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Minor Project Report on Efficiency Improvement of a Combined Cycle Power Plant

Submitted By:Akshay Pandey Ayush Jain - (R800209006) - (R800209018)

M.Abhishek Krishnan - (R800209032) Mayank Sethi Mudit Prabhakar - (R800209034) - (R800209035)

In Fulfillment of VI Semester INT. B.Tech. (Power System Engineering)+ MBA(PM) Under the Guidance of Mr. Narayan Khatri
Assistant Professor
Mechanical Department COES (UPES) University of Petroleum & Energy Studies

College of Engineering Studies ,Energy Acres P.O. & Vill: Bidholi, Dehradun, http://upesindia.ac.in

Acknowledgement
The project bears the imprints of the efforts extended by many people to whom we are deeply indebted. We would like to thank our mentor Mr. Narayan Khatri under whose able guidance we gained the insights and ideas without which the project could not have seen the light of the day. We would also like to thank Mr. Suresh Trivedi, Senior Engineer who was always available for discussions at length on the various concepts that could be incorporated in the project. His suggestions have been valuable and his teachings during the course of our discussions would continue to be a guiding principle in our works in the future as well. We would also like to thank Mr. Jaydeep Chakrobarty for their constant support and guidance. Finally, I would like to thank the University for providing us an opportunity to apply our technical knowledge and see it materialize in the form of this project.

College of Engineering University of Petroleum and Energy Studies Dehradun

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project work on Improvement of efficiency of a Combined cycle power plant submitted to the University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun, by Akshay Pandey (R800209006) , Ayush Jain (R800209018), Abhishek Krishnan (R800209032), Mayank Sethi (R800209034) and Mudit Prabhakar( R800209035) as a minor project in Int. Btech. Power System Engineering + MBA (Power Management) Academic session 2012-13 is a bonafide work carried out by them under my supervision and guidance.

_____________
Date: 18/11/2011 Mr. Narayan Khatri

Table Of Content

Chapter 1: - Introduction
1.1 Basic Principle 1.2 Basic Layout 1.3 Main Features

Chapter2: - Thermodynamic Systems


2.1 Thermodynamic Systems 2.2 Gas System

Chapter3: - Working
3.1 Working description of the plant 3.2 Fuel for combined cycle power plants

Chapter4: - Methods of Improving efficiency of Combined Cycle Power Plant


4.1 Quick start-up 4.2 Inlet air temperature 4.3 Use of HRSG combined with the gas turbine reheat and gas to gas recuperation 4.4 Increase in number of pressure stages

Chapter5: - Complementary Fired Combined Cycle Power Plant


5.1 Introduction to complementary Fired Combined Cycle Power Plant 5.2 Advantages and Disadvantages

Chapter6: - Conclusion
6.1 Future of Combined Cycle Power Plant 6.2 Comparison between Thermal and Combined Cycle Power Plant 6.2 References

Introduction
Power generation is most important to any countrys commerce and industry. As the power demand increases, more efficient power generation methods are developed. The increasing environmental concern mainly caused due to carbon emission also leading to emphasis on environmental friendly power generation techniques. Combined cycle power generation is gaining popularity all over the world. In general working Combined Cycle efficiencies are greater than 50 percent on a lower heating value and Gross Output basis. Most combined cycle systems, especially the larger units, have peak, steady state efficiencies of 55 to 59 percent. In electric power generation a combined cycle is an assembly of heat engines that function in tandem off a common source of heat, converting it to mechanical energy, which in turn drives electrical generators.

But now the requirement to increase the efficiency of a Combined Cycle Power Plants has come up with the increase in demand of power. In this context, the methods to increase efficiency of a CCPP are discussed.

Basic Principle
The basic principle is that, the exhaust of one heat engine is provided as the heat source for another, thus producing more useful energy from the same heat, thus increasing the system's overall efficiency. This method works better because heat engines are only able to capitalize a portion of the energy their fuel generates (less than 50%).The reidual heat (e.g., hot exhaust fumes) from combustion is generally wasted. Combining two thermodynamic cycle results in improved overall efficiency, thus reducing fuel costs. In a combined cycle power plant, or combined cycle gas turbine plant, a gas turbine generator generates electricity and energy in the exhaust is used to produce steam, which rotates a steam turbine to produce additional electricity. This last step increases the efficiency of electricity generation. Now, to enhance the efficiency of a CCPP, various methods have been found out in such a short period of time after the implementation of the CCPPs. Some of the methods are: Quick Start-up: The greater the load change amount is, the faster the recommended additional startup timing. This tendency improves if the load change is quicker. Inlet air temperature: Cooling or decreasing the inlet air temperature increases the power. Use of HRSG: Optimization of Heat Recovery Steam Generators in combination with the use of gas turbine reheats and gas to gas recuperation increases the efficiency of the plant by 65 percent. Pressure Stages: Increase in the number of pressure stages, also increases the efficiency of the plant. All the above methods are fulfilled by using a new technology, which Siemens Power Generation has come up with, is the Complementary Fired Combined Cycle Power Plant. All These methods will be discussed in detail later.

Basic layout
Power Plant General Layout
The whole site is separated into four part, they are main power block building area, switch gear equipment area, plant front area and auxiliary production area. Main power block building area is arranged in the central area, it consists of the steam turbine house, gas turbine generation unit, gas turbine generation unit gas turbine generation unit and electrical building. The northern area of the plant is reserved for extension purposes. Switch gear equipment area consists of 220kV GIS and transformer yard. The rain water drainage pump house, switch gear equipment area and starting boiler house are arranged to the east to the main building area. Plant front area is arranged to the south of main building area, this area consists of the following items: production overall building, bathroom, mess hall, warehouse X, V and maintenance building. And gas regulator station is arranged to the east of the plant front area. Auxiliary production area is arranged in the western side of the pant, this area consists of combined water treatment station, industrial waste water treatment station, sewage water treatment, and chemical water treatment station and hydrogen generation plant.

