1.

Introduction

Welcome to the Scaffold User Training course. Work on scaffolds is very common in the construction and industrial trades. According the Bureau of Labor statistics, more than 9,500 workers are injured every year in scaffoldrelated incidents, and 9% of all construction fatalities involved scaffolds. Whenever you work on a scaffold, you need to be aware of the potential dangers and common causes of accidents that exist. In this course, you will learn to identify common features of scaffolds and to identify scaffold hazards. Training and hazard awareness can protect you from injury. This course does not focus on scaffold construction and will not qualify you as a scaffolding competent person. Before you can perform any work on scaffolds, you must successfully complete this course. Glossary scaffolds Any temporary elevated platform (supported or suspended) and its supporting structure (including points of anchorage), used for supporting employees, or materials, or both. common causes of accidents Seventy-two percent of the workers injured on scaffolds were due to the planking or support giving way, the employee slipping, or being struck by a falling object. Plank slippage is the most commonly cited cause of scaffold accidents. competent person One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazardous working conditions and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.

2.

Course Objectives

Learning Objectives After successfully completing this course, you will be able to: • Identify basic elements of a safely constructed scaffold • Describe safe work practices to prevent falls from scaffolding • Describe safe work practices to prevent falling object hazards • Identify work practices to mitigate electrical hazards • Describe safe materials handling practices on scaffolds • Identify work practices to mitigate overload hazards • Identify unsafe work practices on scaffolds OSHA Scaffold Standard The primary regulatory requirement for scaffolding is OSHA standard, 29 CFR 1926, Subpart L, Scaffolds. This rule aims to protect workers using scaffolding in construction work. Unsafe scaffolding work practices and hazards are cited more than any other violation by OSHA. Like all OSHA regulations, the responsibility to keep workers safe is placed on the employer, who must have a competent person oversee the scaffold operations. A scaffold can only be erected, moved, dismantled, or altered under the supervision and direction of a competent person qualified in scaffolding. OSHA requires workers to comply with all safety and health standards that apply to their actions on the job.

3.

Regulatory Requirements

4.

Scaffold Training Requirements The standard also requires anyone who works on scaffolds to receive scaffold training. Scaffold user training is not focused on scaffold construction. The training covers the hazards you might encounter while working on scaffolding, as well as on safe work practices on scaffolds. You may assume that the scaffold has been designed by a qualified person, and properly erected by a trained crew under the supervision of a competent person. If the scaffold has a green tag, the scaffold has been inspected to ensure that it meets all safety requirements (to be covered

maintaining. The scaffold user’s responsibility is to be aware of any changes in the condition of the scaffold while working. Scaffolding must be inspected by a competent person before each work shift. 3. and to work safely. as applicable: 1. The proper use of the scaffold. The maximum intended load and the load-carrying capacities of the scaffolds used. 4. and disassembling the fall protection systems and falling object protection systems being used. Pop-up: scaffold training 1926. Brain Teaser Brain Teaser (F) As the scaffold user. and 5. The nature of any electrical hazards. and the proper handling of materials on the scaffold. 2.454(a). Custom Feedback (for correct and incorrect answers): The scaffold competent person has the primary responsibility to ensure the scaffold is safe. fall hazards and falling object hazards in the work area. Any other pertinent requirements of this subpart. The training shall include the following areas.later in the course). you have the primary responsibility to ensure the scaffold is safe. The correct procedures for dealing with electrical hazards and for erecting. and after any incident that may affect the safety of the scaffold. 5. . Training requirements The employer shall have each employee who performs work while on a scaffold trained by a person qualified in the subject matter to recognize the hazards associated with the type of scaffold being used and to understand the procedures to control or minimize those hazards.

you should still be aware of the basic elements of a safe scaffold. The scaffold should have a red "Do Not Use" tag prior to completion and during modification. NOTE: DO NOT USE THE SCAFFOLD IF IT HAS NOT BEEN INSPECTED THE SAME WORKSHIFT! 7. Scaffold Tagging The scaffold user does not have the primary responsibility to ensure that the scaffold is safe.6. Elements of . A green "Ready To Use" tag should be in place while the scaffold is in service. Scaffold Components Elements of a Safe Scaffold Even though you can expect that an inspected and tagged scaffold is safe to work on. A tatting system is required to ensure communication of the scaffold's inspection status. The employer and competent person responsible for the construction and ongoing inspections have the primary responsibility. The green tag should have a signature and indicate the date and time that the scaffold was inspected by the competent person responsible for the inspection.

