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Animal husbandry Is the art, science, and industry of breeding, feeding, care and management, and the marketing

g and processing of animals and their products for the purpose of obtaining a profit from the enterprise It means the selection of animals on the basis of beauty and good looks in addition to production performance Beauty means the harmonious proportion of the various parts of the body so that they present an overall pleasing sight to the beholder. It means a well ordered and systematic body of knowledge. Scientific method is the process through which data are gathered to determine efficiency of production of farm animals and as a basis of selecting the desirable animals for breeding an art and science combined together to make animal production a profitable enterprise Proper knowledge of breeding, feeding, management systems based on an updated information and desirable marketing practices must be combined harmoniously to bring a desired profit. This aspect brings the business concept to animal production Animal science Animal husbandry and animal science are terms referring to the care, management and production of domestic animals However, the concept of animal science is basically based on scientific testing and experimentation Animal husbandry on the other hand is based on common sense and proven practices handed down from one generation to another. As a result of both animal husbandry and animal science practices, the production of animals has greatly increased: Birds that normally produce 20-30 eggs per year now produce between 200-250 eggs per year Cows that normally produce enough milk for their calves now produce over 20,000 pounds of milk per year. Some meat producing animals have doubled their weight

Animal science has made it possible to produce animals more efficiently such that animals today: grow faster Use less feed Lay more eggs Produce more kinds of cuts of meat Through extensive research, animal science has been able to produce animals with less fat, tender and tastier meat. Zootehnics The keeping and breeding of animals in domestication livestock The term livestock is normally defined as animals raised to produce milk, meat, work, and wool. It includes beef and dairy cattle, swine, sheep, horses, goats, and poultry. Other animals used in agriculture such as emus, bees, fish bait, etc. are considered alternative animal agriculture and are not covered here. What does the domestication of animals mean? To adapt animals for use by humans Animals taken from nature and raised under the care of humans Why were animals domesticated? To Provide a Steady Food Supply To Provide Raw Materials for Clothing To increase desireable characteristics To Provide Pleasure and Recreation What are the common functions of livestock in todays society? Converting grain and roughage into meat Clothing Power Recreation

Products

Sectoral Terms and Definitions


Cattle:
Beef meat of a cattle. Bobby Calf calf about one week old; usually dairy calf. Boner an animal yielding low-quality meat. Bull sexually mature uncastrated male cattle kept for breeding. Bull Calf uncastrated male ox under one year of age. Bullock stag used for draft purposes. Calf young cattle of either sex under one year of age. Calving act of giving birth in cattle. Calving Interval the period between 2 successive calvings measured in calendar days or months. Calving Rate the ratio of number of calves born to number of cows/heifers that were bred. Carcass Weight of Cattle the weight of slaughtered cattle excluding hides, blood, edible offals such as head, feet, tail, slaughter fats and internal organs. Cattle general term for the members of the Bovidae family, wild (Bibos spp.) or domestic (Bos spp.). Domestic cattle has two species: Bos taurus or European breeds and Bos indicus or Zebu breeds or oriental domestic cattle. European humpless cattle, although a distinct crest may occur on bulls, especially beef breeds; Bos Taurus. Zebu humped cattle probably originating from southwest Asia, now spread widely throughout the tropics and introduced to America and Australia; Bos indicus. Cow sexually mature female cattle that has given birth. Dam a female cattle parent. Dry Cow non-lactating cow. Fattener/Fattened an animal ready for slaughter. Feeder Cattle cattle being fattened or suitable for fattening. Free-Martin a sterile female born as twin mate to a normal male. Heifer female cattle usually under three years of age that has not yet given birth. Heifer Calf young female cattle under one year of age. Sire a bull parent. Sire, Genetically Proven sexually mature bull which has proven its fertility by consistently producing offspring after mating. Slink the young cattle brought forth prematurely or abortively. Stag a male animal castrated after sexual maturity. Steer male cattle castrated before secondary sex characteristics have developed. Veal meat of a calf. Weaner six to twelve-month-old cattle.

Carabao
Buffalo popularly known as water buffalo that originated from India, used as draft animal and also suitable for milk production. Locally known as carabao.

Buffalo, Riverine a type of buffalo characterized by its high genetic capacity for milk production and is therefore considered under the dairy category. Examples are the Murrah buffaloes from India, Italy and Bulgaria, as well as the Nili Ravi from Pakistan. Buffalo, Swamp a type of buffalo that has natural preference for swamps and marshlands. It is primarily utilized for farm work and also for meat. Examples are the Philippine carabaos and the Cambodian and Thai buffaloes. Carabeef the meat of carabao. Carabull sexually mature uncastrated male carabao usually kept for breeding. Caracalf male or female carabao under one year of age. Caracow sexually mature female carabao that has given birth. Caraheifer sexually mature female carabao that has not yet given birth. Carcass Weight of Carabao the weight of slaughtered cattle excluding hides, blood, edible offals such as head, feed, tail, slaughter fats and internal organs. Dam a female carabao parent.

