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All machines and structural designs are problems in fatigue because the forces of Nature are always at work and each object must respond in some fashion. Carl Osgood, Fatigue Design

Image: Aloha Airlines flight 243, a Boeing 737-200, taken April 28, 1988. The mid-flight fuselage failure was caused by corrosion assisted fatigue.

Fatigue Failure

It has been recognized that a metal subjected to a repetitive or fluctuating stress will fail at a stress much lower than that required to cause failure on a single application of load. Failures occurring under conditions of dynamic loading are called fatigue failures.

Fatigue failure is characterized by three stages Crack Initiation Crack Propagation Final Fracture

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Fatigue

• Fatigue is the name given to failure in response to alternating loads (as opposed to monotonic straining). • Instead of measuring the resistance to fatigue failure through an upper limit to strain (as in ductility), the typical measure of fatigue resistance is expressed in terms of numbers of cycles to failure. For a given number of cycles (required in an application), sometimes the stress (that can be safely endured by the material) is specified.

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**Fatigue: general characteristics
**

• Primary design criterion in rotating parts.

• Fatigue as a name for the phenomenon based on the notion of a material becoming “tired”, i.e. failing at less than its nominal strength. • Cyclical strain (stress) leads to fatigue failure. • Occurs in metals and polymers but rarely in ceramics. • Also an issue for “static” parts, e.g. bridges. • Cyclic loading stress limit<static stress capability.

MAE dept., SJSU

Ken Youssefi

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**Fatigue: general characteristics
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• Most applications of structural materials involve cyclic loading; any net tensile stress leads to fatigue. • Fatigue failure surfaces have three characteristic features – A (near-)surface defect as the origin of the crack – Striations corresponding to slow, intermittent crack growth – Dull, fibrous brittle fracture surface (rapid growth). • Life of structural components generally limited by cyclic loading, not static strength. • Most environmental factors shorten life.

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Crack initiation site Fracture zone Propagation zone.Jack hammer component. shows no yielding before fracture. striation 6 .

Surgen discontinuidades microscopicas y submicroscopicas en la superficie o por debajo de ella. etc. etc. forjado. orificios. donde ocurren concentraciones del esfuerzo. se propagó casi de lado a lado de la sección transversal. engranes. ensamble inapropiado. • Elementos que giran y/o se deslizan entre si (cojinetes. Fallo por fatiga La falla por fatiga se debe a la formation y propagation de grietas. • Falta de cuidado en las ubicaciones de estampados. levas.. precipitaciones de particulas duras y discontinuidades cristalinas. antes de la fractura rápida final en C. lo cual se muestra por las marcas de playa en B. Por lo general. y otros errores de fabrication. cuñeros. una grieta de fractura se inicia en una discontinuidad del material donde el esfuerzo ciclico es máximo. segregaciones de aleacion. Las discontinuidades pueden surgir debido a: • El diseño de cambios rapidos en la section transversal. etc. los cuales pueden causar picaduras o astilladuras despues de muchos ciclos de carga. marcas de herramienta.Mecánica de la fractura Fallo por fatiga en un perno debida a la flexión unidireccional repetida. • La propia composition del material después de su proceso de laminado. calentado. asi como inclusiones de material extrano. lo que desarrolla esfuerzos de contacto concentrados por debajo de la superficie. diseño defectuoso de juntas. La falla comenzó en la raíz de la rosca en A. 7 . huecos. estirado. raspaduras y rebabas.) bajo presión alta constante. fundido.

striations Crack initiation site Fracture area 8 .VW crank shaft – fatigue failure due to cyclic bending and torsional stresses Propagation zone.

928 Porsche timing pulley Crack started at the fillet 9 .

AISI/SAE 4140 low allow carbon steel 10 . 1. which is characteristic of a fatigue failure.Fracture surface of a failed bolt. The fracture surface exhibited beach marks. diameter steel pins from agricultural equipment.0-in. Material.