its own weight and at least four times the intended load. or . Never paint planking as it covers up defects. without failure. discoloration. Wood planking must be scaffold grade and bear the stamp of a lumber grading association or inspection agency. legs. Immediately report any defect observed to the competent person. poles. Solid sawn wood. debris nets. Guardrail systems must be installed along all open sides and ends of platforms for scaffolds greater than 6 feet in height. planking Scaffold planking must be able to support. drill holes. Elements of a Safe Scaffold Additional scaffold safety features include: • The area below the scaffold to which objects can fall is barricaded to prevent employees from entering the area.a safe supported scaffold include: • Working platforms are fully planked from post to post (with no more than one inch space between planking) and level • Planks should be secured and have no defects • Guardrails and midrails installed for fall protection. saw cuts. 8. brackets. Glossary: supported scaffold Scaffolds with one or more platforms supported by outrigger beams. bowing. Toeboards or screens are provided and guardrails are configured to prevent passage of falling objects. fabricated planks. frames. end splits. an acceptable alternative is the use of canopies. or similar rigid support. defects Examine wood planks for defects such as large knots. posts. uprights. face breaks. dents. depressions. and fabricated platforms may be used as scaffold planks. decay. gouges. and other defects that may render it unfit.

the ladder must extend well above the platform 9. designed to distribute the weight of the scaffold. posts. immediately inform the competent person or area supervisor. Do not try to remedy the situation on your own. sound.catch platforms to catch falling objects. always be aware of any potentially unsafe conditions or changes in the condition of the scaffold while working. and uprights must bear on base plates and mud sills or other adequate firm foundation • The posts are plumb. and rigid • Footings are level. the castors must have locking brakes and be pinned into the frames • Horizontal diagonals are installed • Screw jacks are used for leveling on unlevel surfaces • Poles. square. Glossary mud sills Wooden platforms upon which base plates are attached. Unsafe Scaffold Conditions Even though you do not have the primary responsibility to ensure the scaffold is safe. . • A swing gate at the end of the platform that provides easy access from the ladder or stairs • If an attachable ladder provides access. and capable of supporting the loaded scaffold without settling or displacement IMPORTANT: If you encounter a scaffold that does not have one of these basic safety elements. legs. 10. frames. Structural Safety Features Be aware of these structural safety features of a properly constructed scaffold: • All legs are braced and braces are attached securely and properly • For rolling tower scaffolds.

and the leading cause of death in the construction industry. you will choose the correct statements regarding elements of a safe scaffold. Ready to Use" Always do a visual inspection for potential safety issues on ladder access. When you successfully complete this exercise. planking. Fall Hazards Fall Hazards Falls from elevation are one of the most common causes of injury in the workplace. or dizzy 11. guardrails. Do not work if you see any damaged components Do not use a scaffold if the working platform is not fully planked Do not work if you feel weak. Falls happen so quickly and unexpectedly. . it is nearly impossible to reposition the body when falling to land feet first. Click on the correct statements. etc. The amount of impact force that can be generated in a short fall is amazing. *Footings must support the loaded scaffold without settling or displacement *Toeboards around edges of platform for falling object protection It is ok to use the scaffold if the green tag does not have a signature *Working platforms are fully planked from post to post *Legs and uprights rest on base plates and mud sills Ladder extends to the edge of the platform *Guardrails are installed along all open sides and ends of platforms (*) Correct 12. Interactive Exercise Immediately report changes in the condition of the scaffold to a supervisor or competent person Interactive Exercise In this exercise. you will receive a “Congratulations” statement indicating you may continue the course. sick.• • • • • • Do not work from a scaffold if it has not been inspected that work shift and tagged "Approved. plumbness. rigidity.

