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Automated Extraction of Semiconductor Parameters

Using the HP 4155B/4156B

Application Note 4156-2


HP 4155B/4156B
Semiconductor Parameter
Analyzer

GR A P H / L I S T : GR A P H I C S S HORT 9 4 J UL 0 1 0 1 : 4 5 PM
V t h o f M O S F E T ( S Q R T ( I d ) - > V t h )

M A R K E R ( 1 . 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 V 3 1 . 8 3 2 3 7 3 4 5 8 m 6 7 . 8 8 3 0 1 5 6 2 0 m )
V T H 1 . 1 3 1 0 7 0 1 3 3 4 V
( ) B E T A 4 . 6 0 8 1 0 3 8 0 9 7 m ( )

2 0 0 . m 8 0 . 0 m

I n t r c p t I n t r c p t
- 7 6 . 7 8 0 4 5 m - 3 0 . 7 1 2 1 8 m
*
S Q R T I d G r a d G r a d G R A D
6 7 . 8 8 3 0 1 m 2 7 . 1 5 3 2 0 m

2 0 . 0 m 8 . 0 0 m
/ d i v / d i v

I n t r c p t : 1 . 1 3 1 0 7 V
0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0

0 . 0 0 V g ( V ) 5 0 0 . m / d i v 5 . 0 0

1
Introduction
Drain
Gate Sub s tra te
To improve the efficiency of proc-
ess evaluation and characteriza-
Sou rce
tion of semiconductor devices,
automation of semiconductor test
SMU2 SMU3 SMU4 SMU1
is required. However, analysis of
the measured data and extraction
A Id
of important parameters are diffi- Vg
cult to automate. This application Vd
note shows you how to automate
extraction of parameters using the
unique auto analysis function of
the HP 4155B/4156B semiconduc-
tor parameter analyzers, using the
measurement of threshold voltage
as an example. Figure 1. Connection Diagram

Current problems
CHANNEL S: CHANNEL DE F I NI T I ON 9 4 J UL 0 1 0 1 : 4 4 PM
Vt h o f MOS F E T ( S QRT ( I d ) - > Vt h )
Using the HP 4145B, you can se-
quentially make some measure-
* ME A S U R E ME N T MOD E
S WE E P

ments using ASP (auto sequence


* CHA NNE L S
program). ASP simply executes ME A S U R E ST BY SERI ES

one test after another without any UNI T V N A ME I N A ME MOD E F CT N RE SI ST A NCE


S MU 1 : MP Vd I d V VAR1 ' 0 o h m
breaks. To perform analysis on S MU 2 : MP Vg I g V VAR1 0 o h m

data after a test, you have to pause S MU 3 : MP Vs I s C OMMO N C ONS T


S MU 4 : MP Vs b I s b V C ONS T
the ASP program, manually move S MU 5 : MP

the marker and cursors, draw S MU 6 : MP


VSU1 - - - - - - -
lines, then continue the program. VSU2 - - - - - - -
V MU 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Moreover, if you want to transfer V MU 2


P GU 1
- - - - - - -
- - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - -

analyzed data to a computer, you P GU 2 - - - - - - -

must spend time inputting the data GNDU - - - - - - - - - - -

manually. Or you may need to de-


velop programs to control the in- Figure 2. CHANNEL DEFINITION Page
strument and analyze data.
functions, measurement data, and The above equation means Delta
Automation of data read out functions for the calcula- (Id) divided by Delta (Vg).
tion. Calculated variables can be
analysis using the HP displayed and analyzed the same Auto analysis function
4155B/4156B as measured data. With a simple setup, you can pre-
define exactly how the marker and
The HP 4155B/4156B semiconduc- For example, the calculation of lines will be automatically drawn
tor parameter analyzer provides transconductance (gm) of a MOS- on the measurement curve.
the following new functions that FET is expressed as the following
let you analyze data and extract simple expression: Read out function
parameters automatically and The read out functions are for dis-
efficiently: gm [S] = DIFF(Id, Vg)
playing various values related to
User functions
Id : Drain current the marker, cursors or lines. You
Vg : Gate voltage can display parameters such as
You can specify up to 6 user func- DIFF : The function which returns the gradients, X and Y intercept of a
tions. In the user defined func- differential coefficient line, and X and Y coordinates of
tions, you can use 14 built-in math the marker. You are not limited to