11 .bicycle crank spider arm This long term fatigue crack in a high quality component took a considerable time to nucleate from a machining mark between the spider arms on this highly stressed surface. However once initiated propagation was rapid and accelerating as shown in the increased spacing of the 'beach marks' on the surface caused by the advancing fatigue crack.

Crank shaft Gear tooth failure 12 .

SJSU 13 . MAE dept.. a Boeing 737. an upper part of the plane's cabin area rips off in mid-flight.Hawaii. Metal fatigue was the cause of the failure. Aloha Flight 243.

Fracture Surface Characteristics Mode of fracture Ductile Typical surface characteristics Cup and Cone Dimples Dull Surface Inclusion at the bottom of the dimple Shiny Grain Boundary cracking Shiny Cleavage fractures Flat Beachmarks Striations (SEM) Initiation sites Propagation zone Final fracture zone 14 Brittle Intergranular Brittle Transgranular Fatigue .

σmin Alternating stress σa = σmin = 0 σa = σm = σmax / 2 σmax 2 σmin Mean stress σm = σmax + σmin 2 15 .Fatigue Failure – Type of Fluctuating Stresses σa = σmax σmax = .

16 S-N Curves • S-N [stress-number of cycles to failure] curve defines locus of cycles-to-failure for given cyclic stress. • Rotating-beam fatigue test is standard. also alternating tension-compression. • Plot stress versus the log(number of cycles to failure). . log(Nf) • For frequencies < 200Hz metals are insensitive to frequency. fatigue life in polymers is frequency dependent.

R. Typical testing apparatus. S-N Curve Test specimen geometry for R. Moore rotating beam machine. pure bending Motor Load Rotating beam machine – applies fully reverse bending stress 17 .Fatigue Failure. The surface is polished in the axial direction. A constant bending load is applied.

Fatigue Failure. S-N Curve N < 103 N > 103 Finite life Infinite life S′e ′ Se = endurance limit of the specimen 18 .

. a stress below which the life is infinite: • Steels typically show an endurance limit. i. the lifetime is dominated by nucleation. • At large Nf. = 40% of yield. • Therefore strengthening the surface (shot peening) is beneficial to delay crack nucleation and extend life. nitrogen) that pines dislocations and prevents dislocation motion at small displacements or strains (which is apparent in an upper yield point). this is typically associated with the presence of a solute (carbon.19 Endurance Limits • Some materials exhibit endurance limits. this is related to the absence of dislocation-pinning solutes. – Aluminum alloys do not show endurance limits.e.

5Sut 100 ksi Steel Sut ≤ 200 ksi (1400 MPa) Sut > 200 ksi 700 MPa Sut > 1400 MPa Cast iron 0.4Sut ′ Se = 24 ksi Cast iron Sut < 60 ksi (400 MPa) Sut ≥ 60 ksi 160 MPa Sut < 400 MPa 20 .Relationship Between Endurance Limit and Ultimate Strength Steel ′ Se = 0.

Relationship Between Endurance Limit and Ultimate Strength Aluminum alloys Aluminum 0.4Sut 19 ksi Sut < 48 ksi (330 MPa) Sut ≥ 48 ksi ′ Se = 130 MPa Sut ≥ 330 MPa For N = 5x108 cycle Copper alloys Copper alloys 0.4Sut 14 ksi Sut < 40 ksi (280 MPa) Sut ≥ 40 ksi ′ Se = 100 MPa Sut ≥ 280 MPa For N = 5x108 cycle 21 .

Correction Factors for Specimen’s Endurance Limit For materials exhibiting a knee in the S-N curve at 106 cycles S ′ = endurance limit of the specimen (infinite life > 106) e Se = endurance limit of the actual component (infinite life > 106) S 3 Se 10 6 10 N For materials that do not exhibit a knee in the S-N curve. the infinite life taken at 5x108 cycles Sf′ = fatigue strength of the specimen (infinite life > 5x108) Sf = fatigue strength of the actual component (infinite life > 5x108) S 3 Sf 5x10 8 10 N 22 .