Horse
Aged Horse generally, a horse eight years or over; but the term is used often to indicate a horse that is smooth mouthed, that is, twelve years or older; one year of horses life corresponds to approximately three years of mans. Thus at age seven a horse comes of age or attains maturity. Barren a mare that is not in foal; empty mare. Blood-Horse a pedigreed horse. Synonymous to thoroughbred. Colt a young male from weaning to three years of age. In thoroughbreds, the age is extended to include four-year olds. Cover to serve or mate. Donkey small ass. Synonymous with burro. Dry Mare non-lactating mare. Entire an ungelded male. Equestrian one who rides horseback. Equestrienne a female equestrian. Equine a horse. More precisely, the term includes all the members of the family Equidae: horses, zebras and asses. Equitation horsemanship; the art of riding on horseback. Filly a young female horse from weaning to three years of age; in thoroughbreds, it includes four-year olds. Foal a young, unweaned horse of either sex (colt or filly), usually under one year old. Foaling act of giving birth in horses. Gait refers to a way of going forward of an animal, in which the movements are regularly and distinctly performed. Types of gait include the following: Amble a slow pace, highly desirable for saddle ponies in the Philippines. Canter a slow gallop. Gallop a fast three-beat gait of a running horse. The first beat is initiated by one of the hind legs, say, the right hind leg, followed by the right foreleg and the left hind leg together to constitute the second beat, and then by the left foreleg to make the third beat. Pace a fast two-beat gait, but the movement is lateral; that is, the right foreleg and hind leg go forward together to constitute one beat and the left foreleg and left hind leg making the other beat.

Trot a fast two-beat gait executed diagonally by the forelegs and the hind legs, with the right foreleg and the left hind leg in unison making one beat followed by the other foreleg and hind leg together making the second beat. Walk a slow four-beat gait. Gelding a male horse that was castrated before reaching sexual maturity. Horse hoofed animals belonging to the family Equidae; could be any of the following types: Heavy-harness also known as coach or carriage horses. Light-harness also known as pacer, trotter or roadster. Pony horses measuring less than 58 inches in height. Saddle the running horse or racehorse. Includes the Arabian thoroughbred and the American saddle horses. Following are the common horse colors: a. Solid Bay also known as Castao. The typical variety is blood bay. There are various shades such as deep red, blood and mahogany bay. Black either jet black (as black as India ink) or sooty black (light black). Brown also known as Castao requinto, indicating that it is a variety of bay. The shades are limited to the common dark bay. The black color with a shade of bay on the underline differentiates the brown from the true black horse. Chestnut also known as alazan. It imparts a golden hue. Sorrel, is a red chestnut. Gray also known as moro for male and zamora for female. This is a white horse with dark skin. Roan also known as rosillo. Two kind of roan are red roan (canelo) and blue roan (rosillon itim). b. Broken Pinto there are two kinds: piebald (black and white patches) and skewbald (patches of black in between any other color except black). Appaloosa. c. Odd Albino light cream hair over pink skin. Buckskin also called bayo. The fetlock, mane, tail, and legs are dark. A dark line also runs at the back. A variety of buckskin which is darker in shade is known as buno. Cream the color of the hair is cream. The fetlock, mane, tail and legs are black with a dark line at the back. Also known as castor. Mouse color similar to the color of the mouse. Also known as gorullo. Hand a four-inch unit of measurement (used to measure height of horses). Heat one trip in a race that will be decided by winning two or more trials. Hinny a hybrid (crossbred) whose sire was a stallion and whose dam was a female ass. Hinnies of both sexes are sterile. Horsemanship the art of riding horseback. Hot-Blooded referring to horses of Eastern or Oriental blood. Jack male of the ass family. Jennet Female of the ass family.

