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what you need to know:

futur simple:

Regular verbs
formation
The 'simple' future (le futur) is so-named because it is a one-word tense. In other words, its formation is simple
because there is no auxiliary.
The endings for the simple future are: -ai, -as, -a, -ons, -ez, -ont. The future stem for -er and -ir verbs is the infinitive.
For regular -re verbs, the stem is the infinitive minus the final e. In all cases, the future stem ends in -r: this sound
characterizes the future and the conditional.The French simple future tense is generally translated into English with
the modal auxiliary 'will.'
Listen carefully to the future conjugation of regular -er verbs, where the e of the infinitive changes in pronunciation.

je nagerai, I will swim


nous nagerons, we will swim

tu nageras, you will swim


vous nagerez, you will swim

il, elle
he, she (it)
ils / elles nageront, they will swim
Some -er verbs with spelling changes in the present form their future regularly, that is, their future stem is the
infinitive. These include verbs like préférer (je préférerai), manger (je mangerai) and commençer (je commencerai).
Other -er verbs with spelling changes in the present (appeler, employer, acheter) have irregular future stems.

je réfléchirai, I will think


nous réfléchirons, we will think

tu réfléchiras, you will think


vous réfléchirez, you will think

il, elle
ils / elles réfléchiront, they will think
je rendrai, I will give back
nous rendrons, we will give back

tu rendras, you will give back


vous rendrez, you will give back

il, elle
ils / elles rendront, they will give back

Many verbs which are irregular in the present tense have regular formations in the future. Their future stems are the
infinitive or the infinitive minus the final e. Such verbs include sortir (je sortirai), partir (je partirai), dormir (je
dormirai), boire (je boirai), dire (je dirai), écrire (j'écrirai), lire (je lirai), mettre (je mettrai), prendre (je prendrai), and
suivre (je suivrai).

The 'simple' future is so-named because it is a one-word tense. In other words, its formation is simple because
there is no auxiliary. The stem of the simple future always ends with the letterr, which is the characteristic sound
of the future and conditional tenses.

irregular future stems


Some irregular verbs also have irregular future stems. Nevertheless, the future endings are the same for all
verbs: -ai, -as, -a, -ons, -ez, -ont. The future stem for the verb être is ser- and the future stem for the verb avoir is
aur-.

je serai, I will be
nous serons, we will be

tu seras, you will be


vous serez, you will be

il, elle
ils / elles seront, they will be
j'aurai, I will have
nous aurons, we will have

tu auras, you will have


vous aurez, you will have

il, elle
ils / elles auront, they will have

Here are the most common verbs that have irregular future stems:
translation

aller
ir-
j'irai
I will go

courir
courr-
je courrai
I will run

devoir
devr-
je devrai
I will be obliged to

envoyer
enverr-
j'enverrai
I will send

faire
fer-
je ferai
I will do

falloir
faudr-
il faudra
it will be necessary

mourir
mourr-
je mourrai
I will die

obtenir
obtiendr-
j'obtiendrai
I will obtain

pleuvoir
passe compose:
avec avoir

uses
The passé composé is the most commonly used tense to refer to actions completed in the past. The passé composé
may be translated into English in three different ways depending on the context.

Tex ate all the meat!

Tex a mangé toute la viande!


Tex has eaten all the meat!

Tex did eat all the meat!

formation
This tense is called the passé composé because it is composed of two elements: the present tense of an auxiliary verb
(either avoir or être), followed by a past participle:
passé composé = present tense of auxiliary + past participle
Note that in most instances the auxiliary verb is avoir, but some verbs require être as the auxiliary.
For regular verbs with an infinitive ending in -er, the past participle is formed by replacing the final -er of the
infinitive with -é. Listen carefully to the pronunciation of the passé composé of the verb 'parler'. The past participle
(parlé) is pronounced the same as the infinitive (parler), even though they are spelled differently.
parler 'to talk'

j'ai parlé, I (have) talked


nous avons parlé, we (have) talked

tu as parlé, you (have) talked


vous avez parlé, you (have) talked

il, elle / on a parlé, he, she (it) / one (has) talked


ils / elles ont parlé, they (have) talked

The past participle of regular verbs with an infinitive ending in -ir is formed by dropping the final -r from the
infinitive. For example, the past participle of finir is fini.