• Failure mechanisms . oxidation).23 • Geometrical effects • Notches decrease fatigue life through stress concentration. again through stress concentration. • Moderate compressive stress at the surface increases life (shot peening). • Corrosive environment lowers life. corrosion either increases the rate at which material is removed from the crack tip and/or it produces material on the crack surfaces that forces the crack open (e. • Surface roughness lowers life.g. it is harder to nucleate a crack when the local stress state opposes crack opening. • Increasing specimen size lowers fatigue life.

• 1: geometry of the specimen (previous slide). anything inside the material that can reduce the stress and/or strain required to nucleate a crack (shorten the time required for nucleation of cracks). 2: defects in the material. 3: dislocation slip characteristics.24 Microstructure-Fatigue Relationships • What are the important issues in microstructure-fatigue relationships? three major factors. • • . anything on the surface that is a site of stress concentration will promote crack formation (shorten the time required for nucleation of cracks). The head of the pile-up is a stress concentration which can initiate a crack. if dislocation glide is confined to particular slip planes (called planar slip) then dislocations can pile up at any grain boundary or phase boundary.

Norton’s 3rd ed.7 Cload = 1 if von Mises stress is used.) Pure bending Pure axial Pure torsion Combined loading Cload = 1 Cload = 0.Correction Factors for Specimen’s Endurance Limit or Se = Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Crel (S′e) Sf = Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Crel (Sf′) • Load factor. Cload = 1 25 .577 if von Mises stress is NOT used. Cload (page 326. use 0.

327.3 in.869(d)-0. Norton’s 3rd ed.) Larger parts fail at lower stresses than smaller parts.3 in. This is mainly due to the higher probability of flaws being present in larger components. < d ≤ 10 in. 8 mm < d ≤ 250 mm Csize = 1 Csize = . For rotating solid round cross section d ≤ 0.189(d)-0.. Csize (p. use Csize = .097 Csize = 1.Correction Factors for Specimen’s Endurance Limit • Size factor.6 26 . (8 mm) 0.097 If the component is larger than 10 in.

0766 d2 d95 = .808 (bh)1/2 27 . Then use this equivalent diameter in the previous equations to calculate the size factor. A95 = (π/4)[d2 – (.37d dequiv = .95d d dequiv = ( A95 0.0766 )1/2 Solid or hollow non-rotating parts Rectangular parts dequiv = .Correction Factors for Specimen’s Endurance Limit For non rotating components.95d)2] = . use the 95% area approach to calculate the equivalent diameter.

Correction Factors for Specimen’s Endurance Limit I beams and C channels 28 .

) The rotating beam test specimen has a polished surface.Correction Factors for Specimen’s Endurance Limit • surface factor. Csurf (p. Norton’s 3rd ed. Scratches and imperfections on the surface act like a stress raisers and reduce the fatigue life of a part. 328-9. Most components do not have a polished surface. Use either the graph or the equation with the table shown below. 29 .

Csurf = A (Sut)b 30 .

31 .

For accurate results.331. use an environmental chamber and obtain the endurance limit experimentally at the desired temperature. For operating temperature below 450 oC (840 oF) the temperature factor should be taken as one. Ctemp (p.Correction Factors for Specimen’s Endurance Limit • Temperature factor.) High temperatures reduce the fatigue life of a component. Ctemp = 1 for T ≤ 450 oC (840 oF) 32 . Norton’s 3rd ed.

Crel (p.Correction Factors for Specimen’s Endurance Limit • Reliability factor. Norton’s 3rd ed.) The reliability correction factor accounts for the scatter and uncertainty of material properties (endurance limit). 331. 33 .

