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Holding Pattern Fix: - The position of a/c identify with reference to Nav Aids.

Advantage of Holding: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Time Reference. Uniform Pattern. Approach Direction. Obstacle Clearance.

Radial: - Magnetic tracks radiating outward from station. Holding: - Flying towards to the station is called homing.
Holding: - Two types of holdings (i) Standard Holding. (ii) Non Standard Holding.

(i)

Standard Holding: -

Inbound leg = 270 Homing leg = 270 Holding Radial = 090 Inbound = 270

Timings: Total time for signal circuit is 4min. inbound 1min, out bound 1min and two turns 2min (Each turn 1min)

There are three types of entries: (i) (ii) (iii) Direct Entry. Parallel Entry. Tear Drop / Offset Entry.

(i)

Direct Entry.

(ii)

Parallel Entry.

(iii)

Tear Drop / Offset Entry.

Entries:-

(ii)

Non Standard Holdings: In non standard hold all turns is to left side. Total time is same 4min.

Even in Non Standard same three types of entries: (i) (ii) (iii) Direct Entry. Parallel Entry. Tear Drop / Offset Entry.

(i)

Direct Entry: -

(ii)

Parallel Entry: -

(iii)

Tear Drop / Offset Entry: -

Entries: -

Note: - These types of pattern are in nil wind condition. Holdings with Wind Effect: -

Correction for Drift On Inbound, Actual drift to be maintained. On Outbound, 3 Times drift to be maintained.

If no correction is given in holding pattern (See the Diagram below): -

A/c will make undershoot turn while turning to Outbound and going out of the track.

If they give only 1 time correction in outbound (See the Diagram below): -

Now A/c is going straight in outbound, but it is undershoot turn while joining Outbound and overshoot turn while turning to Inbound.

If they give 2 times correction is given in outbound (See the diagram below): -

Still a/c is overshooting while joining inbound.

If they give 3times correction is given in outbound (see the diagram below): -

Now A/c joins the inbound track correctly.

Correction for Time: For every 1Knot of head wind or Tail wind component, Increase or decrease 1sec on outbound track respectively.

Indicated Airspeed during Hold: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) At 6,000 feet MSL and below: 200 knots. Upto or below 14000ft = below 230kts. Between 14000ft to 20000ft = below 240kts. Between 20000ft to 34000ft = below 265kts. Above 34000ft = below 0.83 mach

Procedure Turn: It is a turn carried out to 45 away from reciprocal of final approach track to align in approach direction. Time during procedure turn is 1 min.

By For Aviators