You are on page 1of 18



Prepared by


Date : 6 JULY 2012

CONTENTS 1.0. 2.0. INTRODUCTION OVERVIEW OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION 2.1. Satellite Communication 2.2 Type of Satellite Service VSAT (VERY SMALL APERTURE TERMINAL) 3.1. Specification 3.2. VSAT Service 3.3. VSAT Topology 3.4. How VSAT Work 3.5. Multiple Accessing Schemes VSAT NETWORK CHARACTERICTICS IMPLEMENTATION OF VSAT TECHNOLOGY IN MALAYSIA 5.1. E-BARIO Synthesis 5.2. Opportunities in VSAT Technology 1 1 1 1 2 3 5 5 7 7 12 14 14 17


4.0. 5.0



Page 1

Appendices i. ii. iii. iv. v. Telekom Malaysia VSAT Services rate Measat-1, C Band Coverage High Speed VSAT Evolution of VSAT System Broadband Access via Satellite 29 30 31 32 33



A brief history of space communication The idea of radio transmission through space was first conceived in 1911. In 1945 British author-scientist Arthur C Clarke suggested the use of a geosynchronous earth satellite for the purpose. His assumption of a manned space station was later revised by a US engineer, J R Pierce, in April 1955, who was also the first one to analyse unmanned communication satellites. This idea later led to the great success of satellite communications. The first artificial satellite "SPUTNIK I" was launched by the erstwhile USSR, in 1957. This began a series of space initiatives by USA and USSR. The first satellite communication experiment was the US government's project SCORE (Signal Communication by Orbiting Relay Equipment), which launched a satellite on December 18, 1958. This satellite circled the earth in an elliptical orbit and retransmitted messages recorded on a magnetic tape. It lasted for about 13 days after which the batteries ran out!! The US Army Signal Corp's Courier IB, launched in October 1960, lasted for about 17 days. It could handle typewriter data and voice and facsimile messages. It was a balloon, Echo 1, launched in August 1960, which led American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T) to build Telstar. Communication tests carried out by reflecting radio signals from Echo 1's surface were completely successful. Telstar, launched on July 1962 was the first active satellite with a microwave receiver and transmitter to transmit live television and telephone conversations across the Atlantic. It was turned off in February 1963. Successive initiatives include NASA's Relay 1 satellite was launched in elliptical orbit in December 1962 and Syncom 2, the first synchronous communication satellite was launched in July 1963. In 1964 a global initiative was undertaken leading to the formation of INTELSAT, which has been one of the major driving forces for the large scale commercial exploitation of satellite technology for communications. Since then there has been no looking back.

2.0. 2.1.

OVERVIEW OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION Satellite Communication Satellite Communication is a technology of data transmission whether one-way data broadcasting or two-way interactive using radio frequency as a medium. It consists of: i. Space Segment or Satellite ( eg. Measat, Intelsat and Inmarsat) ii. Ground Segment or earth station which includes Antenna, Outdoor Unit, Inter Facility Link, Indoor Unit and Customer Premises Equipment.


Type of Satellite Service Satellite communication provides services; i. International Telephony using Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

Page 2

ii. Intermediate Data Rate (IDR) Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Broadcasting TV Uplink Television Receive Only (TVRO) Digital Satellite News Gathering (DSNG) VSAT- Very Small Aperture Terminal Personal Earth Station (PES-TDMA) Telephony Earth Station (TES-TDMA) Domestic IDR/Single Channel Per Carrier (SCPC) VSAT Dialaway VSAT SkyStar Advantage VSAT Faraway


C Band 6/4GHz Ku Band -14/12GHz Ka Band 30/20GHz

HPA Up Converter Satellite Modem


Uplink 6 GHz

Downlink 4 GHz

LNA Down Converter Satellite Modem


Transmitting Earth Station

Receiving Earth Station

Note : HPA High Power Amplifier, LNA- Low Noise Amplifier (Earth station equipment that amplifies the transmit RF signal. ) CPE customer premises equipment ( eg. Telephone, PABX, Ethernet hub, host server, etc) Satellite Communication Concept 3.0. VSAT (VERY SMALL APERTURE TERMINAL)

