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# INSTRUMENTATION Accuracy the degree of exactness of measurement when compared to the expected value of the variable being measured

d Measurement the art, or process of determining the existence of knowing the magnitude of something, directly or indirectly in terms of a recognized standard Test a procedure, or sequence of operations for determining whether a component or equipment is functioning or working normally In measurement, accuracy is the degree of exactness compared to the expected value of the variable being measured A measure of consistency or repeatability of measurements is called precision Precision is also known as reproducibility In measurements, the sum of a set of numbers divided by the total number of pieces of data in the given set is called arithmetic mean Error the deviation of a reading form the expected value Instrument errors errors due to frictions of the meter movement, incorrect spring tension, improper calibration or faulty instruments When an instrument is subjected to harsh environments such as high temperature, strong magnetic, electrostatic, or electromagnetic field, it may have a detrimental effects and cause errors known as environmental errors Observation errors errors introduced by the observer or user Parallax error errors in analog meter reading due to your

physical position with respect to the meter scale Deviation the difference between any number within the set of numbers and the arithmetic mean of that set of numbers Standard instrument/device an instrument or device having recognized permanent or stable value that is used as a reference Resolution the smallest change in a measured variable to which an instrument will respond Instrument a device or mechanism used to determine the value of a quantity under observation Amepe is the basic unit for measuring current flow An instrument used to detect and measure the presence of electrical current is generally called galvanometer D Arsonoval is the common type of meter moving D Arsonoval meter movement a permanent-magnet movingcoil instrument Moving-iron instrument an instrument which depends on current in one or more fixed-coils acting on one of more pieces of soft iron, at least one of which is movable Moving-magnet instrument depends on the action of a movable permanent magnet, in aligning itself in the resultant field, produced either by a fixed permanent magnet and an adjacent coil or coils carrying current, or by two or more current-carrying coils whose axes are displaced by a fixed angle Thermocouple ammeter is mostly used in measuring highfrequency currents Measurement of high dc-voltages is usually done by using electrostatic

Electrostatic measuring instrument that can be used only to measure voltages Pyrometer this instrument measures temperatures by electric means, especially temperatures beyond the range of mercury thermometers Pyranometer this instrument refers to that one, which measures the intensity of the radiation, received from any portion of the sky Infinity is the normal indication on a megger (megaohmmeter) when checking insulation Megaohmmeter, megger Resistance measuring instrument particularly used in determining the insulation resistance Wattmeter an electrodynamic meter used to measure power Dynamometer a device used to mechanically measure the output power of a motor Electrodynamometer an indicating instrument whose movable coils rotate between two stationary coils, usually used as wattmeter Dynamometers are mostly used as wattmeter Air friction damping method is generally used in dynamometers Wattmeter dynamometer instrument has a uniform scale For a dynamometer to be able to measure high current, a current transformer should be used Error in voltmeter reading is due to loading Error in ammeter reading is due to insertion An ohmmeter type of meter requires its own power source Error in ohmmeter reading is due to battery aging Decreasing the value of the shunt resistor of an ammeter, its current measuring capability increases

Increasing the value of the series resistor of a voltmeter, its voltage measuring capability increases Clamp probe a device that is used to measure current without opening the circuit Clamp-meter ammeter has no insertion error To prevent damage of the multirange ammeter during selection, an Ayrton shunt should be used For the greatest accuracy, the input impedance of a VOM should be as large as possible Voltage measurement in a high impedance circuit requires a voltmeter with high input impedance In order to make an accurate measurement as possible, the internal resistance of a voltmeter must be as high as possible The purpose of the rheostat in ohmmeter is to compensate the aging battery of the meter The zero-adjust control in an analog type ohmmeter is used to compensate for the differing internal battery voltage The scale of a hot wire instrument is a squared function Moving iron instruments have a scale function that is squared To increase the measuring capability of a moving-iron ac ammeter, a different number of turns of operating coil should be used PMMC electrical instrument is the most sensitive Basically, a PMMC instrument can be used only in dc measurement Spring action controlling torque in PMMC Eddy current damping method is used in induction type ammeter

