what you need to know


futur simple:

Regular verbs formation The 'simple' future (le futur) is so-named because it is a one-word tense. In other words, its formation is simple because there is no auxiliary. The endings for the simple future are: -ai, -as, -a, -ons, -ez, -ont. The future stem for -er and -ir verbs is the infinitive. For regular -re verbs, the stem is the infinitive minus the final e. In all cases, the future stem ends in -r: this sound characterizes the future and the conditional.The French simple future tense is generally translated into English with the modal auxiliary 'will.' Listen carefully to the future conjugation of regular -er verbs, where the e of the infinitive changes in pronunciation.

je nagerai, I will swim nous nagerons, we will swim tu nageras, you will swim vous nagerez, you will swim il, elle he, she (it) ils / elles nageront, they will swim

Some -er verbs with spelling changes in the present form their future regularly, that is, their future stem is the infinitive. These include verbs like préférer (je préférerai), manger (je mangerai) and commençer (je commencerai). Other -er verbs with spelling changes in the present (appeler, employer, acheter) have irregular future stems.

je réfléchirai, I will think nous réfléchirons, we will think tu réfléchiras, you will think vous réfléchirez, you will think il, elle ils / elles réfléchiront, they will think

je rendrai, I will give back nous rendrons, we will give back tu rendras, you will give back vous rendrez, you will give back il, elle ils / elles rendront, they will give back

Many verbs which are irregular in the present tense have regular formations in the future. Their future stems are the infinitive or the infinitive minus the final e. Such verbs include sortir (je sortirai), partir (je partirai), dormir (je dormirai), boire (je boirai), dire (je dirai), écrire (j'écrirai), lire (je lirai), mettre (je mettrai), prendre (je prendrai), and suivre (je suivrai).

The 'simple' future is so-named because it is a one-word tense. In other words, its formation is simple because there is no auxiliary. The stem of the simple future always ends with the letterr, which is the characteristic sound of the future and conditional tenses. irregular future stems

Some irregular verbs also have irregular future stems. Nevertheless, the future endings are the same for all verbs: -ai, -as, -a, -ons, -ez, -ont. The future stem for the verb être is ser- and the future stem for the verb avoir is aur-.

je serai, I will be nous serons, we will be tu seras, you will be vous serez, you will be il, elle ils / elles seront, they will be

j'aurai, I will have nous aurons, we will have tu auras, you will have vous aurez, you will have il, elle ils / elles auront, they will have

Here are the most common verbs that have irregular future stems:

translation aller irj'irai I will go courir courrje courrai I will run devoir devrje devrai I will be obliged to envoyer enverrj'enverrai I will send faire ferje ferai I will do falloir faudril faudra it will be necessary mourir mourrje mourrai I will die obtenir obtiendrj'obtiendrai I will obtain pleuvoir

passe compose:
avec avoir uses The passé composé is the most commonly used tense to refer to actions completed in the past. The passé composé may be translated into English in three different ways depending on the context. Tex ate all the meat! Tex a mangé toute la viande! Tex has eaten all the meat!

Tex did eat all the meat!

formation This tense is called the passé composé because it is composed of two elements: the present tense of an auxiliary verb (either avoir or être), followed by a past participle: passé composé = present tense of auxiliary + past participle Note that in most instances the auxiliary verb is avoir, but some verbs require être as the auxiliary. For regular verbs with an infinitive ending in -er, the past participle is formed by replacing the final -er of the infinitive with -é. Listen carefully to the pronunciation of the passé composé of the verb 'parler'. The past participle (parlé) is pronounced the same as the infinitive (parler), even though they are spelled differently.

parler 'to talk' j'ai parlé, I (have) talked nous avons parlé, we (have) talked tu as parlé, you (have) talked vous avez parlé, you (have) talked il, elle / on a parlé, he, she (it) / one (has) talked ils / elles ont parlé, they (have) talked

The past participle of regular verbs with an infinitive ending in -ir is formed by dropping the final -r from the infinitive. For example, the past participle of finir is fini. finir 'to finish' j'ai fini, I (have) finished nous avons fini, we (have) finished tu as fini, you (have) finished vous avez fini, you (have) finished il, elle / on a fini, he, she (it) / one (has) finished ils / elles ont fini, they (have) finished

The past participle of regular verbs with an infinitive ending in -re is formed by replacing the final -re of the

infinitive with -u. For example, the past participle of perdre is perdu. perdre 'to lose' j'ai perdu, I (have) lost nous avons perdu, we (have) lost tu as perdu, you (have) lost vous avez perdu, you (have) lost il,elle / on a perdu, he, she (it) / one (has) lost ils / elles ont perdu, they (have) lost

Note that many verbs, however, have irregular past participles. The past participles of many common irregular verbs which have avoir as an auxiliary are listed below.

infinitive translation past participle avoir to have eu être to be été faire to do fait ouvrir to open ouvert prendre to take pris mettre to put mis suivre to follow suivi boire to drink bu croire to believe cru voir to see vu savoir

Avec etre uses There are several past tenses in French, and each is used in very specific situations. The passé composé is the most common past tense; it is used to relate actions or events completed in the past. The passé composé may be translated into English in three different ways depending on the context.

Tex went to the Alamo. Tex est allé à l'Alamo. Tex has gone to the Alamo.