VSAT( Very Small Aperture Terminal) is a satellite-based communications service that offers businesses and government agencies flexible and reliable communications solutions, both nationally and internationally, on land and at sea. VSAT networks provide: i. ii. iii. iv. v. 3.1. Rapid, reliable satellite transmission of data, voice and video and an ability to allocate resources (bandwidth and amplification power) to different users over the coverage region as needed. VSAT industry is offering fixed network solutions that can provide a full suite of services at reasonable price. eg: a toll quality voice channel via VSAT is available between 3-15 cents/minute today. Easy to provide point-to-multipoint (broadcast), multipoint-to-point (data collection), point-to-point communications and broadband multimedia services. VSATs are serviced not only in cases where the land areas are difficult to install, say in the case of remote locations, water areas, and large volumes of air space. An ability to have direct access to users and user premises. Specification

Page 3

VSAT is a term widely used in the satellite industry to describe an earth station that is installed on the ground to receive communications from a satellite or to communicate with other ground stations by transmitting to and receiving from satellite spacecraft. The ground station may be used only for reception, but is typically capable of both receiving and transmitting. Major components of a VSAT are generally grouped in two categories, ODU (outdoor unit) and IDU (indoor unit). 3.1.1. Out Door Unit

The ODU, so named because the components reside outdoors, includes; the antenna (typically ranging in size from 3.8 meters down to as small as 0.6m in diameter), equipped with a feed system capable of receiving and transmitting, a microwave radio, also known as a HPA High Power Amplifier, and an LNA (low noise amplifier) used to convert the signal gathered by the feed. Frequency Bands are available for use in C, Ku, or Ka frequency bands and are sold by wattage capability. A complicated calculation called a "Link Budget" is performed by the satellite operator to determine both the size of the antenna and how much power (wattage) will be required to complete the transmission link between the ground station and the satellite. Frequency Bands are sometimes combined with the LNA's which are used as part of the receiving operation. The resulting combination is called a "transceiver" and saves some integration time during the installation process.


IDU Indoor Unit

The indoor unit is typically composed of a single unit called a modem. A satellite modem is different than a telephone modem, and is used to convert the data, video, or voice generated by the customer application for transmission over satellite. The modem takes the signals from your computer, phone or other device and changes them so they can be sent to the ODU which transmits them out to the satellite and eventually to other ground stations. Antenna diameter : 0.6m 3.8m Traffic Capacity : 9.6kbps 2Mbps Frequency Bands : C-band (4-6Ghz) or Ku-Band (12-14Ghz) Ka-Band (30/20Ghz) Use of satellite : Geo-stationary satellite (36,000km above equator) Network : Point-to-point Configuration : Point-to-multipoint Equipment List : Antenna; Outdoor Unit (High Power Amplifier (HPA), Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), Solid-State Power Amplifier (SSPA)) Indoor Unit (chassis) Note: - Antenna size is used to describe the ability of the antenna to amplify the signal strength; - Outdoor unit (ODU) is connected through a low-loss coaxial cable to the indoor unit (IDU) called IFL (Inter facility Link).

Page 4


VSAT Configuration 3.2. VSAT Services i. Interactive real time application: - Point of Sale/retail/Banking (eg. ATM) - Corporate data Telephony - Rural: individual subscribers - Corporate Telephony Intranet, Internet and IP infrastructure - Multimedia delivery (eg. video streaming) - Interactive distance learning/ training Direct-to-home - Broadband Internet access for consumers and businesses





VSAT Topology 3.3.1. Star

The hub station controls and monitors can communicate with a large number of dispersed VSATs. Generally, the Data Terminal Equipment and 3 hub antenna is in the range of 6-11m in diameter. Since all VSATs communicate with the central hub station only, this network is more suitable for centralized data applications. 3.3.2. Mesh

A group of VSATs communicate directly with any other VSAT in the network without going through a central hub. A hub station in a mesh network performs only the monitoring and control functions. These networks are more suitable for telephony applications. 3.3.3 Hybrid Network

In practice usually using hybrid networks, where a part of the network operates on a star topology while some sites operate on a mesh topology, thereby accruing benefits of both topologies.