Lunge (Longe) the act of exercising a horse on the end of the long rope. Usually in a circle. Maiden a mare that has never been bred. On the racetrack, it refers to a horse (stallion, mare or gelding) that has not won a race on a recognized track. In the show-ring, it refers to a horse that has not won the first ribbon in a recognized show in the division in which it is showing. Mare a mature female horse four years or older; in thoroughbreds, five years or older. A brood mare is a female horse used for breeding purposes Matron a mare that has produced a foal. Mule a hybrid of a jack (male ass) and a horse mare; mules of both sexes are sterile. Markings of horses. The following are common markings of horses: Blaze markings that extend from the face to the nostril. Mariscal - a colored horse having a white face, the white color being much larger than in the snip, blaze or star. Snip narrow white marking on the nostril. Sock a white marking on one of the legs up to about the middle of the cannon. Star a white spot on the face. Stockings white marking that reaches the knee. Near Side the left side of a horse from which a horse is harnessed, mounted and led. Neigh the loud, prolonged call of a horse. Pace the rate at which the animal moves Ridgeling a horse with at least one testicle in the abdomen. A ridgeling is difficult to geld, Also known as cryptorchid. Scrub a low-grade animal. Sire a male horse parent. Snorter an excitable horse. Soft referring to a horse that is easily fatigued. Sound a horse free from injury, flaw, mutilation, or decay; also one that is guaranteed free from blemishes and unsoundness. Stag a horse that was castrated after reaching maturity. Stall space or compartment in which an animal is placed or confined. It may be a straight stall with the animal tied at the front end (a tie stall) or a compartment with the animal loose inside (a box stall) Stallion a male horse four years old or over; in thoroughbreds, five years old or over. If the stallion is used for breeding purposes, the term Studhorse is preferred. Stud a male horse (stallion) kept for breeding. An establishment or farm where animals are kept for breeding. Suckling a foal that is not weaned. Stride the complete cycle in the movements of the legs in any of the gaits of the animal Teaser a horse, usually a stallion or a ridgeling, used to test the response of a mare prior to breeding, or used to determine if a mare is in heat and ready to breed. Tucked-Up having the belly under the loin. As contrasted to being herring gutted and similar conditions, in that the horse is tuckedup temporarily due to hard work, lack of water, lack of bulk in the diet, and the like. Also called gaunted up or ganted-up. Refers also to a small waisted horse. Unsoundness defects in an animal which are caused by disease, accident or rough handling. Common defects include: Bent knee

Blindness Blood spavin, bog spavin and bone spavin Capped elbow Curb Heaves Hoof cracks Knuckling Laminitis or founder Osteoporosis or bigheadedness Poll evil Ringbone Roaring Splint Springhalt Sweeny Sidebone Thoroughpin Thrush Windgall Blemishes include: Knocked down hip Scar Swelling White hairs Vice any of the multitude of bad habits that a horse may acquire. Warm-Up the process or routine of graduated exercise until the horse is properly conditioned for a strenuous effort. Wet Mare a lactating mare; usually with a foal at foot. Whinny a horses sound that denotes happiness, or anticipation of more pleasure. Whoa the command to stop or stand. When repeated softly, means to slow down, but may also mean attention. Yearling a horse between one and two years of age. Yield Mare dry mare, which has not produced any young during the breeding season.

Goat and Sheep


Buck sexually mature and uncastrated male goat usually kept for breeding purposes; also referred to as billy. Chevon meat of goat. Doe female goat of any age for breeding purposes. Doeling a young female goat kept for breeding that has attained puberty but has not given birth. Ewe female sheep of any age for breeding purposes. Fleece wool covering of the sheep. Goat an animal of genus Capra, family Capridae, comprising of various agile, hollow horned ruminants closely related to the sheep.

Kid young goat of either sex below three months of age. Kidding act of giving birth in goats. Lamb sheep of either sex below three months of age. Lambing act of giving birth in sheep. Mutton meat of sheep, one year old or over. Pait wool and skin of a sheep. Ram sexually mature male sheep kept mainly for breeding purposes. Shearling yearling sheep with two permanent teeth. Sheep an animal of genus Ovis related to but stockier than goats. Steer male sheep or goat castrated before secondary sex characteristics have developed. Wether Sheep male sheep or goat, which was castrated while young preferably between one and three weeks of age.

Swine
Atresia Ani a defect of swine involving a closed rectum. Barrow a male pig castrated before sexual maturity Boar sexually mature uncastrated male hog usually kept for breeding Carcass Weight of Hog the weight of slaughtered hog, head on, after the removal of the internal organs. Docking cutting a portion of the pigs tail to minimize biting among pigs. Farrow to give birth to pigs. Farrowing act of giving birth of a sow. Farrowing Index refers to the average frequency of farrowing of a sow on a yearly basis. Gilt a young female swine usually kept for breeding but has not given birth yet. Hog refers to domesticated swine. Litter a group of pigs belonging to one farrowing. Litter Interval refers to the period from the birth of one litter to the birth of the succeeding litter. This is sometimes referred to as farrowing interval. Littermate refers to one of the pigs in a litter in relation to the other pigs belonging to the same farrowing. Litter Size the number of young pigs (piglets) born in one farrowing. Litter Weight refers to the collective weight of pigs at birth to one farrowing. Multiparous Sow a female who has farrowed two or more litters, and sometimes referred to as an old sow. Pig a non-ruminant, cloven-footed animal belonging to family Suidae with a simple stomach, having characteristic snout, large number of mammary glands, thin skin, and heavy bristles. Also called swine or hog. Pig, Native a domesticated pig with some characteristics traceable to the Philippine wild pig (baboy damo), which had survived and adapted to the natural environment of the country. Generally, short in height and length, black-colored with occasional white markings on the pattern, tail, face and snout. Body conformation is narrow, potbellied and with sagging back. Prominent features are long, straight and pointed snout and small and erect ears. Mature male has prominent tusk projecting out of the mouth. Pig Weight refers to the weight of individual pig in a litter. Piglet a newly born pig of either sex before weaning from the sow.

