Ethanol From Orange Peels And Newspapers

Researchers have developed a way to produce ethanol from waste products such as orange peels and newspapers. The approach is 'greener' and less expensive than the current methods available to run vehicles on clean energy and can be applied to several non-food products throughout the United States, including sugarcane, switchgrass and straw.

The new technique uses plant-derived enzyme cocktails to break down orange peels and other waste materials into sugar, which is then fermented into ethanol. The findings are detailed in Plant Biotechnology.

Researchers cloned genes from wood-rotting fungi or bacteria and produced enzymes in tobacco plants. Producing these enzymes in tobacco instead of manufacturing synthetic versions could reduce the cost of production by a thousand times, which should significantly reduce the cost of making ethanol.

Tobacco was chosen as an ideal system for enzyme production because it is not a food crop, produces large amounts of energy per acre and (Of course!) an alternate use could potentially decrease its use for smoking.

Depending on the waste product used, a specific combination or "cocktail" of more than 10 enzymes is needed to change the biomass into sugar and eventually ethanol. Orange peels need more of the pectinase enzyme, while wood waste requires more of the xylanase enzyme. All of the enzymes the team uses are found in nature, created by a range of microbial species, including bacteria and fungi.

Corn starch is currently fermented and converted into ethanol. But ethanol derived from corn produces more greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline does. Ethanol created using the approach produces much lower greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline or electricity.

discarded orange peels could create about 200 million gallons of ethanol each year. In Florida alone. Yoshiyuki Hirotaa.. Shizuoka University. University of Miyazaki. Japan Department of Agro–Environmental Sciences. Hirofumi Hiraib. Abstract White-rot fungus Phlebia sp. Faculty of Agriculture.1111/j. Says Researcher Finally.2009.0      Extremophiles. Biofuels That Won't Stress The Food Supply Food vs. Fukuoka 812-8581. Citation: Verma et al. And The Ethanol Puzzle Energy . Sadatoshi Meguroa. Kyushu University. Available online 1 March 2012. Faculty of Agriculture.Cow Stomach Microbe Enables 'Self-Ethanoling' Corn Direct ethanol production from cellulosic materials by the hypersalinetolerant white-rot fungus Phlebia sp. January 2010. Miyazaki 889-2192.TM242 Compost Heap Bacteria Could Meet 10 Percent Of UK Needs. Japan c Received 25 December 2011. fuel and climate change Spartan Corn III . Ryuichiro Kondoc Department of Forest and Environmental Sciences. Shizuoka 422-8529. When this fungus was cultured with 20 g/L unbleached . 'Chloroplast-derived enzyme cocktails hydrolyse lignocellulosic biomass and release fermentable sugars'. MG-60 was identified as a good producer of ethanol from several cellulosic materials containing lignin. Revised 23 February 2012. Faculty of Agriculture.There's also an abundance of waste products that could be used without reducing the world's food supply or driving up food prices. a nishi. doi: 10. Japan b Department of Applied Biological Chemistry.1467-7652.Sulfurous Cauldrons. .00486. Toshio Moric. Plant Biotechnology. MG-60           Ichiro Kameia. 1-1 Gakuen-kibanadai. Accepted 24 February 2012.x RELATED ARTICLES ON SCIENCE 2.

mannose.4 g/L ethanol was produced after 168 h of incubation giving yields of ethanol of 0.40. Keywords     White-rot fungi. ► Xylose was also completely assimilated with high ethanol yields. fructose and xylose were completely assimilated by Phlebia sp. ► Kraft pulp was directly converted into ethanol without addition of cellulase. When this fungus was cultured with waste newspaper. 0. Bioethanol. 0.hardwood kraft pulp (UHKP). Waste paper fermentation . Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. 8. ► Hexoses were completely assimilated by MG-60 with high ethanol yields. ► Newspaper was directly converted into ethanol.1% of the theoretical maximum. 0. MG-60 with ethanol yields of 0. These results indicated that Phlebia sp.42 g/g UHKP. galactose.2 g/L ethanol was produced after 216 h of incubation giving yields of ethanol of 0. Glucose. 51. MG-60 was the good producer of ethanol from cellulose. Highlights ► White-rot fungus Phlebia sp. MG-60 was a good candidate for bioethanol production from cellulosic materials. 71.41 and 0.8% of the theoretical maximum.33 g/g of sugar respectively. 4.20 g/g newspaper.44.41.

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