Page 5


Star Topology by Maxis

Mesh Topology by Maxis

Page 6

3.4 How VSAT Work i. ii. iii. The size of a VSAT antenna varies. The feed-horn directs the transmitted power towards the antenna dish or collects the received power from it. It consists of an array of microwave passive components. Antenna size is used to describe the ability of the antenna to amplify the signal strength. The Radio Frequency Terminal (RFT) is mounted on the antenna frame and interconnected to the feed-horn (outdoor electronics) includes Low Noise Amplifiers (LNA) and down-converters for amplification and down conversion of the received signal respectively. LNAs are designed to minimize the noise added to the signal during this first stage of the converter as the noise performance of this stage determines the overall noise performance of the converter unit. The noise temperature is the parameter used to describe the performance of an LNA. Up- converters and High Powered Amplifiers (HPA) are also part of the RFT and are used for up converting and amplifying the signal before transmitting to the feed-horn. The Up/Down converters convert frequencies between intermediate frequency (IF level 70 MHz) and radio frequency. Extended C band, the down converter receives the signal at 4.500 to 4.800 GHz and the up converter converts it to 6.725 to 7.025 GHz. The HPA ratings for VSATs range between 1 to 40 watts. The outdoor unit (ODU) is connected through a low-loss coaxial cable to the indoor unit (IDU). The typical limit of an (Interfacility Link) IFL cable is about 300 feet. The IDU consists of modulators that superimpose the user traffic signal on a carrier signal. This is then sent to the RFT for up conversion, amplification and transmission.



vi. vii.


Multiple Accessing Schemes The primary objective of the VSAT networks is to maximize the use of common satellite and other resources amongst all VSAT sites. The methods by which these networks optimize the use of satellite capacity, and spectrum utilization in a flexible and cost-effective manner are referred to as satellite access schemes. Each of the above topologies is associated with an appropriate satellite access scheme. Good network efficiency depends very much on the multiple accessing schemes. There are many different access techniques tailored to match customer applications. Access techniques including stream, transaction reservation, slotted Aloha and hybrid mechanisms are used and are configurable on a per-port basis, enabling customers to run multiple applications simultaneously. Voice of 5.6 kbit/s Hughes-proprietary CELP compression as well as voice of 8/16 kbit/s ADPCM compression schemes, synchronous data of 1.2 to 64 kbit/s, asynchronous data of up to 19.2 kbit/s and G3 fax relay are some of the applications. The satellite links are often referred to as long fat pipes they represent paths with high bandwidth-delay product. Moreover, since they typically provide a broadcast channel, media sharing methods are needed at the MAC sublayer of the data link control layer. The traditional CSMA/CD schemes typically used in LANs can not be used with satellite channels since it is not possible for earth stations to do carrier sense on the up-link due to the pointto-point nature of the link. A carrier-sense at the downlink informs the earth stations about potential collisions that may have occurred 270 ms ago (for GEO). Such delays are not practical for implementing CSMA/CD protocols. Most satellite MAC schemes usually assign dedicated channels in time and/or frequency for each user. This is due to the fact that the delay associated in detecting and resolving multiple collisions on a satellite link is usually unacceptable for most applications. The VSAT services are primarily based on one of two technologies: i. Single-carrier per channel (SCPC) and ii. Time-division multiple access (TDMA). 3.5.1. SCPC (Single-Carrier Per Channel)

SCPC-based design provides a point-to-point technology, making it the VSAT equivalent to conventional leased lines.