Pork meat of swine or pig. Porker a young pig fattened for table use as fresh pork. Primiparous Sow a female who has farrowed only once. It is sometimes referred to as young sow. Sow an adult female usually kept for breeding and has farrowed at least once. Sty a pen or enclosed housing for a swine usually made of light materials. Suckling a young pig under the care of a dam. Swine see Pig. Weanling refers to a young pig of either sex who has been separated from the sow.

Poultry
Beak the projecting mouthpart of the chicken and turkey, consisting of upper and lower mandibles. Bill the projecting mouth of waterfowls consisting of upper and lower mandibles. Broiler strains of foreign breeds of chicken, especially raised for meat purposes only. Usually disposed of at five to six weeks old. Caponizing removal of testes in poultry. Chicken a domestic poultry (genus Gallus) raised for meat, eggs and other by-products. Cock a male fowl at least one year old. Cockerel a male fowl less than one year old. Comb the fleshy protuberance growing on top of a fowls head. The standard varieties of combs are: Single, Rose, Pea, V-shaped, Strawberry, Cushion and the Buttercup, all others being modification of these. Crop the enlarge portion of the esophagus that serves as a receptacle in which a fowls food is accumulated or stored before it passes to the proventriculus and gizzard. Down the first hairy covering of a newly hatched chick. Also the tufts of feather-like growth that are sometimes found on the shanks, toes, feet or webs of fowls. Downy Stage stage of newly hatched birds wherein their body is covered by hair-like silky, yellowcolored feathers. Also defined as the young or duckling stage of growth or the feathering stage. Drake a male of the duck family. Dubbing cutting of the comb, wattles, or ear lobes, so as to leave the head smooth. Duck a general term for waterfowl belonging to the family Anatidae of either sex; also, refers to female duck. Duckling the young of the duck family in the downy stage of plumage. Egg Laying Efficiency Ratio ratio of the number of layers that have actually laid eggs to total laying flock. It may also be expressed on henhouse or hen-day basis. Gamefowl domesticated chicken, regardless of breed, age and sex, raised solely for game or recreation purposes. Goose any of numerous species of wild or domestic web-footed, flat-billed, large bird with powerful wings akin to the swans and ducks belonging to the family Anatidae, sub-family Anserinae. Growing Flock a flock of growing layers usually below five months old excluding day-old chicks. Layer foreign strain female chicken regardless of age, raised mainly for table egg production. Laying Flock a group of adult female chickens or ducks capable of producing eggs.

Mallard breed of duck commonly known as itik, kept mainly for egg production. Muscovy duck commonly known as bibi or pato, used primarily for meat production and identified by its red knobby nodules along the eyes and above the base of the bill. Native Chicken a common backyard fowl that is a mixture of different breeds. It is small, active, sensitive and capable of great flight when frightened. Peking Duck large, fast growing white birds of Chinese origin used primarily for meat production. Plumage the feather of a fowl. Poult the young of the domestic turkey; properly applied until sex can be distinguished. Poultry a collective term for all domesticated avian for the purpose of food consumption or, the carcass of such avian dressed/processed for human consumption. Fowl is a term used to refer to a specific group of avian sharing common anatomical characteristics, e.g., chicken, turkey. Poultry Species kinds of bird that are included in poultry such as chicken, ducks, geese, turkeys and quails. Primaries the longest feathers of the wing, growing between the pinions and secondaries, hidden when the wing is folded; Also known as flight feathers. Pullet a female fowl less than a year old. Quill the hollow, horny, basal part of stem of a feather. Secondaries the long, large quill feathers that grow between the first and second joints of the wing, nearest the body, and are visible when wing is folded. Shank the portion of a fowls leg below the hock, exclusive of the foot and toes. Wattle the pendulous growth on the sides and base of the beak. Web of Feet the flat skin between the toes. Web of Wings the triangular skin attaching the three joints of the wing and visible when wing is extended.

