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Slavery, freedom and civil rights The Freedmen’s Bureau- there to free slaves, find them a job, get them an education etc. 40 acres and a mule are offered to blacks. President Johnson/Jackson pardons southern land owners from which the land came. Whites feel resentment towards blacks. Most blacks go back to working on farms. Sharecropping.- A system in which you rent land and give as payment a share of your crops. You have to rent so many tools and equipment that many blacks end up in debt. By 1876 reconstruction ends, occupation of northern army ends in south. Reconstruction recreates the society created b4 the war, but the mishandling of blacks is a fatal flaw. 2. The only thing holding the country back from expansion is Indians. The Indians were given the Black Hills. Gold is found in that area and white settlers begin to move in. the Indians attack the settlers and the government sends soldiers. The Dawes Act- takes Indian land and gives it to the government. 3. The triumph of capitalism Industrialization and incorporation.
Capitalist America and its challenges Bob Buzzanco
Labor struggles and class conflict
From 1850 to 1890, the almost instant change from a more agricultural to industrial society left some people out. This was one of the most violent times in American history. This period was known as the Gilded Age. The term Gilded Age was first coined by Mark Twain. One of the major problems was paper money, there were periods of inflation and deflation. Another was production increases in things like steel and railroads and iron. This lead to over-production. This also leads to deflation. The drop in prices leads to farmers not being paid enough, which leads to the bank taking their farms, and the bank also loses money. The drop in prices also leads to over-over production to make up for the drop in price of the product. (if the price is cut in half, I have to sell twice as much). Railroad work loses wages and jobs. Railroad workers decide to strike. This influences other people in other fields to also strike, causing a national industrial strike. In Pittsburg the workers even kicked out the mayor and took over. The owners ask the government to send the militia and the police after the strikers. The strikers fight back and beat the militias. 1877 is the year of The Great Uprising. After a long battle the bosses give in and
the strikers win. The railroaders are granted a 8 hour work day and better wages. The Knights of Labor emerge from the conflict. They were the first widely successful union. People were split into skilled and unskilled workers. The Knights of Labor wanted to join skilled and unskilled workers. They let everybody in except for gamblers, prostitutes and lawyers. They thought they were leeches on society. Now all labor organizations want an 8 hour work day. There was a company called McCormick Reaper Works. He fires his staff, hires staff, workers resist, he calls the police. The people of the community decide to band together to support the McCormick workers. They were mostly foreign born and believed in anarchy and things like that. They were called terrorist. They were beat by the police and decided to hold another rally in Haymarket Square. The communication is bad and word doesn’t get around and the weather is bad and not many people show up. The demonstrators are denouncing America and capitalism. The police set off an explosion so they would have a reason to go in and beat the workers. At least 12 people ended up dead and the police were found guilty and many of them were killed. (Bill parsons). Because of the uproar over the situation the workers are blamed, the 8 hour work day fails, workers are associated with terrorist and anti-Americans, the Knights of Labor fizzles. This is a huge step back for workers. In 1892 (six years later), A town called Homestead had unionized. They were paid higher wages which lead to everybody in the town getting higher wages. Andrew Carnegie buys the factory. He doesn’t want to be seen as a bad guy by disbanding the union so he gives the job to his assistant, Frick, and he goes to Europe. He locks the workers out and bring in scabs. As the scabs are coming up the river on a barge, the workers shot at and kill many of them. The workers were arrested and the scabs were protected by army. In the town of Pullman, there was a Pullman factory ran by a man named Pullman. He owned the town. He didn’t use American currency, he used Pullman money. In 1893 there was a march of unemployed workers. The economy was bad. Pullman lowers peoples wages but keeps prices in the town the same. When they complain he fires them. They organize and march against Pullman. Pullman ask the Governor to send militia and police. The governor refuses. So he goes to the president, Grover Cleveland. Cleveland calls the army to break up the Pullman strike. The American Federation of Labor is called to help the Pullman strike but they refuse. The Pullman strike is put down. This is another step back for labor.
Family farms give way to commercial farms. They fall behind to technology and big business. A lot of farmers lose their farms and have to work for the person who bought their land. The image of farmers changes. they are no longer the backbone of society. They are no longer producers, they are wage laborers. This in someway causes them to lose self respect. The farmers form The Grange. It started as a social group between farmers to get together and discuss farm stuff. They create their own bank and create a co-op. They form their own insurance company. Another group forms, The Populists, and is one of the biggest challenge to the government. They form the Peoples Party. They run under James Weaver. They say “this is a race between the masses and the classes”. they become one of, if not the most legitimate 3rd party in America. The most well known Populists in America was William Jennings Bryant. They want the government to own the railroads, which will lead to public ownership. They want laws against Trusts and Monopolies. They also believed that the government should become involved in things
like banking and currency. They don’t want currency to be based on gold supply, they want Bimetallism. They want currency to be based on gold and silver. If the government releases silver and inflation occurs, there will b more money for farmers from the banks. The Populists also let in black people and put them in leadership positions. William Jennings Bryant gives such a powerful speech that he becomes leader of the democrats. The democrats were racist so the Populists had to get rid of the blacks in their organization. The populists lose power and fad into the democrats.