340. Kf Experimental data shows that the actual stress concentration factor is not as high as indicated by the theoretical value. Norton’s 3 ed. SJSU 34 . The stress concentration factor seems to be sensitive to the notch radius and the ultimate strength of the material.Fatigue Stress Concentration Factor.. Notch sensitivity factor Fatigue stress Kf = 1 + (Kt – 1)q concentration factor rd (p.) Steel MAE dept. Kt.

Norton’s 3rd ed. 341. Kf for Aluminum (p.Fatigue Stress Concentration Factor.. SJSU 35 .) MAE dept.

Design process – Fully Reversed Loading for Infinite Life • • • • Determine the maximum alternating applied stress (σa ) in terms of the size and cross sectional profile Select material → Sy. optimize for size or weight You may also assume a profile and size. Iterate until you obtain the desired safety factor 36 . Sut Choose a safety factor → n Determine all modifying factors and calculate the endurance limit of the component → Se Determine the fatigue stress concentration factor. calculate the alternating stress and determine the safety factor. Kf Use the design equation to calculate the size • • Se Kf σa = n • • Investigate different cross sections (profiles).

9Sut N = 10 3 Point A Sn = .Design for Finite Life Sn = a (N)b equation of the fatigue line A S 3 A B Se 10 6 S Sf N 10 3 B 8 10 5x10 N Point A Sn = .9Sut N = 103 Point B Sn = Se N = 10 6 Point B Sn = Sf N = 5x108 37 .

9S ) ut and replace Se in the design equation Sn Kf σa = n Design equation 38 .9Sut = log a + b log 103 log Se = log a + b log 106 a= b= (.9Sut Se Sn = Se ( 106 ) Calculate Sn N ⅓ Se log ( .9Sut) Se 1 3 2 log .Design for Finite Life Sn = a (N)b log Sn = log a + b log N Apply boundary conditions for point A and B to find the two constants “a” and “b” log .

The Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Life Mean stress exist if the loading is of a repeating or fluctuating type. σa Mean stress is not zero Gerber curve Alternating stress Se Goodman line Soderberg line Sy Mean stress Sut σm 39 .

The Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Life Modified Goodman Diagram σa Sy Yield line Alternating stress Se Goodman line Safe zone C Sy Mean stress Sut σm 40 .

σm .The Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Life Modified Goodman Diagram σa Sy Yield line Se Goodman line Safe zone .Syc Safe zone C Sy Sut +σm 41 .

σm > 0 Sut Sut = = 1 1 Infinite life σa Se + + σm σm nf Finite life Yield σa = n f Yield Se Syc Safe zone . σm ≤ 0 σa Fatigue.Syc Se σa Sn σa + σm = n y Safe zone C σa + σm = n y Sy Sut +σm Sy 42 .The Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Life Modified Goodman Diagram Fatigue.σm .

The effect of stress concentration is reduced. use Kfm = Kf and multiply the mean stress by Kfm → Kfm σm If Kf σmax > Sy then there is local yielding at the notch. material at the Calculate the stress concentration factor for the mean stress using the following equation. Sy σm 1 Kf σa Fatigue design equation Kf σa Kfmσm = + Se Sut nf Infinite life 43 . Kfm = • • notch is strain-hardened. Kf.Applying Stress Concentration factor to Alternating and Mean Components of Stress • Determine the fatigue stress concentration factor. apply directly to the alternating stress → Kf σa If Kf σmax < Sy then there is no yielding at the notch.

σ2a = (σxa /2) ± σ1m. σ1a. σxa σxm alternating component of normal stress mean component of normal stress alternating component of shear stress mean component of shear stress τxya τxym Calculate the alternating and mean principal stresses.Combined Loading All four components of stress exist. σ2m = (σxm /2) ± (σxa /2)2 + (τxya)2 (σxm /2)2 + (τxym)2 44 .

2 σa′ = (σ1a + σ2a .σ1aσ2a)1/2 2 2 σm′ = (σ1m + σ2m .Combined Loading Calculate the alternating and mean von Mises stresses.σ1mσ2m)1/2 2 Fatigue design equation σ′a Se + σ′m Sut = 1 nf Infinite life 45 .