Main features
Combined cycle power generation combines two cycles for the operation, the gas turbine cycle and steam turbine cycle. In the gas turbine power plant, compressed air and natural gas undergo combustion .The result is high pressure gas that drives the gas turbine which in produces electricity. Although it is fast in starting up and clean, the gas turbine power plant has a low thermo efficiency of about 25 to 30%. Most of the energy is wasted in the gas turbine exhaust. The combined cycle power generation makes use of the advantages of the high temperature (1100 to 1650C) gas turbine cycle and the lower temperature (540 to650C) steam turbine cycle. The hot exhaust gas in the gas turbine, instead of being released into atmosphere, is captured and diverted to the steam turbine where steam is heated by the exhaust to rotate the turbine. A combined cycle power plant comprises of two main parts the gas turbine plant and the steam turbine plant. In the gas turbine plant the atmospheric air enters through the air compressor and into the combustion chamber where natural gas is added. Combustion takes place and the hot gas drives the turbine, which in turn rotates the generator and produces electricity. The hot flue gas from the gas turbine enters heat recovery boiler or heat recovery steam generator where it heats up the steam. The superheated steam is used to rotate the steam turbine which in turn drives the generator to generate electricity. The exit steam of the steam Turbine goes into a condenser and then back to the heat exchanger where the cycle repeats. There are various categories of combined cycle power generation, some of them are combined cycle with supplementary firing, combined cycle with multi pressure steam cycle, combined cycle with feed water heating, combined cycle with regeneration and combined cycle for nuclear power plants.

Thermodynamic systems
Main Steam System
The main steam system will transport HP steam from the two sets of HRSGs to the High Pressure steam turbine. The main steam system will be facilitated with bypass of main steam flow to the cold reheat system during shutdown, startup, and sudden load changes. The temperature and pressure of the main steam will be reduced with a combination desuperheating and pressure reducing valve before the steam enters the cold reheat pipe. The boiler feed system will facilitate desuperheating water.

Reheat System
The reheat system consists of cold reheat and hot reheats steam piping. The cold reheat pipe transports steam from the exhaust of the HP steam turbine to the reheater of the HRSGs. Cold reheat also receives the steam from the IP superheater on each HRSG. The hot reheat steam pipe conveys the reheat steam from the HRSGs to the IP steam turbine. The reheat steam system will be facilitated with bypass of reheat steam flow to the condenser during startup, sudden load changes , and shutdown. The temperature and pressure of the main steam will be reduced with a combination de-superheating and pressure reducing valve before the steam enters the cold reheat pipe. The boiler feed system will facilitate de-superheating water.

Low Pressure Steam System


The LP steam system will transport LP steam from the HP steam turbine and the HRSG to the LP steam turbine. The LP steam system will be facilitated with bypass of LP steam flow to the condenser during startup, shutdown, and sudden load changes. The temperature and pressure of the main steam will be reduced with a combination de-superheating and pressure reducing valve before the steam enters the cold reheat pipe. The boiler feed system will facilitate de-superheating water.

Condensate System
Condensate pumps will build suction from the condenser hot well via suction strainers. Condensate will be extracted from the hot well by the condensate pumps, through the HRSG LP economizers and the gland steam condenser before reaching the LP drum. Condensate regulator control valve control the water level in the LP drum.

Boiler Feed-water System


The boiler feed-water system will intake water from the LP drum of the HRSG and supply the HP and IP economizer of the HRSG. The water through the feed-water pump outlet is fed into the HP economizer. The IP feed-water is fed using an inter-stage bleed from the pump at the wanted pressure is fed to the LP economizer. The boiler feedwater system will also provide desuperheating water to all the de-superheaters within the power-plant.

Circulating Water System


The steam turbine exhausts steam the condenser. The condenser will receive steam from the steam turbine and condense it using sea water (where sea is in close proximity) from the circulating water system. The condenser air removal system maintains and creates vacuum in the shell side of the condenser by removing air and non-condensable gases. The circulating water is pumped from the pond through the condenser and closed cycle cooling heat exchangers and discharged to the River.

Auxiliary Cooling Water System


The Auxiliary Cooling Water System extracts heat from the Closed Cycle Cooling Water System through the closed cycle cooling water heat exchanger. At the time of normal operation the Circulating Water System will provide cooling water to the closed cycle cooling water heat exchanger. After going through the heat exchangers, the auxiliary cooling water will be dispatched into the Circulating Water System downstream of the condenser discharge isolation valves.

Closed Cycle Cooling Water System


The Closed Cycle Cooling Water System facilitates a clean source of cooling water to the fluid and mechanical systems requiring cooling. This cooling water is provided by circulating water via the closed cooling water heat exchangers, which are cooled with the help of Circulating Water System.

De-mineralized Water Makeup and Storage System


The De-mineralized Water Storage and Makeup System will supply de-mineralized water for to condenser, and closed cooling water system and the combustion turbine wash. Makeup water can enter the condenser by either gravity or pump.

Compressed Air System


Air compressors will provide service and control compressed air for the chemical water treatment and power island portion of the plant.

Boiler Vents and Drains System


The drains system and boiler vents will take all operating and maintenance vents and drains from the HRSG and convey them to the desired location. HP HRSG operating drains will be taken to the flash expander prior to entering the plant drains system. Low temperature HRSG drains will be taken to the plant drains system.

