1. Explain the operational equipments of an aircraft. (From Taxiing) 2. What is Fly-by-wire? 3. What is autopilot? How it is operated? 4.

What are the operations carried out by a pilot i.e from before taking-off to landing? 5. What are flight control systems? How are they operated? 6. How is the engine operated in aircraft? 7. How does engine generate thrust? 8. How are the actuators operated in aircraft? 9. What are the steps carried by pilot during take-off? 10. What is the minimum speed required for take off and landing?

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& 9) The pilot cuts-off the throttle, then switches on the battery-1 & 2. Switches on the anti collision lights, communication system(this is not the tech terminology) gets in contact with ATC for approval to switch on the engine. Then he switches on the fuel booster pump, fadec, LP cock, HP cock, starter generator to crank the engine, when the N2 rpm reaches the idle rpm he switches on the igniter. When the engine rpm reaches 60% of max N2 the pilot switches off the starter generator. He then switches on the Environment control system, makes sure hydraulic pressure builds up, switches on the taxi lights, then approval with ATC for taxing. Increases the throttle and control the a/c with steering mechanism of NLG to taxi the aircraft to the run way, after clearance from ATC pilot increases the throttle to increase the speed. Then goes for a ground run. After reaching the take-off speed the pilot pitches up the nose for take-off. PFS(power plant & fuel system) consists of engine, fadec, booster pumps to supply fuel from the fuel tanks to the engine at positive pressure, throttle mechanism to control rpm of the engine, fuel probes to monitor fuel levels in the tanks. LP cock, HP cock, starter generator (to start the engine, after engine gets started it works as generator to supply electric power to various systems), auxillary gear box to reduce the rpm for generator. ECS(environment control system) to maintain comfortable temperatures and pressure in the cabin as well as cockpit. Also used to maintain the temperature of avionics bay. It consists of heat exchangers, cold air unit, different type of valves, pipelines) Hydraulic system(used to operate Under carriages, control surfaces, airbrakes)consists of hydraulic jacks, hoses, pressure distributers, booster pump, pressure gauges, transducers and different type of valves. FCS(flight control system consists different type of links, push pull rods, cranks, transducers etc).to operate the control surfaces Avionics( antennas, VOR communication system, CVR(cockpit voice recorder) FDR(flight data recorder), GPS, ADF(aircraft direction finder),

display systems etc. Similarly pitch channel auto pilot system operates the elevators on its own to bring back the aircraft to the altitude set by pilot. levers. looms. Flight control system(FCS) can be of many types. Static stability of the aircraft can be relaxed. distribution boxes. altimeters. generator. Mechanical b. then the auto pilot serves the purpose. battery. Simple to operate i. 3. Eg: yaw channel. etc. Fly by wire c. magnetic compass. Auto pilot can be of single channel or multi channele. Whereas in an fly by wire the control column stick and the control surfaces are connected by electrical wires. If its an GLASS cockpit it contains MFD(multifunctional displays). Auto pilot takes inputs from various other equipments such as Air data computer. etc. to say the pilot is set free of his duty to bring back the aircraft to the desired heading after an disturbance.. Just to reduce down the force need by the pilot to move the control surfaces. care free operation can be achieved as the pilot inputs are processed by the computer. 3. heading. reduced weight when compared to mech. undesired maneuvers will be chopped off. The movement of the control column stick is picked up by transducers. GPS. where the aircraft is set at an particular attitude for prolonged time. & hydraulic assisted control systems.. It can be of manual(mechanical) which consists of push-pull rods. Signals from transducers are processed by a mission computer and relayed to the servo motors fitted near by the control surfaces.e. This is achieved by the auto pilot system by operating the rudder. Similarly a more sophisticatedly designed auto pilot can operate in multi channels to maintain the altitude. a. Auto pilot operate on rate of change to the rate of correction principal. In most of the conditions auto pilot is used in cruise condition. or hydraulically assisted where the force exerted by pilot is augmented by hydraulic actuators.e. as the servo motors are mechanically connected to the control surfaces the required movement is obtained. ADVANTAGES:1. Single channel auto pilot system will serve the purpose of flying the aircraft at a choosen single parameter.on this type of auto-pilot system the auto pilot when switched on maintains the same heading even after occurance of an disturbance. For eg: if the aircraft is to be flown at a fixed altitude at the fixed heading at a fixed indicated airspeed by the pilot for prolonged hours. fadec. . Electrical system( lights. Fly by light(latest) FCS is basically a connecting mechanism between control surfaces and control coloumn stick(used by pilot to control the aircraft). with out the intervention of the pilot i. via mission computer.. 2. indicated air speed set by the pilot by operating the respective controls.) 2 & 5).

