example of an inﬁnite group that is not cyclic, or explain why

no example exists.

Solution: Most of the inﬁnite groups we’ve seen are not cyclic. For example, G = (R, +).

To see this, suppose G = ¸a) for some a ∈ R

∗

. But ¸a) = ¦na [ n ∈ Z¦ is just the integer

multiples of a. This has cardinality ℵ

0

, which is too small to cover all of R. Or we can

notice that

a

2

/ ∈ ¸a), since for

a

2

to be na for some n ∈ Z, we would need

1

2

∈ Z, which

isn’t true.

(1.4) #43. Find the primitive eighth roots of unity.

Solution: The primitive nth roots of unity are the generators of U

n

. Now

U

n

= ¦z ∈ C [ z

n

= 1¦ =

_

cos

_

2πk

n

_

+ i sin

_

2πk

n

_

k = 0, 1, . . . , n −1

_

By DeMoivre’s formula, U

8

is cyclic and generated by α = cos

_

2π

8

_

+i sin

_

2π

8

_

=

1 + i

√

2

.

The generators are those α

i

with i relatively prime to 8. Hence, the generators of U

8

are

α, α

3

, α

5

, α

7

. These are the complex numbers

±1 ±i

√

2

.

(1.4) #51. Let G be a group and suppose a ∈ G generates a cyclic subgroup of order

2 and is the unique such element. Show that ax = xa for all x ∈ G.

Proof: Let x ∈ G be any element and consider xax

−1

. Then

_

xax

−1

_

2

=

_

xax

−1

_ _

xax

−1

_

= xax

−1

xax

−1

= xaax

−1

= xx

−1

= e.

Since a generates a nontrivial subgroup, a ,= e. Hence, xax

−1

,= xex

−1

= e. So xax

−1

generates a nontrivial subgroup of G. But

_

xax

−1

_

2

= e, so this cyclic subgroup has order

2. The only element of G that generates a cyclic subgroup of order 2 is a, so it must be

that xax

−1

= a. But then, xax

−1

x = ax, so xa = ax. This works no matter what x is, so

xa = ax for all x ∈ G.

Hence. i) 30 30 25 = = = 6. Hence.4) #16. 25) 5
(1. 15. For √ example. 2 1+i Solution: Let’s list the cyclic subgroup. Let’s denote this distance by a + bi = a2 + b2 . so that the number a + bi corresponds to the point (a. since the subgroup is so small. Find the number of elements in the cyclic subgroup of C∗ generated by 1+i √ . Solution: If we consider the complex numbers to be a plane. b). 10. so the order of the subgroup generated by α is 8.
. 5. i = . the distance from 1 + i to 0 is 11 + 12 = 2. gcd(30. Call α = √ . Then 2 1+i α= √ 2 2 1+i √ α2 = =i 2 1+i −1 + i α3 = α2 · α = i √ = √ 2 2 4 2 2 2 α = (α ) = i = −1 −1 − i α5 = α4 · α = −α = √ 2 α6 = (α2 )3 = i3 = −i 1−i −i(1 + i) √ = √ α7 = α6 · α = 2 2 α8 = (α4 )2 = (−1)2 = 1 Aha! The smallest exponent n such that αn = 1 is 8. then the distance between a + bi and 0 is a2 + b2 . Solution: The “hard” way to do this is to actually list all the elements of 25 ≤ Z30 . The order of the subgroup is 6. 0}.(1. Find the number of elements in the cyclic subgroup of C∗ generated by 1 + i.4) #20. 25 = {25.
(1. gcd(n. Notice that a + bi = (a + bi)(a − bi). Find the number of elements in the cyclic subgroup of Z30 generated by 25.4) #19. 20. This isn’t actually diﬃcult. n The clever way to ﬁnd the order is to use the theorem: In Zn .