The Crisis of the 90’s
The problem of labor is somewhat solved. On of the major problems is production increase leading to over production and a shortage of consumers. America then needs to look for new markets elsewhere. The first Americans to go abroad are missionaries. They go to “save” the uneducated savages from damnation and bring them democracy. Missionaries see the possibility for business in theses undeveloped countries and they become businessmen. Josiah Strong, a preacher, is one of the biggest advocates of expansion. A.T. Mahan believes that America should expand its navy in order to protect its commerce it will b shipping to other countries. In order to do that they would need places to fuel up on the way, such as Hawaii. Surplus Capital- having to much capital. The economy was stagnant because there was nothing to invest in. Charles Conant wants to send people to do business in China. America becomes a big influence in Hawaii. They open sugar plantations and put the Hawaiian’s to work. The Hawaiian queen Lilihankalani is taken out of power and Sanford Dole is put into power. Cuba was important to America for sugar and fruit etc. Spain was in charge of Cuba and treated Cubans badly. The Cubans were fighting the Spanish and America supported them. The ship, The Maine, blew up and the Spanish are blamed. McKinley is told by God that he needs to invade Cuba. The Americans also take the Philippines. For 10 yeas the Pilipino rebels and the Americans fight. 10 thousand U.S marines were killed and 100 thousand Filipinos were killed. Americans are anti-imperialist so they have the “Open Door” policy. They wanted anybody to be able to trade in China. The more countries that are invested, the more money that is made. After the civil war the U.S. is now industrial, has power of imperialism abroad.
THE PROGRESSIVE ERA
The Response to Industrialization and the Call for Reform There are still many issues with the economy. People during this time see that America is in need of change and demand progress. Social Justice and Muckraking A lot of people see continued poverty and homelessness. There is child labor and people are dying in sweat shops. Muckraking is investigative reporting. People see the problems going on and decide to start reporting and writing about it. Social Equality: Ideas and laws As peoples ideas changed, the law changed along with it. As judges begin to see that most crimes are committed by poor people, they begin to change the way they sentence people.
Education changes from memorization to hands on experience. Religion encourages people to go out and help the poor and destitute directly. Women’s Suffrage The “Other” Progressives “Corporate Liberalism” To a businessman, competition is not good. At the time, there are too many banks. For example, all of them on Wallstreet are very close to each other. The competition is fierce and they are undercutting each other. The little banks are not able to keep up with what they are loaning out. Everybody is getting screwed in the system. The big banks push for reform, they ask for regulation from their congressman in their pocket. They want a federal reserve system. They determine interest rates, money supply, etc. The fed established regulations, u can only hand out this amount of money, u must have a certain amount in reserve, etc. The big banks benefit from this. This is an example of corporate reform/liberalism. In the early 1900’s there are too may insurance companies. Soon all the insurance companies do the same things as banks. They undercut each other, lose control, and go to the government for regulation. The small insurance companies go out of business. Upton Sinclair wrote “The Jungle”. It displayed how bad the meat industry was. The people ask for reform and they get it . The Europeans banned American meat because a lot of it was bad. The small businesses were selling most of the bad meat because they couldn’t afford to throw away meat. The big businesses ask for reform. In the 1890’s, it happens again. Congress passes the meat inspection act, food and drug act. The small meat companies go out of businesses. Conservative Reform and “cooperation” Banking, Insurance and Meat Packing
EMPIRE AND THE GREAT WAR European Background In 1900’s Europeans are trying to find new empires for their expanding businesses and economies. Soon all the undeveloped countries are taken up. The Ottoman empire and Hapsburg are in bad shape. The Ottoman empire fails and is broken up. The big empires come in to take over the now broken up countries. One of the most important pieces was the Balkan’s. It was European and every big country wanted it in order to get control. All the powers fight and the winner is Serbia. They have a peace conference and ultimately gang up on Serbia and Serbia doesn’t get what it wants. Arch Duke France Ferdinand travels to Serbia and is assassinated. Germany and Hapsburg demand payment. Germany begins military preparations. Almost all of Europe mobilizes for war. Germany invades Russia. Russia is allied to France. On august 3rd, Germany attacks Belgium in order to get to France. On one side is Britain and France, on the other side is Germany
and Hapsburg. The American president at the time is Woodrow Wilson. He is a strong believer in the open door policy and free trade. With the war going on, there won’t be an open door. Wilson calls for neutrality. Even though he wants neutrality, Britain and France are more important to America than Germany. British and French are having to sell their assets to pay for the war. They are still in need of money and they go to New York. The bankers begin to broker loans for the British government. The French do the same. One of the first things that the British do was establish a blockade on Germany. They do not allow anything in to Germany. People in Germany are starving because nothing is getting in. according to international law this was not allowed. If America wants to be neutral they should step in and stop this. But Wilson does not want to step in till after the war. The Germans create U-boats and start attacking all British ships. Americans try to negotiate between the two, the blockade will end if the German’s cease blowing up ships. The British disagree and America agrees with them. A ship carrying 128 Americans is sunk and this angers many Americans. The Germans agree not to use U-boats anymore. A few years later the Sussex is sunk. By late 1916 the Germans are in trouble and must resume submarine warfare. This causes Americans to enter the war. Wilson enters under “Making the World Safe for Democracy”. In the House-Grey Memorandum the U.S. secretly agrees that they will join Britain if Germany resumes submarine warfare. Lenins Critique of Captialism- Wrote Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism. Claims that big countries are just gobbling up smaller countries in an interimperialist rivalry. Race for Empire Britain, France, Germany