Page 7


3.5.2 TDMA (Time-division multiple access) With TDMA networks, numerous remote sites communicate with one central hub a design that is similar to packet-switched networks. As a leased-line equivalent, SCPC can deliver dedicated bandwidth of up to 2 Mbit/s. Remote sites in a TDMA network compete with one another for access to the central hub, restricting the maximum band-.4 DE width in most cases to 19.2 kbit/s. Almost all international VSAT services in Asia-Pacific are based on SCPC. Most domestic offerings are based on TDMA, although some domestic operators offer point-to-point SCPC links as well. Here, we will discuss briefly TDMA, pre-assigned or demand-assigned FDMA, CDMA and other accessing techniques featuring merits and demerits of these schemes. In a TDMA network, all VSATs share satellite resource on a time-slot basis. Remote VSATs use TDMA channels or inroutes for communicating with the hub. There could be several inroutes associated with one outroute. Several VSATs share one inroute hence sharing the bandwidth. Typical inroutes operate at 64 or 128 Kbit/s. Generally systems with star topology use a TDMA transmission technique. Critical to all TDMA schemes is the function of clock synchronization what is performed by the TDMA hub or master earth station. The VSATs may also access the inroute on a fixed assigned TDMA mode, wherein each VSAT is allocated a specific time slot or slots.

Page 8



FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)

It is the oldest and still one of the most common methods for channel allocation. In this scheme, the available satellite channel bandwidth is broken into frequency bands for different earth stations. This means that guard bands are needed to provide separation between the bands. Also, the earth stations must be carefully powercontrolled to prevent the microwave power spilling into the bands for the other channels. Here, all VSATs share the satellite resource on the frequency domain only. Typically implemented in a mesh or single satellite hop topology, FDMA has the following variants: i. PAMA (Pre-Assigned Multiple Acceess) It implies that the VSATs are pre-allocated a designated frequency. Equivalent of the terrestrial leased line solutions, PAMA solutions use the satellite resources constantly. Consequently, there is no call-up delay what makes them most suited for interactive data applications or high traffic volumes. As such, PAMA connects high data traffic sites within an organization. SCPC (Single Channel Per Carrier) refers to the usage of a single satellite carrier for carrying a single channel of user traffic. The frequency is allocated on a pre-assigned basis in case of SCPC VSAT which is also synonymously known as PAMA VSAT. ii. DAMA (Demand Assigned Multiple Access) The network uses a pool of satellite channels, which are available for use by any station in that network. On demand, a pair of available channels is assigned so that a call can be established. Once the call is completed, the channels are returned to the pool for an assignment to another call. Since the satellite resource is used only in pro-portion to the active circuits and their holding times, this is ideally suited for voice traffic and data traffic in batch mode. DAMA offers point-to-point voice, fax, and data requirements and supports video-conferencing. The ability to use on-board signal processing and multiple spot beams will enable future satellites to reuse the frequencies many times more than todays system. In general, channel allocation may be static or dynamic, with the latter becoming. DE 5 increasingly popular. DAMA systems allow the number of channels at any time be less than the number of potential users. Satellite connections are established and dropped only when traffic demands them.

iii. CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) Under this, a central network monitoring system allocates a unique code to each of the VSATs enabling multiple VSATs to transmit simultaneously and share a common frequency band. The data signal is combined with a high bit rate code signal which is independent of the data. Reception at the end of the link is accomplished by mixing the incoming composite data/code signal with a locally generated and correctly synchronized replica of the code. Since this network requires that the central network

Page 9

management system co-ordinates code management and clock synchronization of all remote VSATs, star topology is, by default, the best one. Although this is best applicable for very large networks with low data requirements, there are practical restrictions in the use of spread spectrum. It is employed mainly for interference rejection or for security reasons in military systems.

TDMA TDMA TimeTimedivision division Multiple Multiple Access Access

VSAT VSAT TECHNOLTECHNOL0GY 0GY SCPC SCPC SingleSinglecarrier carrier per per Channel Channel FDMA FDMA Frequency Frequency Division Division Multiple Multiple Access Access