finir 'to finish'

j'ai fini, I (have) finished


nous avons fini, we (have) finished

tu as fini, you (have) finished


vous avez fini, you (have) finished

il, elle / on a fini, he, she (it) / one (has) finished


ils / elles ont fini, they (have) finished

The past participle of regular verbs with an infinitive ending in -re is formed by replacing the final -re of the
infinitive with -u. For example, the past participle of perdre is perdu.

perdre 'to lose'

j'ai perdu, I (have) lost


nous avons perdu, we (have) lost

tu as perdu, you (have) lost


vous avez perdu, you (have) lost

il,elle / on a perdu, he, she (it) / one (has) lost


ils / elles ont perdu, they (have) lost

Note that many verbs, however, have irregular past participles. The past participles of many common irregular verbs
which have avoir as an auxiliary are listed below.
infinitive
translation
past participle

avoir
to have
eu

être
to be
été

faire
to do
fait

ouvrir
to open
ouvert

prendre
to take
pris

mettre
to put
mis

suivre
to follow
suivi

boire
to drink
bu

croire
to believe
cru

voir
to see
vu

savoir
Avec etre

uses
There are several past tenses in French, and each is used in very specific situations. The passé composé is the most
common past tense; it is used to relate actions or events completed in the past. The passé composé may be translated
into English in three different ways depending on the context.

Tex went to the Alamo.

Tex est allé à l'Alamo.

Tex has gone to the Alamo.

Tex did go to the Alamo.

formation
The passé composé consists of two parts, the present tense of an auxiliary, or helping verb (either avoir or être ), and
a past participle. In most instances the auxiliary verb used is avoir.
passé composé = present tense of auxiliary + past participle
However, several intransitive verbs, like aller (to go), require the auxiliary être instead. Note that the past participle
agrees with the subject in number and in gender.
aller 'to go'

je suis allé(e), I went (have gone)


nous sommes allé(e)s, we went (have gone)

tu es allé(e), you went (have gone)


vous êtes allé(e)(s), you went (have gone)

il / on est allé, he / one went (has gone)


ils sont allés, they went, (have gone)

elle est allée, she went (has gone)


elles sont allées, they went, (have gone)

The negation is formed by placing ne ... pas around the conjugated verb, which in this case, is the auxiliary être: Je
ne suis pas allé(e), Tu n'es pas allé(e), etc.

the Alamo of être


Many intransitive verbs, that is, verbs not followed by a direct object, take être in the passé composé. Many of these
verbs also indicate motion. They are verbs of coming and going. Even naître (to be born) and mourir (to die) can be
thought of as coming and going in metaphorical terms. The Alamo d'Être illustrates this group of verbs.

DR. MRS. VANDERTRAMP


Devenir
Revenir

Monter
Rester
Sortir
Passer
Venir
Aller
Naître
Descendre
Entrer
Rentrer
Tomber
Retourner
Arriver
Mourir
Partir

A few of these verbs of movement (monter, descendre,sortir, passer, retourner) may sometimes take a
direct object, thus becoming transitive. When they do, the auxiliary used is avoir, instead of être. Example:
Tex est sorti.

Tex went out.

Tex n'a pas sorti la poubelle.

Tex did not take out the garbage.

It is important to note that many intransitive verbs of movement, like courir and marcher, do not use être
but avoir. The pronominal verbs form another important group of verbs which use être as the auxiliary in
the passé composé.

irregular past participles


The past participles of the verbs that use être as an auxiliary are regular except for the following:
infinitive
translation
past participle

venir
to come
venu

devenir
to become
devenu

revenir
to come back
revenu

naître
to be born

mourir
to die
mort

Present:
présent
Before parl descend chois
addition
Er-Parler Re- descendre Ir-choisir
Je Parle descends Choisis
Tu Parles descends Choisis
Il/elle--- Parle descend Choisit
on/qui
Nous Parlons Descendons Choisissons
Vous Parlez Descendez Choisissez
Ils/elles parlent descendent choisissent

imparfait vs. passe compose:


imparfait (set scene)

passé composé (event)

Avant, Tammy habitait à Fort Worth ...

et puis un jour, elle a déménagé.