Repression: people start to attack German’s in America. Propaganda is everywhere
African Americans in the War: African Americans join the war in order to try to gain
respect. The army is still segregated. The army remains segregated after the war and blacks aren’t allowed to march in the victory parade. At least a dozen black soldiers were lynched in uniform. The espionage act- it became illegal to speak against America or the war. The War is over
The Continuing Conflict in Europe
Treaty of Versailles- Involved Britain, France and the United States. President Wilson was not really respected at the treaty because America had only been in the war for a short time. In Russia, the Czar is overthrown. The Bolsheviks take over. They get rid of private ownership and open-doors. It is the exact opposite of America and what Wilson wanted to do. America doesn’t recognize Russia as a government. Russian is not allowed into Versailles. France and Britain want Germany to pay reparations for starting the war. They want Germany to accept all guilt for the war. They demilitarize Germany and tell them that they are not allowed to mobilize. They want Germany to pay for EVERYTHING. Wilson believes in reintegration. He wants to allow Germany to rebuild itself. Europe doesn’t allow this and make Germany pay.
The fight for the league of nations- Wilson wants the league of nations, it is created but America doesn’t join because it is scared that it will no longer be sovereign and white Americans do not want to be involved with what they consider to be lower races. WW1 is not looked at as glorious as previous wars had been. There is a great sense of disillusion. Even though the war is over, countries are still buying weapons. What the Bolsheviks did that scared the Americans was taking away private property. They were our opposites. Palmer Raids: The government began to go after reds (members of the communist party, or anybody questioning the government). It is a tool to control people, either your with us or your against us. The 1920’s: Culture, Captialism, and Crash America’s economy skyrockets after the war. There is an emergence of a new economical system, its called The New Corporate State. In this era there’s a mixture of economy and government. Herbert Hoover was a leading force behind this. One of the things that Hoover wanted to do was to “rationalize” the economy. This was making it more efficient. Created War Industries Board- a rational cooperative arrangement so that during war-time, companies weren’t producing the same things, ex: everybody weren’t producing guns He came up with the idea of “trade associations”. People of the same industry get together along with the government and decide on set standards. This way they are not all cutting each others throat. This leads to incredible economic growth. People are beginning to buy things. Automobiles emerge. They, unlike steel and coal, are things that people buy, not companies. . Consumer Culture/Loans and Advertising- with the economic boom, people start buying things they wouldn’t normally buy. You see a rise in “consumer culture”. in the 1900’s there was more of a cultural sense of being frugal. Materialism was thought to be evil and a sin. In the 1920’s when industries start to create consumer goods, they need to change peoples mindsets and get them to start spending. You must develop a consumer culture. You make people feel that if they spend money then their lives will b easier ex: washing machines, cars, canned food. You start to see a loan industry develop. For the first time u see a big boom in advertising. Buying fun and economic growthThe Economy then goes into the Great Depression. It effects 1/4th to 1/3rd of the American population. Was caused by surplus capital, foreign economic crises ( in order to aid Germany, the US creates the Dawes plan, gives money to Germany), stock market (rich men began to put money into the stock market, going only on speculation, people get scared and pull their money out of the banks), lack of economic diversity (the country depended on too few items and goods), poverty, credit crunch. Productionism-Fords plan to raise wages in order for their employees to spend more. Hoovers response to the depression: Balanced budget (the government would not step in in order to try to not run the economy into a deficit), Tariffs (raises the taxes on incoming good to encourage people to buy US goods since not as many foreign goods will be
coming in), Government Spending (creates the RFC, reconstruction finance corporation). Roosevelt becomes president easily. He is very congenial, runs on politics of Illusion and Hope. Make the people feel good. Has The New Deal: The 3R’s. (relief, recovery, reform). First New Deal: Conservative, pro-business reform. Needs to fix industry (NRA national recovery association, brings the trades together to fix their problems, similar to Trade Association), agriculture (AAA got farmers to produce less thereby raising the prices of goods) and banking (SEC securities and exchange commission, oversees and regulates investment banking, the Federal reserve of banks).
Second New Deal: Thunder on the Left. Sam Donaldson subsidies.
Second New Deal: "Thunder on the Left" --Woody Guthrie
[Video] [Image] [Image] Will Rogers [Image]
FDR's Critics: Sinclair [Image] , Townshend, Lewis, Long [Video] [Image] [Image] Social Security- Roosevelt got congress to pass the social security act. This does
not help the depression, since it takes money from employers and employees. It did help politically and psychologically. , WPA (Works Progress Administration)-puts the government directly into the business of creating jobs. Formerly, the government gave money to companies hoping that they would create more jobs. The WPA directly gave people government jobs, building railway, airfields, museums, etc. This program does help the depression. [Image], [video] Wagner Act-National labor act- a response to Lewis saying that the Democrats had not taken care of the working class. Puts government authority behind people wanting to form a union. Allowed workers to form unions and file grievances with a National Labor Relations Board. Once again did not do much for the depression but was a big psychological boost.