Meat processing
Binding the ability of meat to emulsify fat as well as bind water. Blast Freezing process of freezing products using forced draft below 0oC. Brine a solution of common table salt and water. The strength of brine is measured by the proportion of salt to water without regard to the amount of other substances present. Canned Meat fresh or prepared meat packed in sealed containers with or without subsequent heating for the purpose of sterilization. Canning the preservation of meat in hermetically sealed containers. Chilling subjecting meat to a temperature of 0-10oC but best done at temperature of 2.4oC. Corned Meat meat cured by soaking with or without injecting into it a solution of common salt, with or without one or more of nitrate/ nitrite, sugar, dextrose, syrup, honey and with or without the use of spices. Cured Meat product obtained by subjecting meat to a process of salting, by using dry common salt or brine, with or without the use of one or more of the following; sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate/nitrite, dextrose, syrup, honey and spices. Curing the addition of salt with or without nitrate/nitrite and sugar, for the purpose of lengthening shelf life and/or enhancing the development of aroma, color and flavor. Custom Curing curing meat for another person by charging a service fee for processing. Comminution the cutting of meat into small particles. Contamination the direct or indirect transmission of objectionable matters to the meat. Cutability closely trimmed retail-cuts yield. Deep Freezing freezing products at a temperature of 6.67oC or lower.

Dehydration/Drying the process of reducing/ removing the available water in a food product. Disinfection the application of hygienically satisfactory chemicals or physical agents and processes to clean surfaces with intention of reducing microorganisms. Dried Meat product obtained by subjecting fresh meat or cured meat to process of drying with or without the aid of artificial heat until a substantial portion of the water has been removed. Edible by-Product any clean, sound and properly dressed edible part of an animal other than meat. Also known as meat by-product or variety meats. Emulsifying Capacity the ability of both meat and non-meat additives to coat fat globules and bind moisture. Extenders any non-meat material with the exception of water and salt, added to comminuted products in sufficient quantity to contribute materially to sausage bulk or composition (e.g. flour, corn starch and soya). Flaying/Skinning the act of removing the hide or skin of animals being slaughtered. Freezer Burns unequal drying at the surface of frozen meat, which causes the formation of a bleached, unattractive appearance on the meat surface. Freezing subjecting meat to a temperature of 2.22oC or lower. Fresh Meat meat from an animal that has not undergone any substantial physical, microbiological and chemical change form the time of slaughter. Green Hams unsmoked cured hams. Hermetically Sealed Containers containers that are designed and intended to protect the content against the entry of microorganisms during and after heat processing. Hot Boned Meat meat deboned before the development of rigor mortis. Ingredient any substance including food additives used in the manufacture or preparation of meat product. Immersion Cure curing of meat in a pickled solution. Injection Cure stitch pumping ham, needling of curing ingredients to meat. Marbling intermingling of lean meat and fat in the muscles. Meat Processing all processes utilized in altering fresh meat except for simple grinding, cutting and mixing. Meat Product any product capable of being used as human food, which is made wholly or in part from any meat or other portion of the carcass of any food animals, excepting products which contain meat or other portions of such carcasses only in a relatively small proportion or historically have not been considered by consumers as products of the meat industry, and which are exempted from definition as a meat product by the Secretary under such conditions as he may prescribe to assure that the meat or other portions of such carcasses contained in such product are not adulterated and that such products are not represented as meat products. Meat Specialties/Variety Meat edible meat by-products. Mix Cure curing ingredients or reagents that contain either nitrates or nitrites. Natural Casing materials with which sausages are stuffed, made of natural sources such as intestines of swine, cattle and carabao. Packaging Material containers such as cans, bottles, cartons, boxes, cases and sacks, or wrapping and covering material such as foil, film, metal, paper, wax paper and cloth. Passed for Rendering referring to the carcasses or parts of carcasses that may be converted into animal feed after sufficient heat treatment. Passed for Sterilization referring to the carcasses or parts of carcasses marked as inspected and passed for food, subject to the condition that these must be sterilized by steaming in an appropriate apparatus or by boiling in an open kettle. Prepared slaughtered, canned, salted, rendered, boned, cut up, or otherwise manufactured or