Gas System
The fuel of the plant is natural gas. Natural gas will be transported to the site via a gas pipeline operated by "City Gas". At the outlet of the reducing gas station, the gas pressure is 7 bar. The gas line pressure is not sufficient for the GE 9FA which requires a minimum gas pressure of 2.79 MPa (405 psia), so, gas Compressors are needed to rise the gas line pressure. As the fuel supply system is relatively reliable, no gas tank is provided inside the plant. A totaling flow meter will be supplied to measure gas consumption of each gas turbine. A gas-operated (spring closing) valve will automatically isolate the fuel gas lines coming into the turbine generator building when a fire is detected on the gas turbines or in the building. A solenoid valve will then vent the gas in the line outside the generation building.

Natural gas composition

Composition Nitrogen Carbon Dioxide Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentanes Hexanes Heptanes Plus

Percent by Volume
0.385 0.688 92.766 4.117 1.211 0.529 0.165 0.138 0.001

Percent by Weight
0.62 1.72 84.49 7.03 3.03 1.74 0.68 0.67 0.02

Working description of the plant


The primary parts of a combined cycle natural gas power plant are a gas turbine, a steam generator and steam turbines. Compressed air is mixed with natural gas in the combustion chamber, and burns at high temperature (900 to 1500C). The exhaust gas expands through a turbine. The turbine drives the compressor, but generates more work than what is used for compression, typically at a 2 to 1 ratio. This is caused by the change of temperature in the air flow as it passes through the combustion chamber. The process is essentially the same as you would find in a jet engine, but while a jet engine is constructed to generate thrust, and therefore has a turbine only big enough to drive the compressor, a gas turbine is bigger, using the excess energy to run a generator. The hot exhaust gas (450 to 650C) expands though a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) which generates steam at typically about 550C and high pressure (30-120 bar), and is expanded through one or several steam turbines (large/high temperature units may be fitted with multiple pressure HRSG with reheaters, while smaller units often do not). The gas turbine and the steam turbine(s) may be fitted on the same drive shaft, particularly in smaller units. The steam turbine cycle converts about 30 to 40% of the thermal energy of the exhaust gas to work, increasing the total efficiency off the unit by about 20 percentage points. As gas turbines are based on heat expansion of compressed air, combustion gases makes up only a small portion of the exhaust gas from the turbine . Therefore, the CO2 concentration (3 to 4%) and CO2 partial pressure (0.03 to 0.04 bar) in the flue gas is much lower than in thermal power plants (12 to 14% concentration and 0.12 to 0.14 bar partial pressure). This makes capturing the CO2 more challenging. However, the higher overall efficiency of CCPP units might make the portion of the total electric generation needed to run the capture process smaller than is the case in lower efficiency single cycle units, offsetting the higher energy cost per unit of captured CO2.

Fuel for combined cycle power plants


The turbines used in Combined Cycle Plants are commonly fuelled with natural gas , which is found in abundant reserves on every continent. Natural gas is becoming the fuel of choice for private investors and consumers because it is more versatile than coal or oil and can be used in 90% of energy applications .Chile which once depended on hydropower for 70% of its electricity supply, is now boosting its gas supplies to reduce reliance on its drought afflicted hydro dams .Similarly China is tapping its gas reserves to reduce reliance on coal, which is currently burned to generate 80% of the countrys electric supply. Where the extension of a gas pipeline is impractical or cannot be economically justified, electricity needs in remote areas can be met with small scale Combined Cycle Plants, using renewable fuels. Instead of natural gas, Combined Cycle Plants can be filled with biogas derived from agricultural and forestry waste, which is often readily available in rural areas. Combined cycle plants are usually powered by natural gas, although fuel oil, synthesis gas or other fuels can be used. The supplementary fuel may be natural gas, fuel oil, or coal. Biofuels can also be used. Integrated solar combined cycle power stations combine the energy harvested from solar radiation with another fuel to cut fuel costs and environmental impact. The first such system to come online is Yazd power plant, Iran and more are under construction at Hassi R'mel, Algeria and Ain Beni Mathar, Morocco. Next generation nuclear power plants are also on the drawing board which will take advantage of the higher temperature range made available by the Brayton top cycle, as well as the increase in thermal efficiency offered by a Rankine bottoming cycle.

Low-Grade Fuel for Turbines


Gas turbines burn mainly natural gas and light oil. Crude oil, residual, and some distillates contain corrosive components and as such require fuel treatment equipment. In addition, ash deposits from these fuels result in gas turbine debatings of up to 15 percent they may still be economically attractive fuels however, particularly in combined-cycle plants. A magnesium additive system may also be needed to reduce the corrosive effects if vanadium is present

Methods of Improving efficiency of Combined Cycle Power Plant:


The need to increase the efficiency of the Combined Cycle Power Plants came into light due to the increased power demand and also the increased fuel cost. Thus to increase the efficiency of the CCPPs, without compromising with the Plant Capacity and Plant service life, following methods, considered best with respect to the requirements, are being used presently.

1. Quick Start-up:
This method was the most considered method out of all the methods of increasing efficiency of the CCPP. With the need to develop power more efficiently, various engineering minds came together and built up a new development project called FACY (Fast Cycling). This project aims at designing a plant for an increased number of starts and to reduce start-up time. The potential areas for improvement are as follows : Utilization of auxiliary steam to heat the main steam generator during standstill (this increases the shutdown interval during which hot start or warm start criteria apply) Ready-for-operation mode of the water/steam cycle Optimized component design and plant operation to reduce material fatigue caused by load cycling Optimization of the automation concept New start-up sequence Start on the Fly.

The following diagram summarizes the features of the FACY concept.

All FACY features mentioned below help to significantly reduce the start up time. They are modular and will be offered, configured and implemented on a project-specific base.

Conserving warm start conditions


The main point of interest is the steam generator. Major heat loss occurs through the stack. A stack damper to limit heat loss during shutdown has therefore been deployed. Cooling down of the boiler is considerably delayed. Furthermore, auxiliary steam is used to heat the main heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG). These measures clearly increase the maximum possible standstill periods during which criteria for hot and warm starts still apply.