which prevents the fall from occurring in the first place. If that is the case. you need to receive specific fall protection training in another class. This training does not qualify you to use personal fall protection equipment. On some scaffolds. the guardrails are the primary protection and should be installed if at all possible. This is Not a Personal Fall Arrest Protection Course It is important to note that this is not a course on personal fall arrest equipment use. such as two-point suspended. both guardrails and personal fall arrest systems are required. personal fall arrest systems should be used. it minimizes the impact of the fall after it has occurred. In addition. Glossary engineered control Used to remove a hazard or places a barrier between the worker and the hazard. Well-designed engineering controls are more effective than other types of controls in protecting workers because they are independent of worker interactions. they remove the source of the hazard.A fall from just 6 feet without shock absorption can generate nearly 4. There may also be some situations where it is impossible to install guardrails because of obstructions. Fall Protection The primary means of fall protection on supported scaffolding are guardrails.000 pounds of force on the body. Guardrails are superior to other types of fall protection (such as a personal fall arrest system) in that they are an engineered control. 13. paralysis. 14. However. the use of personal fall protection . A personal fall arrest system may not prevent the fall from occurring. more than the weight of the average automobile! A fall from just 6 feet can cause injury. or death. If the construction of the scaffolding is such that guardrails could not be installed to provide fall protection and personal fall protection equipment is required.

16. rain. Do not jump on to scaffolds or from one level to another. ramp. • Never use a ladder. This person is usually the area industrial safety professional. Accessing Scaffolds Many injuries occur while improperly getting on or off platforms. keep both feet on the platform surface • Do not carry materials as you climb.equipment must be reviewed by a fall protection competent person. or other means of access that does not affect the scaffold's stability must be used. keep both hands on the side rails • Do not climb with slippery shoes • Do not use scaffolds during storms. Fall Prevention You should always follow safe work practices to prevent falls. barrels or other objects to elevate your height while on a scaffold • Never extend your body over the edge of the platform or guardrail. Direct access from one scaffold to another can only be used when the scaffold surfaces are not more than 14 inches horizontally and 24 inches vertically from each other. 15. boxes. materials. Never use cross braces to climb on or to another level of the scaffold. When the scaffold platform is more than two feet above or below a point of access. You must only access scaffolding by the proper means of access designed for that scaffold. hook-on ladder. or debris to accumulate on the platforms Do not use a scaffold if it does not have a proper ladder or other equivalent safe means of access Falling Object Hazards . or high wind • • 17. Do not take unnecessary risks on the job. stairway. Falling Object Do not work on ice or snow covered platforms or allow tools. then a portable ladder.

barriers. materials. screens. This will be noted on the working document or scaffold tag. the objects must be placed away from the edge from which they could fall. or catch platform strong enough to withstand the impact forces of the potential falling objects may also be installed to prevent employees from being struck by falling objects. screening. Do not permit anyone to enter the hazard area. paneling. or netting is to barricade the area below the scaffold. An alternative to toeboards. they must be installed between the falling object hazard and the workers. or additional guardrails must be installed from the toeboard or platform to the top of the guardrail. If canopies are used. or fall from the scaffold to the ground. Debris Netting A canopy structure. If tools. 18.Hazards Accidents involving falling objects are one of the leading causes of employee injuries on scaffolds. materials. or other equipment are piled higher than the top edge of the toeboard. 19. debris net. or guardrail systems. Toeboards should be erected along the edge of platforms. • Avoid staging materials along work platform edges higher than the protective barriers • • Never throw or drop objects off of the scaffold Keep platforms clear of clutter that could inadvertently be kicked off of the . Falling Object Prevention Always follow safe work practices to prevent objects from falling from the scaffold. Regardless of the protective provisions built into the scaffold to prevent falling objects. Hard hats may be required if there is a chance that tools. Objects may fall from a higher level to a lower level. and secured to prevent them from falling. you are responsible to work safely and keep the scaffold work areas clean and free of clutter. When the falling objects are too large to be held by toeboards. or equipment might fall from a scaffold.