Recovery in '37? The Curse of the Balanced Budget Roosevelt wants to balance the budget to do so he either has to raise taxes or cut spending. He cuts spending. wins a re-election and virtually completely stops the WPA. All the building and jobs are done.
Military Keynesianism to the Rescue! the Second World War
forced the United States into measures that would eventually end the depression. The creation of jobs gave people money and boosted the economy.
______ Terms: "Bank Holiday" National Planning
"Grapes of Wrath"
PWA (Public Works Administration) CCC [Image] FERA EPIC "Share Our Wealth" -Luis, opposer of Roosevelt, idea that people should
pool their money
Flint (Article and Audio) John Maynard Keynes - feels the government has to be involved to
increase consumption. Opposed capitalism. Demand side economics, could not have a strong economy unless people had jobs.
APPEASEMENT, ISOLATIONISM, AND THE OUTBREAK OF WAR Europe (Map of German Expansion) - Versailles led to the destruction of German
economy and backlash. The Germans blame the French, British and their own leaders for being weak. The Nazi party takes advantage of this and steps in. Hitler is elected Chancellor. The Germans believe that the surrounding areas around Germany should be part of Germany. Hitler hates Jews and communist.
Mussolini and Hitler - Hitler begins to militarize. British and French [Non]-response Rhineland Reoccupation--1936 (Map) Spanish Civil War (Poster) (Spanish anti-fascist posters) in 1936 there was an
election in Spain. The Republicans won. Wanted to give women the vote, reduce power of the catholic church. The catholic church and the military were offended by this. Within in months a civil war begins, led by a general Francisco Franco. Franco was a fascist. Spain ask for help from the West and they all say no. Franco ask for help from Hitler and got it. Stalin is the only one to show support to the Spanish government. In 1939 Franco wins.
Anschluss, 1938 (Image) - Hitler takes Austria. The move is not even challenged by
Austria because of the strong German presence in Austria. The Nazi’s are welcomed with open arms.
Munich, 1938 (Image) - Europe meets to discuss the future of Europe. Hitler argues
that the places he is invading is because it is mostly German anyway. After he gets the German areas, he’ll quit.
Sudetenland/Czechoslovakia--1938 (Map)- after Munich, Hitler takes
Czechoslovakia. The other governments finally step in and say if he continues then there will be war.
Poland, 1 September 1939 (Map) - The invasion of Poland begins WW2. Britain and
France declare war on Germany.
Asia - the bombing of Pearl Harbor was a culmination of years of animosity between
US and Japan over the Asian market.
America, Tokyo and the "Greater East-Asia CoProsperity Sphere" (Map) - Japan wants to take control over east Asia. They
believe they should have control because they are the only industrialized Asian country.
Manchukuo - In 1931 Japan invades Manchuria and renames it Manchukuo. The Invasion of China - Japanese army invades China. The U.S. Isolationism - America wanted to stay away from overseas politics and conflicts.
A depression was going on and they couldn’t afford to be concerned with the problems of others.
Undeclared War (article) (Woody Guthrie--"The Sinking of the Reuben
James") US begins to send naval ships into German waters in order to provoke them into attacking US ships.
Conflict in the Pacific "The Arsenal of Democracy" - Roosevelt did not want to fight, but
would provide the arsenal to those fighting against democracy.
_____ Terms: Nazis Fascists Franco Neville Chamberlain - British prime minister during Munich Mukden Incident
Pearl Harbor Neutrality Acts - US could not interfere with Europe or Spain because of an act
"Phony War" - there was a long period where Germany didn’t do anything.
Everybody thought that Germany was done. Until they invade and within 6 weeks take over France.
The Battle of Britain -
Hitler builds a great air force, the Litva. Instead of just invading, Hitler wants to weaken the British b4 a land invasion. The problem with this was that the British had radar and both sides were equally hurt by the first attacks. So the Germans started bombing civilians which boosted British nationalism. Hitler’s plan doesn’t work and he gives up on Britain, this is the first time that Hitler had been stopped.
"Cash and Carry" - if Britain wanted military equipment from the US, they
had to use their own ships and pay in cash.
Destroyers for Bases Lend-Lease - instead of giving money the US would give equipment. Not give, but
loan. The Japanese needed to find a new source of oil other than the US, who gave the world most of their oil. They send planes to the Philippines and Hawaii. This leads to pearl harbor.
THE WORLD AT WAR (War in Europe maps)
Soviet Invasion (Map) - Hitler sends 200 divisions to Soviet Union and the alliance between the Soviets and Germans is broken. The Nazis encounter harsh weather and are stopped for the second time.
The Grand Alliance: Roosevelt (wanted to create an open world, global free trade), Churchill (main goal was to maintain their Empire), Stalin
(priority was to cover his own butt, make sure Russia was not attacked again)
The Politics of War: The Second Front D-Day and Victory: Seeds of Cold War http://www.secondeguerre.net/europe1945.jpg The Pacific War (Map) The BOMB! Why?