VSAT Accessing Schemes

Page 10

4.0. VSAT NETWORK CHARACTERISTICS Modern satellites are often equipped with multiple transponders. The area of the earths surface covered by a satellites transmission beam is referred to as the footprint of the satellite transponders. The up-link is a highly directional, point-topoint link using a high-gain dish antenna at the ground station. The down-link can have a large footprint providing coverage for a substantial area or a spot beam can be used to focus high power on a small region thus requiring cheaper and smaller ground stations. Moreover, some satellites can dynamically redirect their beams and thus change their coverage area. The received microwave power involved in satellite links is typically very small (of the order of 100 picowatts). This means that specially designed earth stations that keep carrier-to-noise ratio to a minimum are used to transmit/receive satellite communications. The front-end receiver is the most crucial part of a transceiver and contributes to the overall cost of the satellite earth station in a significant way. Here, we describe some of the characteristics of a VSAT network: 4.1. Flexibility The VSAT networks offer enormous expansion capabilities; it factors in changes in the business environment and traffic loads that can be easily accommodated on a technology migration path. There are limitations faced by terrestrial lines in reaching remote and other difficult locations. On the other hand, VSATs offer unrestricted and unlimited reach. Additional VSATs can be rapidly installed to support the network expansion to any site, no matter however remote. 4.2. Network Management Network monitoring and control of the entire VSAT network is much simpler than a network of leased lines, involving multiple carriers at multiple locations. A much smaller number of elements need to be monitored in case of a VSAT network and also the number of vendors and carriers involved in between any two user terminals in a VSAT network is typically one. This results in a single point of contact for resolving all your VSAT networking issues. A VSAT network management system easily integrates end-to-end monitoring and configuration control for all network subsystems. 4.3. Reliability A single-point contact for operation, maintenance, rapid fault isolation and trouble-shooting makes things very simple for a client, using VSAT services. VSATs also enjoy a low mean-time to repair (MTTR) of a few hours, which extends up to a few days in the case of leased lines. Essentially, lesser elements imply lower MTTR. Uptime of up to 99.5 percent is achievable on a VSAT network. This is significantly higher than the typical leased line uptime of approximately 80-85%. 4.4. Cost A comparison of costs between a VSAT network and a leased line network shows that a VSAT network offers significant savings over 2-3 years timeframe. This does not take into account the cost of downtime, inclusion of which would result in the VSAT network being much more cost-effective. Pay-by-mile concept in case of leased line sends the cost spiraling upwards. More, so if the locations to be linked are dispersed all over the country. In case of VSATs, the service charges depend on the bandwidth which is allocated to the network in line with customer requirements. With a leased line, a dedicated circuit in multiples of 64 kbit/s is available whether the customer needs that amount of bandwidth or not. 4.5. Link Budgets It ascertains that the RF equipment would cater to the requirements of the network topology and satellite modems in use. The link Budget estimates the ground station and satellite EIRP required. Equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) is the power transmitted from a transmitting object. Satellite ERP can be defined as the sum of output power from the satellites amplifier, satellite antenna gain and losses. Calculations of signal levels through the system (from originatin earth station to satellite to receiving earth station) to ensure the quality of service should normally be done prior to the establishment of a satellite link. This calculation of the link budget highlights the various aspects. Apart from the known losses due to various cables and inter-connecting devices, it is advisable to keep sufficient link margin for various extraneous noise which may effect the performance. It is also a safeguard to meet eventualities of signal attenuation due to rain/snow. As mentioned earlier a satellite provides two resources, bandwidth and amplification power. In most VSAT networks, the limiting resource in satellite transponder is power rather than bandwidth.

Page 11

5.0 IMPLEMENTATION OF VSAT TECNOLOGY IN MALAYSIA Many projects had started and implemented by provider such as Telekom and Maxis. 5.1. Rural Communities (E-Bario, schools) telephone and internet Esso Malaysia, Shell Trading, Caltex data application Bernama Felda Palm and Transport Petronas Carigali & Dagangan Ericsson, Motorola Standard & Chartered Bank Min. of Education and Min. of Health