Ready-for-operation mode of water/steam cycle


Auxiliary steam is also used to maintain the water/steam cycle in a ready-for-operation mode. This means auxiliary steam is fed into the gland steam system of the steam turbine. Keeping the gland steam system in operation prevents air from being sucked into the steam turbine and the condenser. Since the steam turbine and the condenser are sealed off from the ambient air, the condenser vacuum pumps can maintain the vacuum. To increase the performance of the startup procedure, the condensate polishing plant is used to speed up balancing of the water/steam cycle within specified chemistry limits.

Optimized component design and plant operation to reduce material fatigue caused by load cycling loads
The HRSGs high-pressure drum is one of the most critical components involved in the startup procedure. As a thick-walled component it is exposed to large temperature gradients and high operating pressures (~125 bar). Thermal stress in the high-pressure drum walls limits the rate of HRSG and plant startup. The main feature of BENSON boiler technology is once-through steam generation, which means that conventional separation of steam and boiling water inside the boiler drum is not necessary. Steam is generated directly within the evaporation tubes of the boiler, as shown in Figure 3. The startup-critical high-pressure drum is not used in a BENSON-type boiler. A temperature-controlled startup process which uses a high-capacity desuperheater to limit steam temperatures during the startup process has been developed for warm and cold starts. This reduces thermal stress in critical components of the steam turbine.

These design measures significantly increase startup rates.

Drum- type HRSG vs. BENSON- type HRSG

Automation concept optimization


There are two approaches to optimizing the automation concept. Design limits are enhanced by the use of a closed-loop control instead of earlier empiric approaches. A turbine stress controller is used to determine thermal stress based on temperature differences measured within the steam turbine and ensures that stress limits are not exceeded. The turbine stress controller makes it possible to reduce the startup time without reducing the lifetime of heat-critical turbine components.Two additional startup modes - fast and economic were introduced. The operator has the option of choosing the appropriate startup mode depending on current operating and power supply requirements. Maintenance intervals can be extended using the economic setting and a controlled fast startup with consequently higher steam turbine lifetime consumption is also possible.The startup procedure is automated to such a level as to enable hot starts with only a few operator actions, the aim being to minimize inefficient and unproductive periods during startup preparations. Draining and venting are largely automated.

Second-generation FACY Start on the Fly


In addition to the FACY efforts, a procedure for parallel startup of gas and steam turbines has been developed. It is based on monitoring and controlling the temperature gradients within limits acceptable for all critical plant components. The new concept enables plant startups without any gas turbine load hold points. A new startup sequence was implemented for this reason see Figure 4. The main innovation is the early steam turbine starting point, acceleration and loading of the turbine.

Figure : Improved startup through Start on the Fly

Since its successful market launch in 2003, over 10 Siemens combined-cycle power plants have been equipped with FACY and gone successfully into operation. All of these projects are based on the basic FACY concept of ensuring that load cycling during the startup procedure is minimized by a thermally driven control concept. Each project is optimized to suit individual customer needs.

2.

Inlet Air Temperature:

The marketplace for electric power has become highly dynamic and competitive in nature in the backdrop of deregulation of power generation, declining fuel reserve margins, environmental regulations, climatic temperature extremes and the introduction of Availability Based Tariff (ABT). In such an environment, having the flexibility to augment gas turbine power output during periods when there is high tariff rates is of paramount importance to the profitability of the utilities. Efficient, clean and less expensive to implement than most other alternatives, combined cycle power plants offer a blend of operational attributes that makes it the best choice for power production. The generated power and efficiency of gas turbine plants depend on the temperature of the inlet air. At high ambient temperatures, a power loss of more than 20%, combined with a significant increase in specific fuel consumption, compared to ISO standard conditions (15 C), can be observed. The adverse effect of high ambient air temperatures on the power output of a gas turbine is twofold: as the temperature of the air increases, the air density and, consequently, the air mass flow decreases. The reduced air mass flow directly causes the gas turbine to produce less power output. Also, the higher intake-air temperature results in an increase of the specific compressor work and, therefore, in a further reduction of the power output. Depending on the type of the gas turbine, the electric output will decrease by a percentage between 6% and more than 10% for every 10C of intake-air temperature increase also there is a corresponding loss in the efficiency. The straightforward conclusion from the above discussion is that at temperatures of 2535 C, common in Southern part of the country specially Kerala and 20-45C in the northern part of the country where a large number of gas turbines are used for electricity generation, there is a power loss of more than 20%. Thus we decrease the inlet air temperature which results in increased mass flow rate of air and decreased specific compression work which results in increased power output. While the ambient temperature rises, the CCGT heat-rate increases (this is mean, the CCGT overall efficiency decreases)

Effect of ambient temperature on the overall performance CCGT.

3. Use of HRSG in combination with the use of gas turbine reheat and gas to gas recuperation.
It is of great interest to research on the efficiency improvement of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle plant. A combined cycle with three pressure reheat heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is chosen for study in this paper. In order to maximize the Gas Turbine Combined Cycle efficiency, the optimization of the HRSG operating parameters is performed. The operating parameters are determined by means of a thermodynamic analysis, i.e. minimizing the energy losses. The influence of HRSG inlet gas temperature on the steam bottoming cycle efficiency is discussed. The result shows that increase in the HRSG inlet temperature has less improvement to steam cycle efficiency when it is above 590C. Partial gas to gas recuperation in the topping cycle is studied. Joining HRSG optimization with the use of gas to gas heat recuperation, the combined cycle power plant efficiency can rise up to 59.05% at base load. In addition, the part load performance of the Gas Turbine Combined Cycle power plant gets much better. The efficiency is increased by 2.11% at 75% load and by 4.17% at 50% of the load.