Induction type instruments are mostly used as watt-hour meter In indicating instruments, the controlling torque increases if the deflection becomes greater Controlling torque and deflecting torque are forces that are acting on the pointer of an indicating instrument as it rest on its final deflected position Controlling, damping, and deflecting torques are the forces acting on the pointer of an indicating instrument when it is in motion Aluminum material that is mostly used as a pointer in indicating instrument A Kelvin electrostatic voltmeter uses fluid friction method of damping Shunts in meters should have a very small temperature coefficient of resistance In a moving coil ammeter, a swamping resistor is connected in series with the coil to compensate for temperature variations We use the dynamometer in dc and ac Electrostatic instrument meter that depends for its operation on the forces of attraction and repulsion between electrically charged bodies Induction instrument instrument that depends for its operation on the reaction between magnetic flux set up by currents in fixed windings and other currents set up by electromagnetic induction in movable conduction parts Permanent-magnet moving-coil instrument a meter that for its operation, it depends on a movable iron vane which aligns itself

in the resultant field of a permanent magnet and an adjacent current carrying coil Vane-type instrument uses the force of repulsion between fixed and movable magnetized iron vanes, or the force between a coil and a pivoted vane-shaped piece of soft iron to move the indicating pointer Kelvin voltmeter its an electrostatic voltmeter in which an assembly of figure 8 shaped metal plates rotates between the plates of a stationary assembly when a voltage is applied between the assemblies. The length of the arc of rotation is proportional to the electrostatic attraction and thus, to the applied voltage Magnetometer is an instrument used for measuring the strength and direction of magnetic field Varmeter and reactive volt-ampere meter are the instrument used for measuring reactive power in vars Bridge is a circuit that has four or more arms, by means of which one or more of the electrical constants of an unknown component may be measured Resistance bridge, wheatstone bridge a four-arm bridge. All arms of which are predominantly resistive; used for measuring resistance Varley loop this is a method of using a Wheatstone bridge to determine the distance from the test point to a fault in a telephone or telegraph line or cable Maxwell bridge this refers to a four-arm ac bridge used for measuring inductance against a standard capacitance

Hay bridge refers to an ac bridge for measuring the inductance and Q of an inductor in terms of resistance, frequency and a standard capacitance Kelvin double bridge this is a special bridge for measuring very low resistance (0.1 or less). The arrangement of the bridge reduces the effects of contact resistance, which causes significant error when such low resistance are connected to conventional resistance bridges Schering bridge a type of four-arm capacitance bridge in which the unknown capacitance is compared with a standard capacitance. This bridge is frequently employed in testing electrolytic capacitors, to which a dc polarizing voltage is applied during the measurement Wein bridge a frequency-sensitive bridge in which two adjacent arms are resistances and the other two arm are RC combinations When the capacitors of a Wien bridge are replaced by inductors, the bridge becomes Wein inductance bridge Slide-wire bridge a simplified version of the Wheatstone bridge wherein, two of the ratio arms are replaced by a 100 cm long Manganin of uniform cross-sections and provided with a slider Radio-frequency bridge bridge used to measure both inductive and capacitive impedances at higher frequencies Balance bridge a bridge wherein all legs are electrically identical Spectrum analyzer is an electronic instrument capable of