Tex did go to the Alamo.

formation The passé composé consists of two parts, the present tense of an auxiliary, or helping verb (either avoir or être ), and a past participle. In most instances the auxiliary verb used is avoir. passé composé = present tense of auxiliary + past participle However, several intransitive verbs, like aller (to go), require the auxiliary être instead. Note that the past participle agrees with the subject in number and in gender.

aller 'to go' je suis allé(e), I went (have gone) nous sommes allé(e)s, we went (have gone) tu es allé(e), you went (have gone) vous êtes allé(e)(s), you went (have gone) il / on est allé, he / one went (has gone) ils sont allés, they went, (have gone) elle est allée, she went (has gone) elles sont allées, they went, (have gone)

The negation is formed by placing ne ... pas around the conjugated verb, which in this case, is the auxiliary être: Je ne suis pas allé(e), Tu n'es pas allé(e), etc. the Alamo of être Many intransitive verbs, that is, verbs not followed by a direct object, take être in the passé composé. Many of these verbs also indicate motion. They are verbs of coming and going. Even naître (to be born) and mourir (to die) can be thought of as coming and going in metaphorical terms. The Alamo d'Être illustrates this group of verbs.

Devenir Revenir Monter Rester Sortir Passer Venir Aller Naître Descendre Entrer Rentrer


Tomber Retourner Arriver Mourir Partir

A few of these verbs of movement (monter, descendre,sortir, passer, retourner) may sometimes take a direct object, thus becoming transitive. When they do, the auxiliary used is avoir, instead of être. Example: Tex est sorti. Tex went out. Tex n'a pas sorti la poubelle. Tex did not take out the garbage.

It is important to note that many intransitive verbs of movement, like courir and marcher, do not use être but avoir. The pronominal verbs form another important group of verbs which use être as the auxiliary in the passé composé. irregular past participles The past participles of the verbs that use être as an auxiliary are regular except for the following:

infinitive translation past participle venir to come venu devenir to become devenu revenir to come back revenu naître to be born né mourir to die mort

Before addition parl présent descend chois

Je Tu Il/elle--on/qui Nous Vous Ils/elles

Er-Parler Parle Parles Parle Parlons Parlez parlent

Re- descendre descends descends descend Descendons Descendez descendent

Ir-choisir Choisis Choisis Choisit Choisissons Choisissez choisissent

imparfait vs. passe compose:
imparfait (set scene) passé composé (event) Avant, Tammy habitait à Fort Worth ... et puis un jour, elle a déménagé. Before, Tammy lived in Forth Worth ... and then, one day, she moved.

The following adverbs are commonly associated with each of the past tenses:

adverbs/imparfait adverbs/passé composé tous les jours, tous les matins ... every day, every morning un jour, un matin, un soir ... one day, one morning, one evening chaque jour, chaque matin, chaque mois ... each day, each morning, each month soudain, brusquement, brutalement ... suddenly, abruptly, brusquely en général, généralement, d'habitude . . . in general, usually tout d'un coup, tout à coup ... all of a sudden, suddenly autrefois, à l'époque ... in the past, long ago, at the time tout de suite, immédiatement ... right away, immediately toujours, souvent ... always, often d'abord, enfin ... first of all, finally rarement ... rarely puis, ensuite ... then, next

Usually, when verbs like être, avoir, pouvoir, vouloir, and savoir are in a past narration, they will be in the imparfait, since they most likely describe a past state of being or condition. However, when these verbs (and others like them) occur in the passé composé, they indicate a change of state or a change of condition. The passé composé is also generally used for activities that lasted for a precise length of time, with a definite beginning and end. On the other hand, the imparfait is used for indefinite lengths of time. Look at these examples:

definite period of time:

De 1997 à 1998,

Pendant un an, Tex a été vendeur de T-shirts. Entre dix-huit et dix-neuf ans,

indefinite period of time:


Quand il était enfant, Tex était dans un couvent de Lyon. A cette époque-là,

The conditional is used to refer to hypothetical events. It occurs in polite requests and most frequently with if clauses. In French, it is called le conditionnel and is most often translated by would in English. formation The stem used to form the conditional is the same as the stem of the future (usually the infinitive). The conditional endings are -ais, -ais, -ait, -ions, -iez, -aient (These are also the imperfect endings).

jouer 'to play'

je jouerais, I would play nous jouerions, we would play

tu jouerais, you would play vous joueriez, you would play

il, elle / on jouerait, he, she (it) /would play ils / elles joueraient, they would play

The above formation works for -er verbs (aimer, j'aimerais), -ir verbs (finir, je finirais) and -re verbs (vendre, je vendrais). Remember to drop the final e from the infinitive stem of -re verbs . pronunciation The r in the stem is representative of the conditional, as well as the future. Only the difference in the pronunciation of the endings distinguishes the two. The difference between the je forms is subtle. Can you hear the differences? Note also how the e of the infinitive of -er verbs changes in the future and

conditional forms.

regarder 'to look at'

future conditional

je regarderai je regarderais

tu regarderas tu regarderais

il / elle regardera il / elle regarderait

nous regarderons nous regarderions

vous regarderez vous regarderiez

ils / elles regarderont ils / elles regarderaient

irregular stems Verbs with irregular future stems use the same irregular stems in the conditional. Here is a list of the most common irregular stems:

infinitive stem conditional translation

aller irj'irais I would go

avoir aurj'aurais I would run

courir courrje courrais I would run

devoir devrje devrais I would be obliged to

envoyer enverrj'enverrais I would send

verbs with spelling changes Some verbs with spelling changes in the present form their future/conditional stem regularly. These include verbs like préférer, espérer, manger, and commencer.

infinitive stem conditional translation

préférer préférerje préférerais I would prefer

espérer espérerj'espérerais I would hope

manger mangerje mangerais I would eat

commencer commencerje commencerais I would start

Verbs with spelling changes like appeler, employer and acheter add -r to the present of the je form to create their future stem.

present tense stem conditional translation

j'appelle appellerj'appellerais I would call

j'emploie emploierj'emploierais I would use

j'achète achèterj'achèterais I would buy

writing sentences in futur simple ( im guessing in all tenses as well)

stress : found in your “cahier” enfance: found in your “cahier” cuisine: found in your “cahier”

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