Assumption
The thermal scheme of the Gas Turbine Combined Cycle power plant used for this study is shown in Fig. 1. The main characteristics are: Three pressures reheat HRSG without supplementary firing as displayed. A high (HP), intermediate (IP) and low-pressure (LP) steam turbine and the LP one has a double flow with a down exhaust. Deaerator condenser with a cooling system that has a wet tower. Feed water pumps: the LP pump at the condenser outlet, the IP pump and the HP pump are responsible for elevating the water pressure to high and intermediate levels. LP bulb is used as the Intermediate Pressure and High Pressure feed water tank. In addition, a circulating pump is used to transfer most of the water from LP economizer outlet to the inlet mixing with the condensate for ensuring the economizer inlet temperature. Natural gas supply: the fuel is preheated by water taken from IP economizer outlet and then to the condenser.

Table 1:Main data at base load for the GTCC simulation Parameter (unit) Ambient temperature () Atmospheric pressure (kPa) Relative humidity Fuel: Natural gas, LHV (kJ/kg) Supply conditions after preheated (MPa/) GE PG9351FA gas turbine Gross power (MW) Maximum compression isentropic efficiency(%) Combustion efficiency (%) Turbines isentropic-efficiency (%) Electricity-generator's efficiency (%) Turbines inlet-temperature () Turbines outlet-temperature () Steam cycle with three pressure levels and re-heating High-pressure steam (MPa/) Intermediate-pressure steam and re-heating (MPa/) 2.2/565 Low-pressure steam (MPa/) Operating-pressure of Condenser (kPa) HRSG Gas-exiting temperature () Steam turbine Isentropic efficiency of high-pressure turbine Isentropic efficiency of intermediate pressure turbine 0.91 Isentropic-efficiency of low-pressure turbine Balance of plant Pump isentropic efficiency (%) Net total electric power (MW) Net plant efficiency (%) Value 15 101.32 0.60 48686.3 3.1/185 256 90 99 93 98.5 1350 615 9.6/565 0.39/295 4.82 70 0.88 0.90 75 396 57.4

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The simplified thermal scheme of combined cycle with three pressure reheat heat recovery steam generator

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Influence of HRSG inlet temperature on the efficiency of steam bottoming cycle


For a given HRSG configuration, the efficiency of the steam bottoming cycle is a function of inlet gas temperature of HRSG, as shown in Fig. 2. Here it appears that there is an upper limit value for the inlet temperature of the exhaust gas to HRSG. This means that, the increase in HRSG inlet temperature over a value of 590 will result in a less increase in the efficiency of steam bottoming cycle. This can also be confirmed by the analysis of the energy losses rate in HRSG and turbine energy efficiency, as shown in Figure given below. By the temperature of 620, the energy losses rate in HRSG will be minimal.

GTCC with partial gas to gas recuperation

Brayton cycle with partial gas to gas recuperation


It is meaningless to raise the HRSG gas inlet temperature in order to increase the steam cycle efficiency when the inlet temperature is over 590. If the temperature is higher than 590C, it is necessary to use part of its exhaust energy in gas turbine side. For PG9351, the gas turbine exhaust gas temperature reaches 615C at base load and even higher than 640C under 75% load. An interesting method used to increase the efficiency of the combined cycle plant is to heat the compressed air through partial gas to gas recuperation heat exchanger, with the thermodynamic scheme shown in Fig. The compressed air from compressor is divided into two streams: one directly to combustion chamber and the other one to the exchanger and then to combustion chamber, in which part of the compressed air takes in the heat released from the gas turbine exhaust gas. The gas temperature may be regulated by controlling the ratio of the two flows. Partial gas to gas recuperation does not de-crease the steam bottoming cycle efficiency, but can reduce the fuel consumption in Brayton cycle and increase the topping cycle efficiency.
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Steam bottoming cycle efficiency as a function of HRSG gas inlet temperature

P PG9351FA combined cycle energy efficiency as a function of HRSG inlet temperature, i.e. the exhaust gas temperature from the exchanger, is simulated, as shown in Fig. 5 at the base load. The combined cycle energy efficiency gets increased after partial gas to gas recuperation, and when the gas temperature from the exchanger is 600, the combined cycle energy efficiency reaches its maximum value, with the energy efficiency of 55.3%. Although the thermal efficiency of the whole combined cycle plant is raised by 0.37% through partial recuperation, the efficiency at the part load will get much better. As shown in Fig. 6, the combined cycle will operate at the best point when the gas to gas recuperation temperature is regulated at the point of 620 at 75% load. The combined cycle plant efficiency is as high as 57.13%, 0.78% more than before the recuperation, and 2.11% more than without optimization. At the load of 50%, the best efficiency of the combined cycle plant is 54.25%, 4.17% more than that of original value. To Alstom GT26 postcombustion gas turbine combined cycle, the combined cycle efficiency gets even higher (>60%).

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GTCC thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency as a function of HRSG inlet temperature

Exergy efficiency as a function of HRSG inlet tem-perature at part load

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Conclusions
Combined cycle power plants meet the growing energy demand, and hence special attention must be paid to the optimization of the whole system. Thermodynamic optimization of HRSG can increase the efficiency of combined cycle power plant. Under the subcritical condition, the efficiency of F technology GTCC plant can get increased by at least 0.7% at base load from HRSG optimization. As to the HRSG inlet gas temperature, it is meaningless to raise the temperature in order to increase the steam cycle efficiency when the inlet temperature is over 590C. If the temperature is higher than 590C, it is necessary to use part of its exhaust energy through gas to gas recuperation. Recuperation can further increase the plant efficiency, especially when gas turbine is operated under partial load.

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4. Increase in number of pressure stages:


For increasing the efficiency of the plant, a triple pressure system reheat is used in the CCPP.