processed. Prime Cuts cuts of port composed of the loin, ham, belly and shoulder. Processing includes all methods of manufacture and preservation but excludes prepackaging of fresh, chilled or frozen meat. Quick Cure a term applied to a pickle solution containing sodium nitrite or a combination of nitrate and nitrite. Retail Cuts cuts of meat handled in small quantities and which may be prepared for the table without further cutting and trimming. Ripening, Aging or Controlled Deterioration practice of storing meat at a temperature of 2-4oC in order to improve tenderness and flavor. Sausage mix raw, coarsely comminuted sausage showing discrete particles of lean and fat. Seasoning any ingredient which by itself or in combination adds flavor to a product. Shrouding the wrapping of a beef, carabeef, chevon and/or mutton with cheesecloth or its equivalent cooked in lukewarm water. Singeing application of flame to a carcass for the purpose of burning the unscraped and unshaved hairs and killing some of the surface microorganisms. Skinless Sausage a sausage product processed in non-edible casings which are removed prior to the consumption of the sausage. Smoked Meat the product obtained by subjecting fresh, cured or dried meat to the direct action of smoke either by burning wood or other similar burning materials. Smoking exposing the meat to the action of smoke. Stabilizers substances which act as water binders to strengthen basically unstable emulsions by producing interfacial films between two emulsion phases. Stuffing the act of placing sausage mixtures into casings. Thawing defrosting. Tripe the meat by-product obtained from the reticulum, rumen and omasum of compound stomach animals. Wholesale Cuts meat cuts that are handled in bulk and require further cutting before these are prepared for the table.

Milk and Milk Products


Alcohol Precipitation Test (APT) test used to determine metabolic salts in milk. Blending the mixture of two or more kinds of products to attain a standardized product, particularly in relation to butter and milk. Butter food product made exclusively from milk or cream, or both with or without common salt and with or without additional coloring matter, and contains not less than 87% by weight of milk fat. Buttermilk fluids which results from the manufacture of butter from milk or cream; contains not less than 87% by weight of milk fat. Casein the protein precipitated from milk by acid and/or rennin. Cheese a concentrated milk product resulting from the coagulation of the milk usually by the combined action of lactic acid and the enzyme rennin, the removal of some of the moisture as whey and the subsequent ripening of the curd by microbial and other enzymes. Churn to agitate causing the separation of free fat in milk or cream. Coagulation the clotting of milk. Condensed Milk concentrated milk to which sugar has been added. Cream a concentration of the fat globules in milk obtained by centrifuging, and either sold as such or used for making butter and cream cheese.

Curd the solid mass resulting from the cutting of the coagulum formed by the clotting of milk by rennet or acid. Double Boiler Method a kind of pasteurization wherein the milk in bottles is placed in a pot of water and set to boil. Hardening a process of continuous freezing without agitation until the temperature reaches 35oC to complete crystallization and ensure small crystal formation. High Temperature Short Time (HTST) pasteurization at 72oC for 15 sec. or 80oC for 10 seconds. Homogenization a process whereby the butterfat globules in the milk are broken down into smaller pieces providing an even distribution of cream throughout the liquid. Milk the normal liquid secretion of mammary glands from mammals used for nourishment of their young. Certified fresh milk of high purity. Chocolate drink consisting of a mixture of whole or skimmed milk, cocoa and sugar together with flavoring agents and a stabilizer. Cooked fresh milk that has undergone the process of heating without definite temperature and time requirements for heating. Evaporated fresh milk which has been evaporated to a concentration at 73.7% water; containing at least 25.8% of total milk solids, 7% protein, 7.9% fat, 9.9% lactose and 1.5% minerals. Filled mixture of skimmed milk and refined coconut oils fortified with vitamins A and D. Fresh milk which is either raw or pasteurized. Instant Dry made from the conventionally spray-dried product by exposing it to moist steam to cause the particles to agglomerate and some of the lactose to crystallize. The excess moisture is evaporated and the product sieved. Pasteurized fresh milk that has undergone the process of heating to a certain time and temperature, then cooled immediately, primarily to destroy pathogenic microorganism, i.e., for high temperature at short time (HTST) at 75 degrees centigrade in 15 seconds or for batch pasteurization, at 65 degrees centigrade (LTLT) in 30 minutes. Fresh/Raw milk freshly taken from the dairy animal; better known as the uncooked milk. Powdered/Dried dried milk obtained by evaporating the moisture content of milk. Sweetened/Condensed evaporated milk in which refined sugar (sucrose) or a combination of refined sugar and refined corn sugar (dextrose) are added. It contains at least 28% of milk solids and 8.5% of milk fat. A typical composition is 26.5% water, 8.1% protein, 55.7% carbohydrates, 11.4% lactose, 44.3% sucrose and 1.6% ash. A mixture is approximately 18 kg of sugar/100 kg of milk and is concentrated under vacuum. Whole milk which has not had any of its constituent part removed. Milking Machine vacuum-powered mechanical device used to extract milk from the udder of milking animals. Milk Cooler a machine that holds and cools milk by using jacket of chilled water. Milk Production total domestic production of milk produced by dairy animals, i.e. delivered to cooperatives, sold to other consumers, fed to calves or consumed at home. Milk Yield amount of milk produced by a milking animal during its lactation period. Milk Can/Buckets/Pail a receptacle for milk or dairy container. Milk Processed volume of raw milk processed to produce a desired product. Milk Sales volume or value of milk products sold at market place. Pasteurization the process of heating milk for a certain time and temperature combination primarily