2
ME A S U R E : S WE E P SE T UP 9 4 J UL 0 1 0 1 : 4 4 PM
Vt h of MO S F E T ( S QR T ( I d ) - > Vt h )
* VARI ABL E V AR1 VAR2 VAR1 '
CHANNEL S: USER F UNCT I ON DEF I NI T I ON 9 4 J UL 0 1 0 1 : 4 4 PM
UNI T S MU 2 : MP UNI T S MU 1 : M P Vt h o f MOS F E T ( S QRT ( I d ) - > Vt h )
N A ME Vg N A ME Vd
S WE E P MO D E S I NGL E OF F S E T 0. 0000 V
L I N / L OG L I NE AR RAT I O 1. 000
S T A RT 0. 0000 V C O MP L I A N C E 1 0 0 . 0 0 mA
* USER F UNCT I ON
S T OP 5. 000 V P O WE R C OMP OF F
N A ME UNI T DE F I NI T I ON
STEP 1 0 0 . 0 mV S QR T I d S QR T ( I d )
NO OF STEP 51 GRAD DI F F ( S QRT I d , V g )
C OMP L I A N C E 1 0 0 . 0 0 mA V T H V @L 1 X
P O WE R C OMP OF F B ET A @L 1 G ^ 2

* T I MI N G
H OL D T I ME 0. 0000 s
DEL AY T I ME 0. 0000 s * S WE E P C ON T I N U E AT ANY St a t u s
* C ON S T A N T
UNI T S MU 4 : MP
N A ME Vs b
MO D E V
S OU RC E 0. 0000 V - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
C OMP L I A N C E 1 0 0 . 0 0 mA - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Figure 3. SWEEP SETUP Page Figure 4. USER FUNCTION DEFINITION Page


DI S P L AY : ANAL YSI S SETUP 9 4 J UL 0 1 0 1 : 4 5 PM
DI SP L AY : D I S PL A Y S E T UP 9 4 J UL 0 1 0 1 : 4 4 P M
Vt h o f MOS F E T ( S QRT ( I d ) - > Vt h )
V t h o f MO S F E T ( S QRT ( I d ) - > V t h )

* DI S PL AY MODE * L I N E 1 : [ T A NGE NT ] l i n e o n [ Y1 ] a t a p o i n t wh e r e

GR A P H I C S [ GRA D ] = [ MA X ( G R A D ) ]
[ ]
* GR A P H I C S
X a x i s Y 1 a x i s Y2 a x i s
NA ME V g S QRT I d GR A D
SCA L E L I N E A R L I NE A R L I NE A R
MI N 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 V 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * L I NE2 : [ ]
MA X 5 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 V 2 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 m 8 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 m

* GR I D * L I NE P A R A ME T E R
ON ON

* DA T A VA RI A B L E S * MA R K E R : At a p o i n t wh e r e
VT H [ GRA D ] = [ MA X ( G R A D ) ]
BE T A [ ]

* I n t e r p o l a t e : [ ON ]

Figure 5. DISPLAY SETUP Page Figure 6. ANALYSIS SETUP Page


displaying just parameters from the same potential. The character- The measurement conditions are
the built-in display functions. You istics are measured in the satura- defined in the CHANNEL DEFINI-
can use the read out functions in tion region. Drain current in the TION page and SWEEP SETUP
the user defined functions. You saturation region is calculated as: page shown in Figure 2 and Figure
can also transfer those parameters 3 respectively.
to the internal HP istrument BA- Id = β (Vg - Vth)2
SIC or an external controller. By this setup, Id-Vg characteristics
Where β is the gain factor and ex- are measured. In the USER FUNC-
pressed as TION DEFINITION page shown in
Automated extraction of
threshold voltage using -1/2 × (µεox W/L) × tox Figure 4, the square root of Id
(SQRTId), and differential coeffi-
the HP 4155B/4156B
Therefore, if you take the square cient (GRAD) of SQRTId versus Vg
root of both sides of the equation, are defined. Also VTH and BETA
The following shows how to auto-
are defined by using Read Out
matically extract the threshold
Functions. They are calculated us-
voltage (Vth) of a MOSFET by us-
ing @L1X (the x intercept of Line
ing the built-in user functions and is proportional to Vg and the 1) and @L1G (the slope of Line 1).
auto analysis functions. In addi-
slope is . At the point where Line 1 is drawn by setup of the
tion, this describes how to transfer
is equal to 0, Vg is equal to ANALYSIS SETUP page which is
the extracted Vth into an HP In-
described later.
strument BASIC program. Vth.
In Figure 5, the DISPLAY SETUP
A frequently used method of meas- The Vth measurement is per-
page is set to plot two curves:
uring Vth is to bias the device so formed with the connection shown
SQRTId versus Vg and GRAD
that the gate and drain are always in Figure 1.