E-BARIO Synthesis The project objective was to define the opportunities for social development which are available from the deployment of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) within remote rural communities in Sarawak, using the Smart School as a demonstrator application. To identify further needs and opportunities within such communities that can be satisfied by the innovative use of contemporary ICTs and, through action-oriented measures, to demonstrate how significant and sustainable development can be achieved by remote communities through such implementations. The project was undertaken against the background of the Government of Malaysias aggressive adoption of ICTs for national development and the underdeveloped infrastructure and scattered population of the Nations largest state, Sarawak, on the island of Borneo. It has as its rationale the delivery of equal access to ICTs for those remote and marginalised communities that characterise rural life in Sarawak, and which contain more than half of the States population. Many such communities are un-served by road and have access to meagre or non-existent telecommunications services. The objectives were to demonstrate that access to ICTs, specifically the Internet, could precipitate significant improvements in the lives of such communities. The methodological approach was to conduct a pilot telecentre implementation within one remote community. The remote highland community of Bario in northern Sarawak was selected. It has a population of around 1,000 people and is the traditional centre of the Kelabit ethnic group of Borneo, which consists of around 5,000 people. Baseline studies were conducted in order to understand the conditions of life in the chosen community and computers were progressively introduced, beginning with the school. A community telecentre was established with the intention of providing community access to computers and to the Internet. It is also intended to provide the school with access to the Internet. Owing to a variety of circumstances, access to the Internet will not be achieved until after the end of the IDRC project funding period. Nevertheless, as additional funds have been obtained, the project will continue with the same objectives beyond the initial IDRC-funded period. The project has shown the following results and impacts: Within the target community of Bario:

A computer laboratory with 10 computers has been established at the junior-secondary An IT Literacy Programme is in operation in conjunction with a local company. A community telecentre has been established with four computers.


Internet access is to be provided by the national telecommunications carrier, Telekom Malaysia, who have installed satellite dishes and VSAT equipment for the connections to the telecentre and the school. The community has been sensitised to the capability of the technology and an agenda for development activity based on improved and technology-driven information delivery has been agreed. Within the wider community of Sarawak and beyond:

The Federal and State governments have been stimulated towards wider deployments of ICTs within rural communities both within Sarawak and the rest of Malaysia. The project has attracted further funding from the Government of Malaysia. Public awareness of the potential for ICT-induced rural development has increased.

Page 12


Universiti Malaysia Sarawak has developed considerable capacity for research into rural development with ICTs, having assembled a vibrant cross-disciplinary team capable of extending their activities beyond the immediate project. The Faculty of Information Technology ran a successful international symposium on rural ICTs and has declared its intention to establish a research centre in rural ICTs. Methodological aspects of research and advocacy for rural ICTs in developing countries have been advanced.

E-Bario Network Diagram

Dialaway VSAT

Page 13


Page 14

5.2. Opportunities in VSAT Technology For the future technology with the abroad services VSAT many opportunities can be achieved such as; i. ii. iii. iv. v. Voice over IP (VoIP) via satellite Frame Relay via satellite ATM via satellite Video-on-demand via satellite Multimedia application Internet/e-mail connection Telemedicine Distance learning

Page 15

6.0 6.1. TELEKOM MALAYSIA VSAT TM VSAT TM VSAT TM VSAT offers highly reliable, flexible support of integrated multimedia communications. Compared to alternative technologies, TM VSAT offers customers the following features and benefits: i. Star network topology - offers end-to-end shared hub services for network requirements that cannot economically support a dedicated hub and operated by experienced staff to ensure optimum service levels. Full mesh connectivity - provides a hubless network using only one satellite hop, offers lower delay and better response times. Smaller networks can be implemented at lower costs than traditional hub-based systems. Bandwidth-on-Demand - architecture automatically allocates a pool of bandwidth to meet customer requirements of any site. The customer can move or add host computers and PABX's without having to reengineer or re-size the network. Servers may be centralized or distributed. The bandwidth automatically "follows" the new traffic patterns. Scalability of network capacity - The aggregate network capacity can be increase from time to time as the number of sites and volume per site grows. Modularity and open system architecture - supports modular and open system architecture. The customer can expand the number of interfaces at the indoor unit as he requires. Economics of statistical multiplexing - Multiple applications share the same bandwidth. The customer uses and pays for less total bandwidth than with the more traditional multiple dedicated network approaches.