5 d r = .000 lb.000 lb force as shown. The shaft is rotating at 1150 rpm and has a machine finish surface.1 Kt = 1. The critical location is at the fillet.5d R2 Sut = 120 ksi and Sy = 90 ksi. Calculate the support forces. d. for 75 minutes life. The shaft is made of steel with 12˝ d A 10.1d R1 = 2500.6 and 50% reliability. Use safety factor of 1.Design Example A rotating shaft is carrying 10. MA = 2500 x 12 = 30. R1 r (fillet radius) = . Determine the diameter. R2 = 7500 lb. Calculate the alternating stress. 6˝ 6˝ D = 1.7 46 .000 lb-in σa = Mc I = 32M πd 3 = 305577 d 3 σm = 0 Determine the stress concentration factor d D = 1.

Design Example Assume d = 1. q (notch sensitivity) = .869(d)-0.869(1) = .869)(.3 in.097 = .6 Calculate the endurance limit Cload = 1 (pure bending) Crel = 1 (50% rel.759)(.) Ctemp= 1 (room temp) Csurf = A (Sut)b = 2.0 in Using r = .097 Csize = .1 and Sut = 120 ksi.5x120) = 39.85 Kf = 1 + (Kt – 1)q = 1 + .869 ksi 47 Se = Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Crel (S′e) = (. < d ≤ 10 in.265 = .7 – 1) = 1.7(120) 0.759 -0. -.57 .85(1.

5 39.9(1. is too small Assume d = 2.5 in All factors remain the same except the size factor and notch sensitivity.0 in.869(2.795 → Se = 36.7 – 1) = 1.6 So d = 1.577 ksi n= Sn Kfσa = 1.57 ( Se ( 6 ) Sn = Sn = 6 10 10 ) ⅓ log ( .Design Example Design life.63 = .097 Kf = 1 + (Kt – 1)q = 1 + .116 < 1. q (notch sensitivity) = . N = 1150 x 75 = 86250 cycles Se log ( .9 Csize = .9S ) 86250 N ⅓ ut 39.869(d)-0.5 ksi 56.097 = .577 = .25 and Sut = 120 ksi.2 ksi 48 .57 σa = 305577 d 3 = 305. Using r = .6x305.9x120 ) = 56.5) -0.

Check yielding n= Sy 90 = 2.2 ksi → Sn = 36.5) 3 = 19.Design Example Se = 36.2 log ( .55 = 1.63x19.6 okay = Kfσmax 1.63x19.55 ksi n= Kfσa Sn = 53.35 1.20 ( 86250 106 ) ⅓ 36.6 d = 2.8 > 1.55 49 .5 in.9x120 ) = 53.35 ksi σa = 305577 (2.67 ≈ 1.

Kf MA = 1.000 = 48.116 < 1.000 lb-in But.6 d R1 r (fillet radius) = .6x305. So.000 50 .63.5 1. applying the fatigue stress conc.5d R2 = 7500 So d = 1.5 1.577 = .5 Check the location of maximum moment for possible failure Mmax (under the load) = 7500 x 6 = 45.000 lb-in MA (at the fillet) = 2500 x 12 = 30.6x305.4 in.0 in. your next guess should be between 2.Design Example – Observations n= Sn Kfσa = 56.63x30.1d A 12˝ 6˝ 6˝ D = 1.900 > 45. is too small Calculate an approximate diameter n= Sn Kfσa = 56. Factor of 1.25 to 2.6 → d = 2.577/d 3 = 1.

4 d 25 = 4 = .16 25 Kt = 1. Use modified Goodman diagram and find the safety factor at the fillet A. The applied axial load varies from 2.Example A section of a component is shown.000 N. The material is steel with Sut = 620 MPa and a fully corrected endurance limit of Se = 180 MPa.76 51 . Which location is likely to fail first? Use Kfm = 1 Pa = (Pmax – Pmin) / 2 = 4000 N Pm = (Pmax + Pmin) / 2 = 6000 N Fillet r d D 35 = = 1.000 to 10. groove B and hole C.