3
GRA P H/ L I S T : GR A P H I C S S HORT 9 4 J UL 0 1 0 1 : 4 5 PM For more information about Hewlett-
V t h o f M O S F E T ( S Q R T ( I d ) - > V t h ) Packard test and measurement products,
applications, services, and for a current
sales office listing, visit our web site:
M A R K E R ( 1 . 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 V 3 1 . 8 3 2 3 7 3 4 5 8 m 6 7 . 8 8 3 0 1 5 6 2 0 m )
V T H 1 . 1 3 1 0 7 0 1 3 3 4 V
( ) B E T A 4 . 6 0 8 1 0 3 8 0 9 7 m ( ) http://www.hp.com/go/tmdir
2 0 0 . m 8 0 . 0 m
You can also contact one of the following
centers and ask for a test and
I n t
- 7 6 .
r c p t
7 8 0 4 5 m
I n t
- 3 0 .
r c p t
7 1 2 1 8 m
measurement sales representative.
*
S Q R T I d G r a d G r a d G R A D United States:
6 7 . 8 8 3 0 1 m 2 7 . 1 5 3 2 0 m
Hewlett-Packard Company
Test and Measurement Call Center
P.O. Box 4026
2 0 . 0 m 8 . 0 0 m Englewood, CO 80155-4026
/ d i v / d i v (tel) 1 800 452 4844

Canada:
Hewlett-Packard Canada Ltd.
5150 Spectrum Way
o Mississauga, Ontario
L4W 5G1
I n t r c p t : 1 . 1 3 1 0 7 V (tel) (905) 206 4725
0 . 0 0 0 . 0 0

0 . 0 0 V g ( V ) 5 0 0 . m / d i v 5 . 0 0
Europe:
Hewlett-Packard Company
European Marketing Centre
Figure 7. Measurement Result P.O. Box 999
1180 AZ Amstelveen
10 ASSIGN @Hp415x to 800 The Netherlands
(tel) (31 20) 547 9900
20 OUTPUT @Hp415x;":TRAC? 'VTH'" ! Read out Vth
Japan:
30 ENTER @Hp415x;Vth_data ! Enter Vth Hewlett-Packard Japan Ltd.
40 OUTPUT @Hp415x;":TRAC? 'BETA'" ! Read out Beta Measurement Assistance Center
9-1, Takakura-Cho, Hachioji-Shi,
50 ENTER @Hp415x;Beta_data ! Enter Beta Tokyo 192, Japan
60 PRINT Vth_data, Beta_data (tel) (81) 426 56 7832
(fax) (81) 426 56 7840
70 END
Latin America:
Figure 8. Example Program Hewlett-Packard Company
Latin American Region Headquarters
versus Vg. Also VTH and BETA By executing the simple program 5200 Blue Lagoon Drive
are to be displayed in the data in Figure 8, you can transfer the 9th Floor
variables display area. VTH and BETA data to variables Miami, Florida 33126
U.S.A.
using the internal HP Instrument (tel) (305) 267 4245/4220
The auto analysis functions are de- BASIC or an external controller. (fax) (305) 267 4288
fined in the ANALYSIS SETUP
Australia/New Zealand:
page shown in Figure 6. A tangent Conclusion Hewlett-Packard Australia Ltd.
line (Line 1) is drawn on the 31-41 Joseph Street
SQRTId versus Vg curve (Y1) at You can automate data analysis Blackburn, Victoria 3130
the point where the GRAD is maxi- Australia
and extraction of DC parameters (tel) 1 800 629 485 (Australia)
mum. The marker is also moved using the auto analysis features of (tel) 0 800 738 378 (New Zealand)
to the point where the GRAD is the HP 4155B/4156B. You can per- (fax) (61 3) 9210 5489
maximum. form accurate analysis, free from Asia Pacific:
error that may be caused by man- Hewlett-Packard Asia Pacific Ltd
If you execute a single measure- 17-21/F Shell Tower, Times Square,
ual operations. It is easy to trans-
ment, as shown in Figure 7, two 1 Matheson Street, Causeway Bay,
fer extracted parameters to an HP Hong Kong
curves are drawn. Right after the
Instrument BASIC program or ex- (tel) (852) 2599 7777
measurement, a tangent line is (fax) (852) 2506 9285
ternal controller. Using this capa-
drawn as specified in ANALYSIS
bility, full automation of Hewlett-Packard Company 1998
SETUP page, and VTH and BETA
complicated procedures, such as Data subject to change
are displayed. Printed in Japan 1/1998
reliability tests, is easily
5963-1249E
implemented.