______ Terms: Nazi-Soviet Pact Yalta Potsdam Manhattan Project Atomic Diplomacy: Feb. 1945: Soviet agrees to war v. Japan Spring 1945: U.S. planners expect Japanese surrender Spring/Summer 1945: Japanese overtures to Soviet; American planning for invasion (1 November 45, 1 January 46),
casualty estimates 25-50K
VE Day: Soviet to enter war in Asia on 8 August July 1945: Stalling Potsdam 16 July: Potsdam Conference and Almogordo (Truman before
the conference) (Truman's shift in demeanor)
6 August: Hiroshima (bombing image) (city image) (casualty image) 9 August: Nagasaki The Alperovitz Debate
Critics of the Bomb
THE END OF WW II AND THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR (Cold War Rivalries map) Wartime Factors – Started in WW2, the alliance was formed based on the
necessity of defeating the Germans. Once that was over, they had no more need to be allies. The atomic bomb also made waves between the Americans and Soviets. Their experiences during the war are very different. The soviets lost more people and had to fight on their land.
Second Front A-Bomb Italian Surrender – when Italy surrendered, the Americans negotiated the
terms of surrender without consulting the Soviets.
Reconstructing Postwar Europe
Yalta and the Question of Eastern Europe- The allies need to
decide what to do with Europe.
Poland (map) – there are actually more polish people in America than Poland.
America wants the polish to stay free so they can vote democrat. Russia decides to let the polish people vote for who they want and they vote communist.
Germany (4 Zones and Reparations (map)) –
the Western countries get the best part of Europe and Germany and the Soviets get a small piece of the east. The best parts of Germany are in the West. Germany is now split into western and eastern Germany.
American and Soviet Designs : Churchill, Stalin, and Truman Open Door- America wants to open up the European markets. , Empire- Britain wants to maintain their empires throughout the world, Defense- The soviets wanted to take control of neighboring countries to protect
Russia from future invasion.
Strategies for Hegemony: Economic and Political – strategies for global
power. America tries to create a new Bretton Woods- 44 countries show up, create global economy to avoid depressions. IMF [Currency Stabilization]- like a bank that allows other countries to borrow money so that their currency is not useless. The IMF uses its power in order to change countries governments. World Bank ["reconstruction and development"]- if a country wants to develop (build roads, power lines, etc) they go to the WB for a loan, the World Bank does the same thing as the IMF in terms of using its influence in order to change governments in their favor. The dollar and convertibility- the dollar is chosen as the world currency. United Nations Security Council and Veto Inclusion and Power
Containment: Economic, Military and Political [Kennan] – “We have 6% of the world population and 50% of the wealth” Bretton Woods, Loans and the Marshall Plan The "Iron Curtain" – The division in European countries after WW2 btw
American influenced countries and Russian influenced countries.
The Truman Doctrine – Truman begins to put together a system of support
for Greece and Turkey. Greece and Turkey were supposed to be funded by the British but the British were low on funds from the war. Truman needed to gather funds but the American people were reluctant to spend money abroad. To gather support Truman began spreading propaganda to Americans that communist were going to take over Greece and it was the job of American people to protect other democratic peoples. This was all untrue as the power gap between Russia and America was huge. Stalin and America knew this yet lies were still spread.
Berlin Blockade – Germany was broken up into the Western zone controlled by
US. Britain and France the east by Russia. The Western Zone is more industrial and the east is agricultural. The capital, Berlin, was completely in the east zone yet was also split. Stalin was upset by this and created a blockade to stop free travel between east and west Berlin.
NATO – Cold War/Hot War in the "Third World" ASIA – there was only one country in Asia that was developed, Japan. China was also
important because it was so big. America wants to rebuild Japan after the war in order to trade with it.
Chinese Civil War: Mao Zedong [CCP] vs. Jiang Jieshi [Guomindang] - China was lead by Jiang Jieshi and his party Guomindang. He
was challenged by the communist and Mao Zedong. America sends Jieshi billions of dollars to fight Zedong and the Japanese who have invaded. Jieshi keeps most of the money for himself. America sends ambassadors who see that Jieshi is corrupt and Zedong is popular and will win the peoples support. Zedong wins china and Jieshi runs to Japan and sets up a regime.
The "China Lobby" – informal group of people who have money invested in
china, religious groups (Jieshi was Christian), who put pressure on the president and US to support Jieshi.
The Cold War Turns Hot: Korea – Japan invaded Korea. Japanese
treated Koreans very badly. Inside Korea there was a movement to resist Japan. A lot of the movements were led by communist. One of the leaders is Kim IL Sung, father of Kim IL Jung. After Japan is kicked out, the communist assume they should lead because they had run the Japanese out. Korea is split into two parts along the 38th parallel, north controlled by the communist and south controlled by Syngmahn Rhee who is very influenced by America. North Korea invades South Korea and eventually controls all of Korea besides one small beachhead. America invades and is able to crush the supply lines to the troops in the south. The Americans are so successful at stopping the communist they decide to try to take the whole country and put Rhee in charge. North of Korea is China and many people warn that the Chinese will invade and they do, pushing America
back to South Korea, then America pushes the Chinese back north again.