to destroy any pathogenic microorganism. Recombination the process of standardizing reconstituted skim milk with butter oil. Reconstitution the process of dissolving milk powder in water. Rennet enzyme obtained from the abomasums of the calf which is used for cheese making. Standardization the process of adjusting the fat, solid non-fat contents of milk or cream to produce uniform products. Sterilization a heat treatment which totally destroys all vegetative cells, i.e. 110oC for 30 minutes or 130oC to 140oC for 42 minutes. Toning the process of blending locally produced high fat milk with water and non-fat dry milk (skim milk). Ultra High Temperature (UHT) sterilizing milk in a continuous flow at very high temperature (130-150oC) for a very short time (1-2 sec) and aseptically packing it in sterilized containers. Whey the watery portion of milk remaining after the removal of the fat and curd. Yoghurt fermented milk made with the use of bacterial starters such as the Lactobacillus bulgaricus or Streptococcus thermophilus.

Feeds
Bagasse residue obtained from crushing cane that is very high in fiber. Bulky feeds feeds that have large amount of fiber so that they contain a small amount of digestible material. Calorie the amount of heat/energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1oC at standard pressure. Carbohydrates nutrients present in most plants feeds that supply energy to animals. Concentrates any feed low (under 18%) in crude fiber and high (above 60%) in total digestible nutrients (TDN) on air-dry basis. Crude Protein includes the true proteins and all other nitrogenous compounds in feeds. Essential Amino Acid amino acids needed for maintenance, growth, reproduction and production of milk, eggs, wool and other products. These amino acids cannot be synthesized by the body in the right quantity and therefore has to be included in the ration. Fat a class of nutrient, each normally composed of glycerol and three fatty acids. The most potent energy source in rations providing 2.25 times more energy than carbohydrates. Contains the elements, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The hydrogen present is much higher in proportion than carbohydrates. Fiber the insoluble part of feed after successive boiling with dilute alkali and dilute acid. Fodder green or cured plants (maize and sorghum) that are fed whole (except the roots) as forage to the animals. Hay a forage dried so as to retain most of the leaves, without deterioration of dry matter and nutrients, without mold development, having its natural green color and palatability, and capable of being stored over a long period of time. Legumes plants from the family leguminosae characterized botanically by a fruit called pod that opens along two sutures when ripe and has great agricultural importance as food for human and feed for animals (e.g. mungbean, soybean,centrosema, and ipil-ipil). Medicated Feed 1) feed that contains drug ingredients intended to a) cure, mitigate, treat or prevent diseases of animals other than man, or b) to offset the structure of functioning of the bodies of animals other than man; 2) a feed containing antibiotic intended to promote growth or increase feed efficiency. Molasses the thick viscous by-product resulting from the manufacture of refined sugar.

Pellets agglomerated feed formed by compacting and forcing feed through calibrated openings by a mechanical process (e.g. pelleted feed, hard pellet). Soft pellets are those containing sufficient liquid to require immediate dusting or cooling (e.g. high molasses pellets). Roughages feeds that are low in digestible energy and high in fiber; feeds such as hay, straw, roots and silage, which are coarse and bulky. Salt Block compressed block of common salt, which is used to supply salt to livestock. Silage feed resulting from the storage and fermentation of green crops under anaerobic conditions. Soilage green forage crops that are cut and fed to animals in fresh condition. Standing Hay grass that has matured and dried out while still standing, i.e., uncut. The value varies roughly in inverse proportion to rainfall but is never as good as properly made hay. Stover the stem and leafy parts of corn plant after the ears have been removed. Straw plant material which has been dried under natural or artificial condition but for which the inflorescence or fruits have been removed. Supplement feed used in combination with basic ration to balance and/or satisfy animals nutrient requirements. It may be fed undiluted as a supplement to other feeds, offered free choice with other parts of the diet separately available, or mixed with other feed ingredients to produce a complete feed. Vitamins organic, natural occurring substance needed in minute amounts for growth, body processes, maintenance, reproduction, work and or production of milk and other products. Fat-Soluble Vitamins includes Vitamins A, D, E, and K which when taken in excessive amounts could be harmful to body. Water-Soluble Vitamins includes Vitamins B, C and B-complex. These are excreted in the urine and are relatively non-toxic introduction During the neolithic period ( New stone age) This era marked the 1st step toward civilization of the most primitive tribes of humans It was the beginning of humanitys transformation from the savage to the civilized way of life from nomads to urban dwellers Man started to domesticate animals by Confining, breeding and raising them in captivity To ensure a steady supply of their needs and became settled. Their activities changed from hunting to farming through domesticating the start of animal science Benefits from animal agriculture: Animals primary products meat, milk, eggs Food that provides nutrients that are essential to human life Animal by products leather, wool, mohair, oils, pharmaceuticals etc. Other important products needed by man Use draft/power, recreation or pleasure Animal domestication the process of developing the mutually useful relationship between animals and humans. Process of adapting the behaviour of animals to fit human needs