showing on screen and maybe on print, relative spacing of transmitter carriers, their sidebands and harmonics Spectrum analyzer an instrument capable of displaying simultaneously the amplitude of signals having different frequencies A spectrum analyzer is a real-time analyzer Indications of spectrum analyzer is presented by means of a CRT Oscilloscope an electronic measuring device that provide instantaneous visual indication of voltage excursions Oscilloscope an instrument that is capable of displaying waveforms by means of a fluorescence in a CRT Storage oscilloscope types of oscilloscopes that are able to retain the display for a longer period for analysis. The display is retained by the use of flood gun Sampling oscilloscope uses sampling technique in processing signals having frequencies beyond its normal capabilities Generally, oscilloscope uses electrostatic deflection Signal generators a device or instrument, which delivers signals of precise frequency and amplitude, usually over a wide range The two most common audio oscillators are Wein bridge and phase-shift The two most popular RF oscillators are Colpitts and Hartley Noise generator a device or instrument able to generate noise with accurate voltage for test purposes You need a noise generator when evaluating noise

characteristics of an amplifier In RF or microwave system, reflectometer is used to measure the incidental and reflected signals Reflectometer a type of photometer used to measure reflection Dip meter a tunable RF instrument, which, by means of a sharp dip of an indicating meter, indicates resonance with an external circuit under test Grid-dip meter a type of dip meter employing a vacuum tube oscillator, whose indicating dc microammeter is in the grid circuit In meter movement, you prevent the meter from oscillation and overswing by damping When the meter is insufficiently damped, it is considered as underdamped A meter when overdamped will become insensitive to small signals Test and Measurement An ammeter is an indicating instrument As the deflection of the moving system increases, the controlling torque in an indicating instrument increases DArsonval is the best type of meter movement Wattmeter dynamometer type has uniform scale When both deflecting and controlling torque act, the pointer of an indicating instrument comes to rest The output voltage of a thermocouple increases with temperature Analog instrument an instrument in which the magnitude of the measured quantity is indicated by means of a pointer If the pointer of an indicating instrument is in motion, damping

and controlling torques oppose the deflecting torque Electrical currents can be induced with a coil and a magnet by moving either the magnet or the coil The fuse should never be replaced with a higher rated unit The pointer of an indicating instrument is generally made of aluminum The time interval that a waveform is high (or low) is the pulse width of the signal A Wheatstone bridge is balanced if the ratio of resistors on one side of the bridge equals the ratio of resistors on the other side The pointer of an indicating instrument is in the final deflected position, the damping torque is zero Deflecting force a moving system force in analog instruments which causes the moving system to deflect from its zero position Controlling force a moving system force in analog instruments which ensures that the deflection of the pointer for a given value of measured quantity always has the same value All voltmeters except electrostatic is operated by the passage of current Disc is made of conductor and nonmagnetic material in eddy current damping The time interval between pulses is called pulse delay An oscilloscope provides easy measurement of peak to peak values Fuse is an element in electronics which serves as a protection against overlead

Diode sensor provides a dc voltage approximately 1V to 10 mW Hot-wire instrument has a squared scale For time measurements, horizontal scale of the scope is used Fluid friction damping is employed in Kelvin electrostatic voltmeter Current range extension in moving coil instruments can be achieved by placing a low resistance resistor in shunt with the instrument Permanent-magnet moving coil instrument can be used in dc work only Control grid CRT element provides for control of the number of electrons passing farther into the tube Orthogonal nulling refers to garaging the two adjustments of an AC bridge together in such a way that changing one adjustment changes the other in a special way, but changing the second adjustment does not change the first When the vertical input is 0V, the electron beam may be positioned at the vertical center of the screen The reason why the scale of a permanentmagnet moving coli instrument is uniform is because it is spring controlled Thermal converters a sensing element that provides a dc voltage less than 10mV with typical power range of 0.1 to 100 mW Tank circuit frequency can be measured by Grid-dip meter Shunts are generally made of Manganin material 1 A meter is the most sensitive A dynamometer instrument is mainly used as a wattmeter Dynamometer movement is the most expensive