welding rods.platform • • • Do not use scaffold tubes to store tools (knives. Interactive Exercise Interactive Exercise In this exercise. When you successfully complete this exercise you will receive a “Congratulations” statement indicating you may continue the course. Click on the statement and while holding down the button drag it to the matching category. Falling Object Hazards Fall Hazards (F) Common cause of injury in the workplace and the leading cause of death (FO) Toeboards prevent this hazard (F) Never work with your body over the edge of the platform or guardrail (FO) Always wear a hard hat (FO) Never stack material above protective barriers (F) Only access scaffolding by the proper means of access (F) Guardrails are the primary means of this protection (FO) Barricade areas below the scaffold . wrenches. 20. then release the button. etc. you will match statements regarding fall/falling object protection to the corresponding category.) Wear a hard hat if required when working on scaffolds Never remove netting or canopy structures The photo to the right shows a hard had that a worker was actually wearing when a screwdriver fell from a scaffold (from an OSHA reportable incident).

Electrical Hazards Electrical Hazards The possibility of electrocution is a serious consideration when working near overhead power lines. or other materials contact overhead power lines or electrical equipment. you could receive a serious or fatal electric shock. If scaffolds. Electrical hazards can be present when the clearance between scaffolds and power lines or electrical equipment is not great enough. You must plan your job to prevent contact with energized circuits. or by de-energizing the circuit when working around it. energized power lines: • Three feet (3') for insulated power lines of less than 300 volts • Ten feet (10') or more for insulated power lines of 300 volts • Ten feet (10’) or more for all uninsulated power lines When handling materials near electrical lines. Power Tool/Equipment Electrical Hazards Because metal frame scaffolds are conductive. If it is necessary to work closer than 10 feet. either by keeping the scaffold and workers away from the hazard (to include warning signs or barriers for mobile scaffolds). conductive tools. a designated person should be available to ensure the required clearance is maintained. Required Clearance from Energized Power Lines There are specific OSHA requirements governing electrical safety. Scaffolds or any conductive material on them should not be used or moved within the following minimum clearance distances from exposed. Scaffold builders and users have been electrocuted while working close to electrical hazards.21. 22. then the power company must be contacted to: • De-energize the lines • Relocate the lines • Install protective coverings to prevent accidental contact with the lines 23. power tools or cords that .

or an AEGCP (assured equipment grounding conductor program). automatic devices. 25. Deenergizing the equipment and a lockout/tagout may be required. If a short is detected it instantly breaks the circuit to prevent electric shock.may experience insulation failure can electrify the entire scaffold. Click on the statement. and uninsulated steam piping. When you successfully complete this exercise. all portable electric equipment must be protected by GFCIs (ground-fault circuit interrupters). . If electrical arc welding or other similar jobs are being done on a scaffold. be aware of any electrical conductors or electrical equipment around the scaffolding. you will complete the sentences regarding electrical safety on scaffolds. Interactive Exercise Interactive Exercise In this exercise. but to everyone who contacts the scaffold. then release the button. you will receive a “Congratulations” statement indicating you may continue the course. Therefore. exposed belts or gears. Glossary term ground-fault circuit interrupters An electrical wiring safety device that measures electrical leakage to ground. When working in the overhead areas of a building from a scaffold. Unprotected electrical conductors and operating electrical equipment may be encountered when accessing an overhead area on a scaffold. be aware of operating equipment such as overhead fans. not just to the worker holding the tool. 24. the scaffold must be insulated and/or grounded. This poses a risk of electrocution. De-energizing the equipment and lockout/tagout measures may be required. When working on a scaffold. and drag it to the best matching statement which completes the sentence. Overhead Hazards Do not overlook potential overhead hazards you may encounter when working indoors.