vii. Network Management and Control - operating on global standards and operational 24 hours a day, 7 days a week for some of major Earth Stations. viii.Cost effective solution - provides cot-effective communication solutions with high level functionality and performance since the pricing is distance independent. It offers a competitive alternative even for countries, which have a high degree of communication infrastructure. The dish is small, easily transportable and installation lead-time is much shorter if compared to terrestrial links. In addition, VSAT network allows rapid, low-cost network re-configuration and expansion to meet new or unexpected business requirements. Cost effective transmission and network operations are made possible by use of the Cband satellite frequency and frequency times division multiple access (FTDMA), Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) or Time division multiple access (TDMA) transmission techniques. VSAT offers a wide of protocols and features, providing extraordinary flexibility and virtually unlimited expansion capabilities. In addition, VSAT network is typically engineered to achieve a minimum of 99.5% end-to-end availability for all locations. 6.2. TM VSAT Architecture. VSAT can customize and implement select topology of network that is best suited to the customers' requirement. i. Hub type (VSAT HubStar with Star network topology) ii. Hubless type (VSAT DialNet and VSAT Direct with point-to-point or meshed network topology) 6.2.1. Hub type (VSAT HubStar)

VSAT HubStar is a private network designed for data, multimedia and voice applications, providing highly reliable communications between a central hub and almost any number of geographically dispersed sites. It integrates both high-speed Internet access and video multicasting capabilities. The network is suitable for point to multi-point communication for customers having a single data center requiring connectivity to its branches in geographically dispersed locations. This service supports transmission bandwidth ranging from 9.6 kbps to 128 kbps duplex. One of the advantages of Star topologies is that the hub can maintain effective control of the network through centralized processing. It is well suited for business traffic from the hub at the company headquarters and individual VSATs located at field offices, retail outlets or branches.

Page 16

6.2.2. Hubless type (VSAT DialNet and VSAT Direct) VSAT DialNet is a low cost rural telephony and Internet solutions that provides voice, fax and Internet service via satellite. It delivers toll-quality voice and IP transmission and represents the most cost-effective solutions. VSAT Direct is a communication network that provides on-demand data, voice and fax to remote locations via satellite with a flexible multi-channel communications for public, corporate and government applications. The available bandwidth is ranging from 9.6 kbps up to 2048 kbps duplex. Its point-to-point or mesh architecture is useful for providing inter-connectivity amongst relatively high volume VSATs utilization. It supports connection on demand between any pairs or terminals in the system. 6.3. TM VSAT Reachability. VSAT is a satellite-based service covering national and regional telecommunication needs. The service is served from small parabolic dishes (1.8m/2.4m/3.8m) accessing to the satellite directly from the customer premises. That explains the capability of the service reaching out to challenging areas of the country and region. This means of communication can also serve as part of company's network diversity. Value added services that TM VSAT can offer is as follows: 6.3.1. Gyro Stabilized System

Practical to cater for offshore communication especially for rough and choppy sea condition. A total service package that VSAT can offer to oil and gas customer. Typical applications are data transfer, voice communication and facsimile during oil exploration or drilling activities. 6.3.2. Potential back-up service

Inmarsat as a back up to the existing VSAT service for offshore industry.

Page 17




The network of VSATs at different locations adopts different topologies depending on the end applications traffic flow requirements. These topologies could be star, mesh or hybrid networks. The primary objective of the VSAT networks is to maximize the use of common satellite and other resources amongst all VSAT sites. The methods by which these networks optimize the use of satellite capacity, and spectrum utilization in a flexible and cost-effective manner are referred to as satellite access schemes. Each topology in VSAT is associated with an appropriate satellite access scheme. Good network efficiency depends very much on the multiple accessing schemes. There are many different access techniques tailored to match customer applications. The evolution in satellite communication will be affected to VSAT services. Satellite technology improvements give longer life, greater flexibility, higher performance and higher reliability overall and new on-board technology implementations. While in the ground station developments for improving satellite access technologies will make lower space segment utilization and lower operational costs. The smaller and highly integrated terminals provide more opportunity for mass deployment. Volume production and lower costs will make satellite alternative for multimedia services.

References 1. 2. 3., Communication Without Limits, Telekom Data services, 2002, VSAT Services, July 2003 Internet Access by Remote Communities in Sarawak: The Smart School as a Demonstrator Application, A Research Project: Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, May 2001 Section_1/s1_Binariang.htm, Binariang Satellite System Measat, Satellite Evolution Asia, 2003 Presentation on Telekom Malaysia, Satellite Network, August 2001



Page 18