Attraction and repulsion instrument are considered as movingiron instruments In wheatstone bridge, bridge balance is a condition where there is no current that flows through the load The temperature coefficient of resistance of the shunt material is negligible In VTVMS, zero adjust is used to balance both halves of the difference amplifier or cathode-coupled amplifier In an oscilloscope, intensity control adjusts the brightness of the spot by changing the voltage on the control grid Damping force a force in analog instrument which quickly brings the moving system to rest in its final position A small swamping resistance is connected in series with operating coil of a moving coil ammeter in order to compensate for the effects of temperature variation The typical power range of diode sensor is 0.1 nW to 10 mW A milliameter operates on the magnetic attraction-repulsion principles Wheatstone bridge a dc bridge widely used for the accurate measurement of resistance Potentiometer bridge is a dc bridge that is very useful for making extremely accurate voltage measurements Majority of the analog measuring instrument utilizes magnetic effect Multimeter typically provides measurement of rms values (for a sinusoidal waveform) Dynamometer type instrument can be used for both dc and ac

works Permanent-magnet moving coil is an instrument in which springs provide the controlling torque as well as serve to lead current into and out of the operating coil In VTVMS, sensitivity refers to the smallest signal that can be reliably measured The frequency of rotation in some rotating machinery can be measured by a Spectral meter An instrument used for observing voltage and current waveforms is the oscilloscope An electrostatic force does not act on the moving systems of analog instrument When current through the operating coil of a moving-iron instrument is tripled the operating force becomes nine times 50 mA is the typical full-scale deflection current of a moving coil instrument Ammeter an instrument used for measuring the amount of current flowing in a circuit DMM a type of meter that gives a precise reading of voltage, current or resistance where there is the generation of samples at the input and then feeds it to a digital readout 50 mV is the typical full-scale voltage across a moving coil voltmeter The period of a repetitive signal is one cycle of the waveform Cathode an element of a CRT that releases electrons when heated indirectly by a filament Moving-iron instrument has a squared scale A pattern displayed by oscilloscope which has a steady characteristic is called Lissajous

Changing the number of turns of operating coil extends the range of a moving-iron ac ammter Sawtooth generator is not a basic part of a CRT For amplitude measurements, vertical scale is calibrated in either volts per centimeter (V/cm), or millivolts per centimeter (mV/cm) Thermocouple ammter is used to measure high-frequency currents Electrostatic is used for measuring high direct voltage A common technique for measuring power at high frequency is to employ a sensing element that converts the RF power to a measurable dc or low-frequency signal The CRT provides the visual displaying showing the form of the signal applied as a waveform on the front screen of a cathode ray oscilloscope. Electrostatic instruments are exclusively used as voltmeters 0.1 W to100 W is the typical power range of thermocouple sensors An electric pyrometer is an instrument used to measure high temperature Permanent-magnet moving coil is the most sensitive Induction watt-hour meter is the most commonly used induction type instrument An integrating type of instrument is the watt-hour meter Indicating instrument is assumed to be most accurate at half of full part of the scale On a simple ohmmeter, the 0 ohm mark is located at far right of the scale

One of the basic functions of electronic circuit is the generation and manipulation of electronic waveshapes Cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) provides a visual presentation of any waveform applied to the input terminals The interval of a pulse from start to end is the period of the pulse Cathode ray tube (CRT) is considered as the heart of the cathode ray oscilloscope Phosphor a material that glows when struck by the energetic electrons in a CRT Thermiston sensor provides a change of resistance with typical power range of 1 W to 10 mW and with maximum frequency greater than 100 GHz Most AC voltmeters have an rms scale which is valid only if the input signal being measured is a sinusoidal signal Wheatstone bridge measures dc resistance Hay bridge is used to measure high-Q inductors (Q>10) Maxwell bridge measures an unknown inductance in terms of known capacitance Maxwell bridge is used for measuring medium Q coils (1<Q<10) Wien bridge has a series RC combination in one arm and a parallel RC combination in the adjoining arm and used as a notch filter in harmonic distortion analyzer Sensitivity of a voltmeter is express in ohm/volt The smallest change in applied stimulus that will indicate a detectable change in deflection in an indicating instrument is called resolution Insulation material is measured by Megger