Before, Tammy lived in Forth Worth ...

and then, one day, she moved.

The following adverbs are commonly associated with each of the past tenses:
adverbs/imparfait

adverbs/passé composé

tous les jours, tous les matins ...


every day, every morning

un jour, un matin, un soir ...


one day, one morning, one evening

chaque jour, chaque matin, chaque mois ...


each day, each morning, each month

soudain, brusquement, brutalement ...


suddenly, abruptly, brusquely

en général, généralement, d'habitude . . .


in general, usually

tout d'un coup, tout à coup ...


all of a sudden, suddenly

autrefois, à l'époque ...


in the past, long ago, at the time

tout de suite, immédiatement ...


right away, immediately

toujours, souvent ...


always, often

d'abord, enfin ...


first of all, finally

rarement ...
rarely

puis, ensuite ...


then, next
Usually, when verbs like être, avoir, pouvoir, vouloir, and savoir are in a past narration, they will be in the imparfait,
since they most likely describe a past state of being or condition. However, when these verbs (and others like them)
occur in the passé composé, they indicate a change of state or a change of condition.

The passé composé is also generally used for activities that lasted for a precise length of time, with a definite
beginning and end. On the other hand, the imparfait is used for indefinite lengths of time. Look at these examples:
definite period of time:

De 1997 à 1998,

Pendant un an,

Tex a été vendeur de T-shirts.

Entre dix-huit et dix-neuf ans,

indefinite period of time:

Avant,

Quand il était enfant,

Tex était dans un couvent de Lyon.

A cette époque-là,
conditionelle:
The conditional is used to refer to hypothetical events. It occurs in polite requests and most frequently
with if clauses. In French, it is called le conditionnel and is most often translated by would in
English.

formation
The stem used to form the conditional is the same as the stem of the future (usually the infinitive). The
conditional endings are -ais, -ais, -ait, -ions, -iez, -aient (These are also the imperfect endings).

jouer 'to play'

je jouerais, I would play

nous jouerions, we would play

tu jouerais, you would play

vous joueriez, you would play

il, elle / on jouerait,


he, she (it) /would play

ils / elles joueraient, they would play

The above formation works for -er verbs (aimer, j'aimerais), -ir verbs (finir, je finirais) and -re verbs
(vendre, je vendrais). Remember to drop the final e from the infinitive stem of -re verbs .

pronunciation
The r in the stem is representative of the conditional, as well as the future. Only the difference in the
pronunciation of the endings distinguishes the two. The difference between the je forms is subtle. Can
you hear the differences? Note also how the e of the infinitive of -er verbs changes in the future and
conditional forms.
regarder 'to look at'

future

conditional

je regarderai

je regarderais

tu regarderas

tu regarderais

il / elle regardera

il / elle regarderait

nous regarderons

nous regarderions

vous regarderez

vous regarderiez

ils / elles regarderont

ils / elles regarderaient


irregular stems
Verbs with irregular future stems use the same irregular stems in the conditional. Here is a list of the
most common irregular stems:
infinitive

stem

conditional

translation

aller

ir-

j'irais

I would go

avoir

aur-

j'aurais

I would run

courir

courr-

je courrais

I would run

devoir

devr-

je devrais

I would be
obliged to

envoyer

enverr-

j'enverrais

I would send
verbs with spelling changes
Some verbs with spelling changes in the present form their future/conditional stem regularly. These
include verbs like préférer, espérer, manger, and commencer.
infinitive

stem

conditional

translation

préférer

préférer-

je préférerais

I would prefer

espérer

espérer-

j'espérerais

I would hope

manger

manger-

je mangerais

I would eat

commencer

commencer-

je
commencerais

I would start
Verbs with spelling changes like appeler, employer and acheter add -r to the present of the je form to
create their future stem.

present tense

stem

conditional

translation

j'appelle

appeller-

j'appellerais

I would call

j'emploie

emploier-

j'emploierais

I would use

j'achète

achèter-

j'achèterais

I would buy
writing sentences in futur simple ( im guessing in all tenses as well)

vocab:
stress :

found in your “cahier”

enfance:

found in your “cahier”

cuisine:
found in your “cahier”