NSC-68 (68th paper the NSC has written) and Military Keynesianism – Truman goes to the National Security Counsel. NSC 68 creates
an imaginary view of the world. Says America is involved in an epic struggle between the slave state and the free, Russian and the US. Calls for a global fight against communist. Wherever communist exist they must be fought. To fight all the communist NSC calls for a vast military buildup. So why call for all this military if Russia is not really a threat? America had one of its biggest economic booms and got itself out of a depression during a war. America needs a competitor.
"Ducks" Everywhere READ IN BOOK, CHAPTERS 2 AND 3 Iran, 1953: The Fall of Mossadegh (map) Guatemala, 1954: Ousting Arbenz (Map) Cuba, 1959-present: Contesting Castro Chile, 1973: The Allende "Threat" 1945-Present: The Spectres of Nationalism and Neutralism Indonesia, Egypt, India [Sukarno, Nasser, Nehru] Containment–at Home – any movement that tries to restructure American
democracy is labeled as suspect. One way to discredit it is to call it a communist movement.
Red Scare, Again McCarthyism – accuse everybody of being a communist. Anything goes wrong,
blame communist. You don’t like somebody? Call them a communist.
"Who Lost China?" – blame the ambassadors who said Moa Zedong was
popular were communist.
Labor/Taft-Hartley – After the war, the workers ask for higher wages which
they had sacrificed during the war. To stop them from complaining, the bosses call them communist.
The Rosenbergs – Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. Accused of turning over
information about the atomic bomb to Russia. They are given the death penalty and executed.
"God Bless America" – communist were labeled not as only un-American
but also unchristian. Added “one nation under God” to the pledge of allegiance. They started playing the national anthem at the beginning of baseball games. This adds a
religious component, if your un-American you unchristian. Creates an incredibly intolerant society.
African Americans/Civil Rights – if America was fighting for the
rights of Europeans, the same should be offered to blacks. It is understood by whites in power that the change is going to happen, but you do not change the structure of power and just turn them into consumers. Create good Negroes. Paul Robeson Incredibly smart man. Can sing, speak Russian and Chinese. Valedictorian of his University. All American. Goes to Columbia to become a lawyer. Secretaries even refuse to type for him. Becomes famous singer and actor. Robeson says black men shouldn’t join the army if they will not be treated well. He is brought to trial and accused of being a communist.
DuBois first black to get a PhD at Harvard, founder of the NAACP. Also called a
communist and moves to Ghana and renounces his American citizenship.
Haywood, King Women – during World War 2, many women took on jobs. After the war was over
they were supposed to quit and “get back in the kitchen and get barefoot”. Women are in charge of the family and the moral education of our children. We need them at home teaching our kids that America is good. America plays on the guilt of women. Eventually leads to the baby boom.
Back to the Kitchen Baby Booming June and Ward Hollywood/Culture – the CIA would see scripts before movies were shot to
make sure they weren’t anti American. A lot of people lost their jobs.
TV/Education/Comics, etc. Blacklists – means you are no longer able to work and are outcaste. Suburbanization Terms: Roy Cohn – Jewish. Went after the Rosenberg’s. Often accused people of being gay
and communist. Was a HUGE homosexual.
"Lavender Scare" – 90 people lost their jobs in the government because they
were accused of being communist, hundred because they are gay.
Joseph Welch ["Sir, have you no sense of decency"] "Hollywood Ten"
American Life in the 1950s Consumption and Culture Economic Growth [Military-Industrial Complex Organization Men in Gray Flannel Suits Education and Conformity "Little Boxes" The "Other" '50s "Birth of the Cool" [Miles] [Thelonious Monk] [Charlie "Bird" Parker]
["In the Mood"] ["A Night in Tunisia"] ["So What"]
Hep Cats, Jazz, and Dope The Beat Life [Ginsberg] [Kerouac] [Burroughs] Rebels without Causes and JDs ===== Terms:
Howl Mad Magazine [Alfred E. Newman] [Bill Gaines] [Alfred E. Newman] Playboy [Hugh Hefner] VIET NAM Why Viet Nam? – The US at the time had a huge amount of power. The US had
reasons for invading Vietnam like it had for Cuba and Chile and others. Vietnam had always been a target for conquest. The French set up a colony there and take Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand. Becomes Indo-French labor. Set up a debt system where the Vietnamese are constantly in debt and have to work as essentially slaves to pay them off. The Vietnamese hate the French and a sense of nationalism starts. Ho Chi Minh hated the French as a young child till adult. He is a nationalist, wants the French the hell out of Vietnam, he was also a communist. Creates the nationalist group Viet Minh. They try to take up arms against the French but that doesn’t go well. Has a concept of land being given to the poor, taken from the French and Vietnamese lackeys. The Japanese invaded and destroyed Vietnam. Created a famine and a depression. The Vietnamese proclaim their independence and ask the US for support as a developing nation. The French try to come back and take Vietnam. The US does not want France to bother with Vietnam since there is a massive communist movement in Europe but France will not yield so the US decides to support them.