Can be better explained by newtons third law. The air enters the intakes then gets compresed by compressor for efficient fuel burning. Pilot can choose various RPM rates depending upon the thrust requirement. 7. so that engine is operated within safe limits. While landing pilot needs to take permission from the ATC. Hence produces a reaction force which is called thrust. For take off refer to 1st paragraph of answer 1. he needs to extend the landing gears and switch on the approach lights. a Full Authority Digital Engine Control(FADEC) is used. After making sure that all the landing gears are touched down. Then passes through turbine which is interconnected with compressor. Piston engines are coupled to propellers. Finally after bringing down the speed the pilot taxis for the tarmac.4. jet engine is fitted with intake and nozzle. Unlike piston engine. rich & lean mixture selector. Jet engines produce thrust by ejecting hot gases at high velocity. During cold starts pilot can switch on the rich mixture switch which aids in starting. After the approach the pilot needs to perform an flare so as to touch down first with MLG. This happens only wen the selector valve is selected. Which are basically a rotating wings which rotate in the vertical plane producing the resultant force called as thrust. 6 Basic controls for piston engine include throttle. The left over energy of hot gasses is used to create a high velocity jet by expansion through nozzle. along with azimuth(aligning with the airstrip). A jet engine mainly has a throttle control in the cockpit which controls the RPM. Where the sink speed(vertical velocity). whose performance depends on the altitude and the flow rate through them. as well as control the steering mechanism to keep the aircraft aligned with the air strip. other wise the default position of the selector valve would disconnect the pressure lines with that of the actuator. So. Pilot needs to avoid over shooting as well as under shooting the run way by manipulating the above said parameters within the flight envelop. A selector valve is used in the hydraulics circuit to connect the pressure lines to the actuator thus energizing it. am not sure about this. Apart from this presence of an after burner makes the pilot over loaded to control so many parameters for obtaining maximum performance. As he starts to approach. Even the compressors are fitted with IGV(inlet guide vanes). At the same time he’s suppose to closely monitor the JPT(jet pipe temperature). which ensures optimum performance of compressor. Pilot moves the Throttle lever to forward and aft positions which inturn is connected to an fuel flow control valve controlling the engine RPM. then set the aircraft for approach. 8. Pilot needs to maintain the above set parameters by continuously monitoring the gauges available in the cockpit as well as by consulting the ATC. In case of an ILS(instrument landing system) availability the pilot is guided by visual and audio means. the pilot brings down the throttle to idle position and apply breaks. . approach speed(horizontal velocity) of that particular aircraft which pilot is flying is to be maintained. Variable area nozzles are used for the optimum expansion ratio. thus sum amount of energy from hot gases after combustion is absorbed by turbine to run compressor..

3 times the stall velocity.10.plan form area. The landing velocity(LV) is usually 1. For this condition to satisfy lift(L) should equal weight (w) of the aircraft.density of air. CL. L=1\2 ρV2SCL ρ. V.stall Velocity. Stall velocity is the minimum velocity at an altitude where the aircraft can sustain steady level flight.coefficient of lift(a constant) . S. The take off velocity(TOV) is usually 1.2 times the stall velocity.

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