A schematic diagram of the triple-pressure steam-reheat combined cycle power plant. 26

Triple-Pressure Reheat Combined Cycle


Figure shows the schematic diagram of the combined cycle power plant with a simple gas turbine cycle under consideration, which could generate approx. 840 MW at TIT of 1600 K. In this Fig., majority of air at 1 is compressed to a higher pressure at 2 where the air enters into the combustion chamber (CC), and is then combusted using an added fuel, which results in the combustion of gas at 3. The gas at 3 then expands in a gas turbine (GT), to chimney or in the HRSG at 4. The gas at 4 enters into HRSG to transfer the heat to steam and then exits at the stack temperature at 5. In HRSG, the steam at the outlet of the high-pressure superheater expands in the high-pressure steam turbine (HPST) to a lower pressure and temperature at 7. Steam at 7 is then reheated in reheat section (RH) to a higher temperature at 8 where the steam expands further in the intermediate-pressure steam turbine (IPST) to a low pressure at 10. This superheated steam at outlet of the intermediate-pressure section in the HRSG at 9 expands in intermediate-pressure steam turbine (IPST) to lower pressure and temperature at 10 where it enter to a low-pressure steam turbine. The superheated steam at the outlet of low-pressure section of the HRSG at 11 and steam at 10 then expands further into the low-pressure steam turbine (LPST) to a low pressure and temperature at 12. Steam is then extracted from a lowpressure steam turbine at 2 bar and then it is fed to the open feed water heater (deaerator) at 13. Steams with low-pressure and low-temperature at 12 will now condensate in a condenser at 14 to saturated water. The saturated water which is out of the condenser at 14 is then mixed with the steam at 13 inside a deaerating condenser, resulting water at 15. The saturated water out of deaerating condenser at 15 is then pumped to a higher pressure at (Tw1LP). This water at (Tw1LP) is heated in a low-pressure economizer section of the HRSG, which results in saturated water at (Tw2LP) where water enters into the low-pressure steam drum (D1). Saturated steam at the outlet of drum D1 at (TsLP) is then superheated in low-pressure superheater of HRSG, resulting in superheated steam at (TssLP). Steam at (TssLP) enters into the low-pressure steam turbine (LPST) where the steam expanded to the condenser pressure at 14. The saturated water at the outlet of drum D1 is pumped to the pressure of drum D2 at (Tw1IP). The water at (Tw1IP) is heated in intermediate-pressure economizer section of the HRSG to the saturated water condition. The saturated water at (Tw2IP) is heated and partially evaporated in intermediate-pressure evaporator section of the HRSG. The saturated vapor at the top of drum D2 at (TsIP) is superheated to a higher temperature at (TssIP) in intermediate-pressure superheater section of the HRSG. Steam at (TssIP) enters the intermediate-pressure steam turbine (IPST) where the steam expanded to the condenser pressure at 14. The saturated water at the outlet of drum D2 is pumped to the pressure of drum D3 at (Tw1HP). The water at (Tw1HP) is heated in high-pressure economizer section of the HRSG to the saturated water condition. The saturated water at (Tw2HP) is heated and partially evaporated in high-pressure section of the HRSG. The saturated vapor at the top of drum D3 at (TsHP) is superheated to a higher temperature at (TssHP) in high-pressure superheater section of the HRSG. The superheated steam at (TssHP) enters the high-pressure steam turbine (HPST) where the steam expanded to the reheat section at 7. The steam at 7 is then superheated to a higher temperature at 8 in the reheat section of the HRSG with effect in the duct burner. All of the steam at 12 will then condensate in the condenser to water at 14, and then it is pumped to 16. Fig. below shows that the temperature-entropy diagram for the combined cycle. Further Fig.3 shows the temperature-transferred diagram for a combined cycle power plant with Simple Gas Turbine cycle.

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Temperature-entropy diagram for supplementary firing triple pressure reheat HRSG Combined Cycle.

A typical temperature heat transfer diagram for supplementary firing triple pressure reheat HRSG combined cycle.

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Introduction to the Complementary Fired Combined Cycle Power Plant.


INTRODUCTION
Traditional methods for the combined cycle peak loading, although being effective for providing power, they are not well suited to our current global energy and economic models in which the this higher peak plant efficiency is rapidly and steadily becoming a critical design criteria. So, a novel concept for providing enhanced combined cycle performance, both on the power and on a heat rate basis, was developed earlier. This document describes this system and provides us with specific performance calculations for applications of currently available equipment. This system can, thus, be applied to new unit construction or as a retrofit to an already existing power plants as the power peaking application or a heat rate reduction option as well. This art departs from a traditional concept of combusting the supplemental fuel directly in the path of the flue gas present in the HRSG, and uses high efficiency industrial-sized gas turbines and generator sets (shaft power being converted to electrical energy through the electrical generators and being delivered to grid as a combusting venue while it is using the same HRSG(s) of the base combined cycle power plant in order to recover all rejected heat of the industrial GT(s). thus, this concept fits particularly well when considered and nowadays used for high ambient temperature peaking applications as the typical HRSG design basis is a cold day application when a large flue gas mass flows are achieved. As the ambient temperatures increase, the base GT exhaust mass flow(s) decrease proportionately, thereby allowing an ample flue gas mass flow augmentation capacity.

DESIGN CONCEPT
The general concept of the given system is the introduction of an additional energy to the flue gas path in a GT / HRSG set by introducing the waste heat of an industrial sized gas turbine. Here, it is referred to as Complementary Firing, where additional fuel to augment the bottoming cycle output is first combusted in a complementary industrial sized gas turbine. then exhaust of the complementary turbine is thoroghly mixed with the base GT flue gas path in the HRSG. This differs from a conventional peak loading scheme, in which the fuel is combusted directly in the HRSG. Configuration and The conceptual design basis for a Complementary Firing system (Figure 1) entails the power plant which consists of: At least one base gas turbine (topping or Brayton cycle) with presence of at least one HRSG and at least one steam turbine, (bottoming or Rankine cycle). At least one industrial or complementary gas turbine and generator set, which is also called the complementary topping cycle or complementary Brayton cycle.