Cold War Context Economics [rebuilding Asia] – After the war, the US has control of
Japan. At the same time China becomes communist. The US has to hold its influence on Japan and keep china contained. If you want Japan to be a strong country it must interact with its neighbors. In 1946 the Viet Minh go against the French again. This is the first Indo China war. By 1953 the United States is sending a Billion dollars to support the French. The Vietnamese destroy the French. The Vietnamese once again consider themselves independent. The Americans do not recognize the Vietnamese as a country. they split Vietnam into the North and the South along the 17th parallel. Ho Chi Minh was the leader of the north but the US had to find someone to lead the south. Ngo Dinh Diem is chosen. He is not a good leader but he is all the US has. He puts his family in charge and brags about jailing and executing communist. People hate him. There is a struggle over who will lead the south, Diem or the Viet Minh. The Viet Minh in the south keep going to the north to ask for help. Ho Chi Minh doesn’t want to because he doesn’t want to spark a war with America. Ho Chi Minh finally agrees to help and creates the Viet Cong and National Liberation Front. Kennedy becomes president and sees Vietnam as a problem. He increases the number of aides in Vietnam from 600 to 16000. in 1963 a religious crisis breaks out between Diem and the Buddhists. Diem is a devote Christian. The Buddhists were not only religious but they were also a political group. Diem sends army troops into the holiest temple on Buddha’s birthday. A Buddhist, Quang Duc, sets himself on fire and kills himself in order to get attention to the problem. Diem was horrible president. Southern Vietminh go to north and ask for help. The north does not want to intervene as it will spark a war with the Americans that they are not prepared for. In 1963 Diem and his brother are kidnapped and murdered in a coup. His own people, southern generals, do this. In the early 1963, Diem knew his days were numbered and began to negotiate with the north. America found out about this. Kennedy is assassinated and Johnson becomes president. He feels that they need to continue the fight in Vietnam. American sailors were in Vietnamese waters and claimed that they were fired upon. At first they are not believed by the government, but the government sees it as an opportunity to attack the Vietnamese with cause. President Johnson proposes and it is passed, the Tonkin Resolution), 99 percent of the government pass it and it gives Johnson the ability to fight the Vietnamese by any means necessary. By the end of 64 there are 80,000 troops in Vietnam. In 65 things continue to go bad and begins the Americanization of the Vietnam War. Johnson agrees to send more troops, the Americans are saying that they are taking over for the southern Vietnamese as the main fighters against the Vietcong. By 68 there are 500.000 troops in Vietnam. Then things really get bad when the enemy launches the Tet Offensive. There was supposed to be a cease fire, but Vietnam goes on the offensive and blows up tons of American supplies, buildings, and even the American embassy. The American people begin to turn against the war. America wants to get out of the war and re Vietnamize the war. 60’s Counter Culture Was an anti-war concert. Is now portrayed as people getting high, but started as an antiwar protest. A counter culture was created by the war. Dien Bien Phu
The War Attrition War Divisions over Strategy Air War Why the U.S. Lost? Guerrilla Warfare Politics in Viet Nam The U.S. Context ====== Terms: French Indochina Ho Chi Minh Viet Minh Domino Theory Viet Cong Ngo Dinh Diem
The Modern Civil Rights Era World War II and the Northern Migration The Legal Challenge to Apartheid Brown v. Board Montgomery and the Emergence of Martin Luther King "I Have a Dream" Legislative Triumph: Civil and Voting Rights Acts
Liberal Backlash, post 1965 – liberals turn on the civil
rights movement when they begin to go into areas that will affect the liberals position.
Northern Rage: Malcolm X Black Power/Black Panthers Poor People's Campaign – class based campaign, king
attempts to unite blacks and also poor workers. Republicanism in the south started in the 1960’s as a backlash to civil rights. In the late 60’s you begin to see black involvement in politics. African Americans begin to be elected to political positions. Kings vision of poor people taking higher rolls does not take place.
The Assassination of King ======= Terms: Rosa Parks, 12/55 Emmit Till Little Rock, AK Sit-Ins [SNCC] Freedom Rides Freedom Summer Birmingham Boycott--"Bull" Connor States' Rights
The 1960s: Questioning Authority and Commodifying an Era
To take away the memory of the serious things of the 60’s like Vietnam and the civil rights movement, you keep bringing up the good things and associating things like songs from the 60’s with banking.
The New Left and Antiwar Movement
Emerges from the old left. A lot of young people
"participatory democracy" Countercultures: Sex, Drugs, Rock & Roll "La Raza Unida"--The Chicano Movement Women's Liberation ====== Terms: C. Wright Mills – wrote The Power Elite. Said that there was a ruling class, but
very few people had power. At every institution there were a small group of people, the power elite, making all the decisions. The elitist convince people that the system works and that they are getting what they want.
SDS [Students for a Democratic Society] – were against social
elite, government and industries being on campus. Wants to create a participatory democracy. Believe people should have a say in the decisions that govern their everyday lives. Created things like Tenants Unions and Welfare Rights Organizations. Wanted an interracial coalition of the war.