Over the past 12,000 years, humans have learned to control their access to food and other necessities of life by changing the behaviors and natures of wild animals. All of the animals that we use today, such as dogs, cats, cattle, sheep, camels, geese, horses, and pigs, started out as wild animals but were changed over the centuries and millennia into tamer, quieter animals. Some of the ways people benefit from a domesticated animal include: keeping cattle in pens for access to milk and meat and for pulling plows; training dogs to be guardians and companions; teaching horses to adapt to the plow or take a rider; and changing the lean, nasty wild boar into a fat, friendly farm animal.

Early Domestication Humans began domesticating animals more than 10,000 years ago beginning with dogs Ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats) were the first food animals to be domesticated followed by pigs Pigs were domesticated possibly to dispose of table scraps and waste products

Domestication involves more than simply taming Animals are considered to be domesticated when: They are kept for a distinct purpose Humans control their breeding Their survival depends on humans They develop traits that are not found in the wild Domestication allowed humans to: Contain animals with the right temperament Have a steady supply of food Use animals for companionship Religious purposes Draft work In return, animals received protection and constant supply of food Selective breeding occurred as humans got rid of animals with undesirable traits, not allowing them to reproduce.

Animal Dog Sheep

Where Domesticated undetermined Western Asia

Date ~14-30,000 BC? 8500 BC

Cat Goats Pigs Cattle Chicken Guinea pig Donkey Horse Silkworm Llama Bactrian camel Dromedary camel Honey Bee Banteng Water buffalo Duck Yak Goose Alpaca Reindeer Turkey

Fertile Crescent Western Asia Western Asia Eastern Sahara Asia Andes Mountains Northeast Africa Kazakhstan China Peru Southern Russia Saudi Arabia Egypt Thailand Pakistan Western Asia Tibet Germany Peru Siberia Mexico

8500 BC 8000 BC 7000 BC 7000 BC 6000 BC 5000 BC 4000 BC 3600 BC 3500 BC 3500 BC 3000 BC 3000 BC 3000 BC 3000 BC 2500 BC 2500 BC 2500 BC 1500 BC 1500 BC 1000 BC 100 BC-AD 100

Dogs -from 12,000 years ago The earliest known evidence of a domesticated dog is a jawbone found in a cave in Iraq and dated to about 12,000 years ago.

Sheep and goats, cattle and pigs: 9000-7000 BC The first animals known to have been domesticated as a source of food are sheep in the Middle East. The proof is the high proportion of bones of one-year-old sheep discarded in a settlement at Shanidar, in what is now northern Iraq. They are raised for meat and wool

There are over 200 breeds of domestic sheep The management of sheep is more complex than the management of most animals Goats

Goats were one of the first animals to be domesticated, about 9,000 years ago They are raised for food and clothing Goats are excellent scavengers There are 300 breeds of domestic goats Production of meat-type goats are a current trend cattle

The ox may first have been bred by humans in western Asia. Cattle are divided into beef and dairy breeds Angus is the most popular beef breed and holstein is the most common dairy breed swine

Todays trend in the industry is to produce lean hogs as opposed to the fatter hogs that were grown in the early and middle 1900s horse

Przewalskis horse - the first domesticated horses Size of a pony Still live in Mongolia It was discovered there in the 1870s

In the 1800s and early 1900s, horses were used for power and transportation Most horses are owned for recreation and personal pleasure Of all the thousand of species of animals known today, few are considered to be of economic or agricultural importance These animals are primarily known as food animals, traditionally they are called livestock and poultry Livestock referring to common mammalian farm animals such as cattle, buffalo, hog, goat, sheep and horse

Poultry referring to domestic avian species or birds such as chicken, duck, turkey, goose, quail, etc Domesticate characteristic

1. Survive well in confinement under intensive system 2. Utilize various commercial mix rations/feeds 3. Grow and produce rapidly/ high yield and efficient 4. Have docile and good temperament Non-traditional forms of animal Agriculture

Such as: Crocodile farming Ostrich farming Wild buffaloes, deer, bison, mountain goat and other wild animals

They represent important genetic resources (gene pool) for potential use in animal production or agriculture Marine and aquatic intensive production known as aquaculture Involves the propagation, rearing and marketing of fish, seafoods and other marine products in selected or controlled/modified environment