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The multiple Interface Points shown in Figure represents the possible tie-in points that merited the evaluation.

Interface Points
In order to optimize the plant performance in the complementary fired mode, several possible HRSG interface points where the complementary topping cycle exhaust gas mixed with the base exhaust gas were studied deeply. As can be seen in the Figure 1, three possible insertion points were considered. They are as follows: Position 1 downstream of a Main GT Exit and upstream of a HRSG Inlet Position 2 downstream of a Re-Heater #3 and the upstream of a Re-Heater #2 Position 3 downstream a HP Super Heater #1 and upstream of a Re-Heater #1

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It is seen that the performance attributes achievable with the complementary firing generally do not vary greatly with the changing interface points,thus differing no more than 0.1% from one another in these calculations. This means that there are some flexibility regarding the tie-in points. It is given that the Position 3 interface point offers a very slight performance advantage in this analysis, thus it ensures that calculations will be based on this configuration. Moreover, Hybrid Another possible application of a complementary topping cycle is to integrate it with existing combined cycle plant that is already been equipped with duct firing system. a conceptual basis for this hybrid design is identical to the shown in Figure 1; where it is in simultaneous operation of two distinct power augmentation systems where it mostly varies significantly markedly from the nonduct fired configurations.

PERFORMANCE FACTOR
With the use of power augmentation fuel in the topping cycle in addition to a bottoming cycle, the Complementary Firing System can thus contribute significantly to a higher MW sales as well as in the fuel savings Improved Thermal Performance Ratio. So performance benefits of fuel utilization in combined (Brayton & Rankine) cycle operation versus the Rankine cycle operation are well known. Figure 3 demonstrates the impacts of both of the duct firing and complementary firing on plant performance.

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It is seen from Figure 3 that the Complementary Firing System which carries a much lower heat rate burden does by its supplementary firing counterpart. Calculations are done to date yield a Complementary Firing incremental plant heat rate of approx. 6500 Btu/kWhr (LHV), which is about 7% higher than that of the nominal combined cycle heat rate. This compares most favorably with a supplementary firing incremental heat rate of about 7500 Btu/kWhr, which is around 23% higher than that of the nominal combined cycle heat rate. The calculations from Figure 3 were performed on the basis of the the assumption of constant heat input to power augmentation system. Because of its better fuel utilization rate, the complementary Firing System generally produces 15% more additional output than would duct firing system. Incremental Capacity :- Complementary Fired System plant design matches with the flexibility of conventional duct firing in the terms of the selecting the levels of design and operating plant power augmentation. So In the design phase, a project-specific plant power augmentation targets are thus, used to select the class and number of complementary topping cycles it requires. When is given the range of gas turbine outputs available (generally <20MW to >50MW) and also the fact that it is possible to install multiple supplemental systems vividly on each of the base HRSG, the design flexibility is high. When operating the plant is in the complementary fired mode, then its output can be adjusted by particular part loading of the complementary topping cycle(s) as and when needed. Figure 4 here demonstrates the power augmentation scheme where it is increased up to 65MW are possible through some significant changes to the engine loads and the number in service. Other combinations of gas turbine products and multiplicity can be used to meet vast project specific demands.

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Hybrid System: - Complementary Fired System is an attractive option for increasing the existing power plants capacity, also those with existing duct firing system. Hybrid fired system was studied for determining whether the addition exhaust gas from complementary topping cycles into a duct fired HRSG would increase performance improvements. The results of this calculation are shown below in Figure 5.

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Firstly using the Complementary Fired System, it is practically possible to increase output of plant to or above levels reachable by the plants existing duct firing system. Due to this the fact that the CFS does not tax the bottoming cycle is equally heavy as straight duct firing, therefore it does not drive the bottoming cycle to equipment limits too quickly. Increased plant output can then be calculated by firing both the CFS and the duct firing systems one after another. Exhaust flow added by the CFS can also help deliver Oxygen to the duct firing system, and help in maintaining the exhaust temperature downstream of the duct firing system; it is below the maximum limit. FURTHER PLANT BENEFITS In addition to the plant power and efficiency benefits with the Complementary Firing System, there are many other advantages to having this added equipment. They are as follows: Black Start Capacity: Given the flexibility and relative ease along which the industrial GT in the Complementary Firing system can be initiated and loaded, therefore producing sufficient electrical output to balance the requisite plant-wide start-up equipments, the industrial GT can be used as the plants Black Start Generators, therefore replacing the current art application of the stand-alone diesel and or gasoline powered generators. Auxiliary Steam Capability: It is practical to operate the industrial GT of the complementary Firing system in a power islanding mode to give auxiliary power to the overall plant when plant is in standby mode or non dispatched mode, it is practical that the waste heat of the Complementary GT could be recovered and converted to a viable source of auxiliary steam. Fast Starting Capability: It is possible to develop a system by which a Complementary Firing system is applicable in conjunction along with existing portions of the base HRSG(s) and or a segregate smaller HRSG(s) and or other heat exchanger(s) to generate the necessary conditions, example- seal steam or thermal pre-heating or warming capacity, that will axis a more rapid start sequence of the complete combined cycle plant, also known as FastStarting Capability. Reduced Bottoming Cycle Duty: While using the Complementary Fired System, approximately 2/3 of the power generated originates in the gas turbine, with only 1/3 of the generated from the bottoming cycle. Therefore it follows that in comparison to duct firing, in which increased output is produced in the bottoming cycle, the Complementary Fired System does not need as severe a duty on bottoming cycle equipment as HRSG tubing, pumps, valves, piping, and steam turbine equipment. Maintenance costs for this equipment may be more. Equipment Size Reductions: Duct firing characterized by operating conditions on bottoming cycle equipment, and generally represents the extreme of the operating envelope around which plant equipment is being sized. Example of this is the Air Cooled Condenser (ACC), which is typically sized to give a suitable steam turbine back pressure on a hot day along with maximum duct firing. Cold Day Peaking: It is common for the cold day, duct fired power augmentation to be significantly restricted due to bottoming cycle equipment limitations. Thus the Complementary Fired System supplies less energy to the bottoming cycle for every MW of power generated, it is possible to make more growth of power before hitting equipment limitations.