76 – 1) = 1. q (notch sensitivity) = .7 52 .85(1.8 48 = + 180 620 1 n → n = 2.85 Kf = 1 + (Kt – 1)q = 1 + .8 MPa = 1.Example Using r = 4 and Sut = 620 MPa.65 Calculate the alternating and the mean stresses.65 σa = Kf A 25x5 Pm 6000 = 48 MPa = σm = A 25x5 Fatigue design equation σa Se + σm Sut = 1 n Infinite life 52. Pa 4000 = 52.

5 MAE dept.33 40 = + 180 620 1 n → n = 2.143 → w 35 Kt = 2.33 MPa Kf = 2.Hole d 5 = = .82(2.3 σa = A (35-5)5 Pm 6000 = 40 MPa = σm = A 30x5 61. q (notch sensitivity) = . Pa 4000 = 61..5 and Sut = 620 MPa.82 Kf = 1 + (Kt – 1)q = 1 + . SJSU 53 .6 – 1) = 2.6 Example Using r = 2.3 Calculate the alternating and the mean stresses.

57 54 The part is likely to fail at the hole.83 Kf = 1 + (Kt – 1)q = 1 + . has the lowest safety factor .1 Calculate the alternating and the mean stresses. q (notch sensitivity) = .0 MPa = 2.Example Groove r d → Kt = 2.1 σa = Kf A (35-6)5 = 3 = .4 = + 180 620 n n = 2.33 D 35 = = 1.4 MPa → 58.2 d 29 Using r = 3 and Sut = 620 MPa.103 29 σm = Pm A = 6000 29x5 1 = 41.83(2.0 41. Pa 4000 = 58.33 – 1) = 2.

5 x 16 = 120 in .5 lb. Ma = 7.375) 3 55 .5 x 16 = 360 in .Example The figure shows a formed round wire cantilever spring subjected to a varying force F.lb Mm = 22.375) = 3 σm = Mc I = 32Mm 3 32(360) π (. The mounting detail is such that the stress concentration could be neglected. Fa = (Fmax – Fmin) / 2 = 7.6 psi = 69536 psi σa = Mc I = 32Ma πd πd 3 = 32(120) π (. The wire is made of steel with Sut = 150 ksi. For a reliability of 99%.lb = 23178. A visual inspection of the spring indicates that the surface finish corresponds closely to a hot-rolled finish. Fm = (Fmax + Fmin) / 2 = 22. what number of load applications is likely to cause failure.5 lb.

37 x.Calculate the endurance limit Example Csurf = A (Sut)b = 14.718 = .394 A95 = . strength for finite number of cycle σa Sn + σm Sut =1 → 23178.4(150) 2 Cload = 1 (pure bending) Ctemp= 1 (room temp) Crel= .14 dequiv = .375 = .3 → Csize = 1.394)(.0766 = .6 Sn + 69536 =1 150000 → Sn = 43207 psi 56 .37d = .5x150) = 24.814)(.0 Se = Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Crel (Se) = (.6 69536 = + 24077 150000 1 n → n = .7 < 1 Finite life Find Sn.14 < .077 σa Se + ksi σm Sut = 1 n → 23178.814 (99% reliability) -.010462 d (non-rotating round section) dequiv = √ A95 / .

000 cycles 57 .077 ) .9x150 N = 96.9Sut Sn = Se ( 106 ) N → 43207 = 24077 ( N 106 ) ⅓ log ( 24.Example ⅓ log ( Se ) .

58 Fatigue: summary • Critical to practical use of structural materials. even apparently statically loaded ones. • Connection between dislocation behavior and fatigue life offers exciting research opportunities. • Fatigue affects most structural components. • Well characterized empirically. physically based models are lacking! .e. i.

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