Materials Handling Hazards Materials Handling Hazards Proper materials handling is of particular importance when working on scaffolds.(2) Inadequate clearance between scaffolds and power lines or electrical equipment (1) All portable electric equipment (3) A designated person should be available to ensure the required clearance is maintained (4) You can prevent contact with energized circuits. and interlock materials packaged in bags. containers. 26. or gloves Glossary materials handling . (2) creates a potential electrical hazard. safety glasses. (4) de-energizing the circuit. and broken bones from moving materials frequently occur in the workplace. either by keeping the scaffold away from the hazard or by (3) when handling materials near electrical lines. musculoskeletal injuries such as strains. block. and debris to avoid tripping hazards Segregate combustible materials from other supplies and materials Inspect materials prior to movement for potential hazards such as sharp edges or torn packaging Use proper personal protective equipment to include. Always follow all general materials handling practices: • • • • • • • Stack. cuts. In general. safety shoes. Back injuries are one of the most common and disabling workplace injuries. or bundles as necessary to avoid sliding or collapse Stack to a height as low as practical Use good lifting form Keep accessways clear of obstructions. cylinders. but not limited to hard hats. (1) must be protected by GFCIs. dirt.

especially when combined with twisting. and twisting during the lift. • • • • • • • The weight of the materials on a scaffold should not exceed the load capacity Use screening or paneling when materials are piled above toeboards Use barricades and signs to warn of falling object hazards when moving materials on or off the scaffold Install netting directly under the scaffold level where materials are being moved Secure loose or light materials to prevent falling from the scaffold Use containers to store or carry rivets. The most common mistakes made when lifting are bending at the waist instead of the knees. is the most common way to injure your back. Safe Materials Handling Handling materials on scaffolds adds greater complexity and additional practices than working on the ground. bolts. The material load can affect the integrity of the scaffold (load is covered separately in the next section). holding the load too far out in front of you. controlled motion 27. then secure the containers from falling Be alert to wind forces when handling large. The proper technique for lifting is to: • Place feet firmly apart with one foot forward for stability • Bend at the knees (not at the waist) and keep your back as close to vertical as possible • Tighten the abdominal muscles as you lift • Use your leg muscles instead of your back muscles • Do not twist your body while lifting • Keep the load close to your body as you lift • Do not jerk the load.Materials handling is the movement of supplies or materials necessary to perform work activities good lifting form Improper lifting. light weight materials or long objects . and other small objects. lift in a smooth.

The intended load should never exceed the rated load unless the design is approved by an engineer and the manufacturer. The load rating for the scaffold is determined by the scaffold competent person and written on the scaffold inspection tag attached to the scaffold. ft. Scaffolds and components must be able to support four times (4x) their maximum intended load—not the rated load. materials. tools. transmitted loads. Glossary intended load The total load of all persons. your tools. the load for a worker is based on the worker’s weight. tool belt. and other loads reasonably anticipated to be applied to a scaffold or scaffold component at any one time. equipment. Custom Feedback (for correct and incorrect answers) The load of a worker is based on the average worker’s body weight.25 pounds per square foot (lb/sq. 30.50 lb/sq. Load Ratings OSHA and ANSI have developed design load ratings for scaffold platforms and planking according to the maximum working load: • Light-Duty Loading . Brain Teaser Brain Teaser (F) When calculating loads. as well as tools.) – no equipment or material storage is allowed on the platform • Medium-Duty Loading . materials. 29. Remember that the maximum intended load for a scaffold or component depends on the scaffold type and configuration. and yourself all contribute toward the scaffold load capacity. ft. Load Hazards Overload Hazards Scaffolds and scaffold components must not be loaded beyond their maximum intended loads or rated capacities.28. (often described as applying to . and safety equipment. Remember.

ft. the more deflection it will have. maximum load capacity Three workers (750 pounds) could work on this platform with 90 pounds of additional tools or materials. multiply the square footage by the load capacity of the scaffold: 24 sq. 31. With the exception of the weight of stored materials. You should be aware of deflection because it can indicate when a . the less the load-bearing capacity will be. both stationary and transitory. Never overload an individual plank more than its rated load capacity (point loading). safety equipment.75 lb/sq. with 35 pounds per square foot load capacity. for each worker on a scaffold. (often described as applying to stone masonry work) These ratings assume a uniform load distribution over the entire area. ft Next. The platform is 8' long by 3' wide. and therefore. The longer the span. ft x 35 lb/sq. and the amount of deflection (bend) in the plank. 32. Calculating the Load Let’s take an example of a platform and calculate the maximum load capacity that it can carry.• bricklayers’ and plasterers’ work) Heavy-Duty Loading . ft. Overloading Planks Planks are rated the same as platforms—according to their load capacity (see previous frame). find the square footage of the platform by multiplying the length and width of the platform: 8’ x 3’ = 24 sq. its load rating. First. OSHA uses a weight of 250 lbs. scaffold loads most often consist of personnel. = 840 lbs. It is important to understand the relationship between the span of a plank. since this is considered the weight of today's average worker with tool belt. and tools.