Port Huron Statement Hippies [image] Haight-Asbury [Jerry Garcia] [The Airplane] The Pill LSD--Timothy Leary ["tune in, turn on, drop out"] "Summer of Love" Woodstock [Jimi] [Janis] Bob Dylan – talked about the Dean of Women The Beatles Cesar Chavez--UFW Reyes Tijerina [New Mexico] – begins a movement to take back the land
in New Mexico. Go into the courthouses and find the titles to land. There are armed standoffs. Eventually Reyes is thrown in jail.
Brown Berets – Hispanic version of the black panthers.
Betty Friedan--The Feminine Mystique Miss America 1968--"freedom trash can" SCUM
60s Backlash and The Age of Nixon
Kevin Phillips was the brains behind Nixon’s campaign. In the previous 36 year period, there have been 28 years of democratic presidents. Nixon runs on the campaign that people, mostly southern whites, are tired of seeing blacks and others protesting. He says that the democrats are a party of Acid, Amnesty, and Abortion.
Foreign Policy "Vietnamization" and Kent State
as we stand down, they stand up. After Nixon invades Cambodia unsuccessfully, American people go crazy. People start to protest. One of the main targets on college campuses is the ROTC building. It was torched at Kent State. The national guard is sent in. There is a shooting and the national guard kills 4 students. A week later 2 students are killed at Jackson State but doesn’t receive the same publicity because it is a black college.
Ending the War ends in April 1975. Arms Sales At Home "Law and Order" ? Evil Liberals Oil Crisis because of a war between Israel and other middle eastern countries in
which America backed Israel, Arab nations refused to sell oil to America. A barrel of oil went from 2-3 dollars to 30. many cities begin rationing oil.
Welfare and Environment Watergate – Nixon is up for re-election but is scared of losing so he sends spies
into the democratic headquarters to find out how they are going to run their election. They are caught because they left evidence.
The Legacy The Imperial President The Last Liberal? Race and Culture Punk and Hip Hop
The 1980s--the Backlash Continues
October Surprise? Killing Hope
The New Cold War "Star Wars" [SDI] and Military Keynesianism Slaughters in Central America
A "New" Cold War Aftermath of Detente Committee on the Present Danger and "Team B" Brzezinski in Charge/Carter's Cold War--Afghanistan and the Olympics. – Jimmy carter was a very inept president. Afghanistan had a revolution and took American hostages. To make America look tough again jimmy ordered a boycott of the Olympics in 1980. Reagan, Military Keynesianism and the "Evil Empire"- runs on the campaign of making America strong again. Wants to cut taxes and increase defense spending to protect America from evil empires like Russia. Uses supply side economics. You help the producers instead of helping the buyers. Supply side economics do not work. The trickle down effect does not work. He tried to give the rich tax breaks and things like that, hoping they would spend more and the money would somehow get down to the poor. The Gorbachev Alternative <>
Reverse Robin Hood Economics
The Poor Get Poorer [chart on page 305]
Reagan's Economic Policies
Cutting the Safety Net – cuts many school programs and social programs. Clarence Thomas Rodney King and the L.A. Uprising of '92 End (?) of the Cold War
The Bloc Crumbles Looking for Enemies Rogue States and Nuclear Outlaws Saddam to the Rescue
"The Evil Empire" Nuclear Freeze Movement (Three Mile Island/China Syndrome)
Liberation Theology and the Pope
El Salvador--FMLN vs. the Death Squads /the Murder of
Guatemala--the Horror Continues Nicaragua--Sandinistas vs. the Contras Contra-Cocaine connection Domestic surveillance--the CISPES case Anita Hill
I'd like to make an appeal in a special way to the men in the army. Brothers, each one of you is one of us. We are the same People. The farmers and peasants that you kill are your own brothers and sisters. When you hear the words of a man telling you to kill, think instead in the words of God, "Thou shalt not kill!" No soldier is obliged to obey an order contrary to the Law of God. In His name and in the name of our tormented people who have suffered so much, and whose laments cry out to heaven: I implore you! I beg you! I ORDER you!! STOP THE REPRESSION!!!
Globalization Integration and Hegemony Bretton Woods--IMF and World Bank TNCs and Transnational Institutions WTO NAFTA FTAA CAFTA Democracy? Who makes the call? Investor-to-State rights/Chapter 11 MTBE Mississippi Funeral Parlors Work and Wages Maquiladores Job Losses (Chart) 'Till Debt Do Us Part
Deficits Budget Deficits (2) (3) Budget Deficits Projections Deficits/GDP Contributions to Deficit Public and Private Bond Market Debt Globalization and its Discontents "The Battle of Seattle" "Call It Democracy" (Lyrics)
The Road to 9/11, and Iraq: The US and the Middle East Background: Oil and Nationalism Israel and Palestine Iran, Egypt, Iraq 6 Day War and Yom Kippur/Ramadan War US support of Israel Islamic Revolution, and the Iran-Iraq War Afghanistan, Mujahadeen, and "Blowback" Terrorism in the 90s 9/11 and the Bush drive to war Lies and Deceptions
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