Solution: Since Z20 is cyclic. These numbers turn orders of subgroups are given by gcd(20. List the elements of the subgroup of Z12 generated by {4. Find all orders of subgroups of Z20 . a) table: a 2 3 4 6 8 9 10 |a| 6 4 3 2 3 4 6 Now. we know that the 20 . 4. (1 + i)n = 1 for all √ n n ∈ Z+ . we know that the generators are 1. 10}. From Exercise 14. 8. We still need to look at 3 = {0. it’s subgroups are all cyclic. 5. In fact. just ‘half’ of the cyclic subgroup generated by 1 + i contains an inﬁnite number of elements. 4. 1. . Hence. 5. Hence. Next.4) #21. 6.(a + bi)(c + di) = (a + bi)(c + di)(a − bi)(c − di) = (a + bi)(a − bi)(c + di)(c − di) = a + bi · c + di √ n n But then (1 + i)n = 1 + i = 2 for all n ∈ Z+ . . 10.4) #27. 3. . we have 10 = 2 . 3 = 9 . 6. 9}. Notice also that 6 ≤ 3 . 20. where i = 0.
(1. i) out to be: 1. it’s reasonably easy to ﬁnd all the subgroups. We use the formula |a| = to ﬁll in the following gcd(12. Find all subgroups of Z12 and draw the lattice diagram for the subgroups. so 1 + i is inﬁnite. 2. 4 = {0. The diagram is: Z12 3 6 0 2 4
(1. 7. 6}. 6} ⊆ 2 . . 4. look at 6 = {0. since 1 = 1 = 2 for n ≥ 1. Solution: Since Z12 is cyclic. 11. 2. Since 10 also generates a subgroup of order 6. 8} ⊆ 2 . Inside this subgroup.4) #30. That is. so 12 1 = 5 = 7 = 11 = Z12 . Since 8 also has order 3.
. all its subgroups are cyclic. 19.
(1. Since 9 also has order 4. 2 = {0. 4 = 8 .

2. These are the complex numbers √ . b. Give an example of an inﬁnite group that is not cyclic.4) #37. V fails to be generated by any of its elements. the generators of U8 are ±1 ± i α. Give an example of a ﬁnite group that is not cyclic. c}. Hence. Now 2πk 2πk Un = {z ∈ C | z n = 1} = cos + i sin k = 0. Or we can a a 1 notice that ∈ a . since for / to be na for some n ∈ Z. 2
. 6. That is. Solution: The smallest example is V . so 2 = {even numbers} is as big as the subgroup could be. That is. so the subgroup contains 2.
(1. c = {e. suppose G = a for some a ∈ R∗ . the subgroup of Z12 generated by {4.4) #43. But a = {na | n ∈ Z} is just the integer multiples of a. This has cardinality ℵ0 . a.
(1. +). α3 . 10}. 8 8 2 The generators are those αi with i relatively prime to 8. Solution: The primitive nth roots of unity are the generators of Un . n − 1 n n By DeMoivre’s formula. c}. and hence 2 . . . or explain why no example exists. . .Solution: Notice that 2 · 4 + 6 = 2 in Z12 . 6} is 2 = {0. 1. 4. Solution: Most of the inﬁnite groups we’ve seen are not cyclic. b = {e. Call the elements of V = {e. a}. we would need ∈ Z. which 2 2 2 isn’t true. We also see that we’ll never get odd numbers (mod 12). So V is not cyclic. α7 . a = {e. which is too small to cover all of R. U8 is cyclic and generated by α = cos 2π 2π 1+i +i sin = √ . G = (R. For example. or explain why no example exists. The group table is: e a b c e e a b c a a e c b b b c e a c c b a e
Notice that e = {e}. α5 . 8.4) #36.
(1. Find the primitive eighth roots of unity. b}. the Klein 4-group. To see this.

Then 2 xax−1 = xax−1 xax−1 = xax−1 xax−1 = xaax−1 = xx−1 = e. But then. so this cyclic subgroup has order 2. xax−1 x = ax. But xax−1 = e. Proof: Let x ∈ G be any element and consider xax−1 . This works no matter what x is. The only element of G that generates a cyclic subgroup of order 2 is a.(1. Show that ax = xa for all x ∈ G. a = e. xax−1 = xex−1 = e. so xa = ax. so it must be that xax−1 = a. So xax−1 2 generates a nontrivial subgroup of G. Since a generates a nontrivial subgroup. Let G be a group and suppose a ∈ G generates a cyclic subgroup of order 2 and is the unique such element. Hence.
.4) #51. so xa = ax for all x ∈ G.