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ECONOMICS
In order to provide an economic examining of a plant fitted with complementary firing and a conventional plant, the performance and cost impacts were collected. For this activity the metric of Net Present Value was used. Performance of the two systems was examined based on a constant heat input to power augmentation equipment, and was calculated across the higher temperature range in which power augmentation is generally employed. The higher efficiency of the complementary cycle increases plant power output and decreases plant heat rate as compared to supplementary fired system:

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CONCLUSIONS
Complementary Fired System of combined cycle plant power augmentation is a best method of providing power plant owners a flexible plant loading profile that has the capability to increase plant revenue by providing the flexibility to select desirable power and heat rate combinations given real time dispatch economics. It provides capacity to existing plants at combined cycle efficiencies for simple cycle installation costs. Provide peaking capabilities at heat rates that are comparable lower than a secondary system, and across a much broader ambient temperature range. With a hybrid system, further increase maximum plant capacity above the existing secondary firing plant without negatively impacting plant heat rate or needing major resizing of pressure and temperature critical systems. Further decrease in high pressure and temperature parts life fall out by providing peak power at pressures and temperatures that approximate the design values.

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Advantages and Disadvantages


Advantages
There are many advantages of a combined cycle power generation system. As many of the combined cycle generation systems use natural gas as the working fuel, in this case the environmental emissions are low. Production of pollution in less compared to conventional steam or gas turbine power plants. As such, complex and expensive environmental control systems are not required. Transportation of fuel through pipelines is also easier than that of coal and oil. The gas turbine of the combined cycle plant system is easy to install. This means a short schedule of about 1 year from order to operation but the steam turbine portion can operate within another year. This can provide the grid with power easily and with other systems. Combined cycle power generation system also offers quick part-load starting. For example, the GE Model-7000 gas turbine is capable to produce maximum output of 198MW within 30 minutes while steam turbine portion takes about an hour to run from a cold start. It can operate over a wide range of loads and is suitable for meeting peak power requirement and also base load. Secondary firing can be used to increase steam turbine output in times of increased output. On the other hand, the gas turbine could be stopped when there is a decrease in demand. It is also cheaper to construct a combined cycle power plant than coal, nuclear or renewable energy power plant. Its capital cost is lower than that of steam turbine plant.

Disadvantages
Natural gas is the fuel used, its higher cost compared to coal and oil will result in higher operating cost. The system is also less flexible regarding to the types of fuel to be used, thus this limit in resources means the supply of fuel is critical to the plants process. Also, the combined cycle power generation system is a conclusive of two technologies, the complexity will result in higher maintenance cost and also it will requires highly skilled and better trained working staffs. The cost of a combined cycle power generation plant is higher than that of gas turbine plant.

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Future of combined cycle power plant


Many power generation systems are available in the world. Nuclear power plants are clean and efficient, they are expensive and complex. They are also not easily accepted by the population due to the experience of the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl incidents. Also, combined cycle power plants offer flexibility in terms of size and outputs, and are comparatively faster to build than nuclear power plants. The capability to increase and decrease output on demand gives combined cycle power plants on upper hand in the competitive power markets. The Earths supply of natural gas have been estimated to last 70-100 years, and as long as natural gas price is low, combined cycle generation will have the competitive edge against other forms of generation. Also, with advancement in technology, the capital cost of combined cycle generation has decreased from US$600/kW in 1990 to less than US$350/kW till now. Studies in the UK have also predicted that by 2050, 40 50% of UKs. Power supply will be dominated by combined cycle power plants. From these, with continual improvement of the system, we can see that combined cycle power generation will become the mainstay in the power industry for at least for the next few decades.

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Comparison between thermal and combined cycle power plant

The electric efficiency of a combined cycle power station, calculated as electric energy produced as a percent of the heating value of the fuel consumed, may be as high as 58%. As with single cycle thermal units, combined cycle units may also deliver low temperature heat energy for industrial processes, district heating and other uses. This is called cogeneration and such power plants are often referred to as a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant.

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Refrences:
1. Iwasaki, Operating Status of Uprating Gas Turbines and Future Trend of Gas Turbine Development, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Technical Review Vol.44 No.4 (2007) 2. Okada, Development of 1 700C Class Gas Turbine Technology, Mitsubishi Juko Giho Vol.44 No.1 (2007) 3. Everett B. Woodruff, Herbert B. Lammers and Thomas F. Lammers, Boilers, Steam Plant Operation, (McGraw Hill, 7th ed). 4. M.M. El-Wakil, Gas-turbine and Combined Cycles, Powerplant Technology, (McGraw Hill, 1985). 5. Michael J. Moran and Howard N. Shapiro, Gas Power Systems, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2nd ed). 6. S M Yahya, Combined Cycle Plants, Turbines, Compressors and Fans, (Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, 3rd ed) 7. www.google.com 8. www.wikipidea.com 9. www.doiserbia.nb.rs 10. http://www.sciencedirect.com

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