rather than spreading the load throughout the plank or platform. span The length or distance a plank runs between supports. In the case of a plank. deflection The degree to which a structural element is displaced (bends) under a load. the scaffold and components must be designed by a competent person or professional engineer to bear the weight that is concentrated in one spot. Planks may not deflect more than 1/60 the length of the plank. it is the distance that the plank bends from its unloaded position to its loaded position. Good OSHA deflection animation link: .platform is overloaded. If materials must be point loaded. The amount of allowable deflection may be much less than what you would expect: • 10 foot span – 2 inches • 7 foot span – 1 3/8 inches • 5 foot span – 1 inch Glossary point loading Putting materials in one spot on the plank or platform.

Overload Prevention Follow these safe work practices to ensure that you do not overload the scaffold: • Do not point load any part of the scaffold unless the scaffold is designed to do so • If heavy materials or equipment need to be placed on a scaffold and it is not clearly understood what the load limit is. Interactive Exercise Interactive Exercise In this exercise. The weight of the materials must be known so that the competent person can make a determination. even minor modifications can affect the scaffold’s load capacity and stability. When you successfully complete this exercise you will receive a 34. the competent person who erected the scaffold must be contacted.33. then release the button. • Never make any arbitrary changes to a scaffold’s structure. . Scaffold alterations may only be performed by a trained crew under the supervision of a competent person. you will match statements regarding materials handling and load hazards to the corresponding category. Click on the statement and while holding down the button drag it to the matching category.

or any component by more than the load capacity • Do not extend working heights by the use of boxes. • Do not climb the scaffold by any means other than the proper access provided • Do not jump on to planks or platforms • Do not use a scaffold if the planks are not scaffold grade. or any other means on scaffold platforms • Do not use scaffolds during storms. Materials Handling Hazards Load Hazards (L) All tools. etc. containers. the less weight it can bear 35. block. Unsafe Scaffold Work Practices Unsafe Scaffold Work Practices Always follow these general safe work practices when working on scaffolds. and not bowing more than 1/60 of the span • Do not overload the scaffold platform. and interlock bags. materials. planks. to avoid sliding or collapse (M) Be aware of wind forces on large light weight materials or long objects (L) Planks may not deflect more than 1/60 the length of the plank (M) Use proper personal protective equipment if necessary (L) The longer the plank. ladders. rain. scaffold grade stamped. and yourself all contribute toward this (M) Back injuries are common due to this hazard (L) Putting materials in one spot on the plank or platform (M) Stack. in good condition. or high wind .“Congratulations” statement indicating you may continue the course.

and must never be modified by anyone without permission from the competent person. Quiz Questions 1. Scaffold accidents are one of the leading causes of injuries and fatalities in the workplace. At least two 8 inch planks ... Scaffolds must be constructed and inspected by a competent person. or braced to prevent tipping • Do not perform heat producing activities such as welding without protecting the scaffold members • Do not violate clearances from electrical power lines • Do not bridge between two scaffolds by planks or stages unless designed by a qualified person • • • 37. Do not work on ice or snow covered platforms • Do not allow tools. guyed.• 36. or debris to accumulate on the platform Unsafe Scaffold Work Practices In addition to the safe work practices from the following page: • Do not use the scaffold to hoist materials or mount derricks unless designed to do so • Do not use a scaffold taller than 4 times its minimum base unless it is tied. Summary Do not use the scaffold unless the proper falling object protection measures are in place Do not use rolling towers unless the wheels are locked Do not ride rolling towers while being moved Practicing safe work habits on scaffolds is crucial to prevent injury to you and your coworkers. materials. Working at height can be very unforgiving if you do not work safe. Report any damage to the scaffold to the competent person or area supervisor immediately. including “just removing that brace for a minute to paint behind it.” or doing other seemingly harmless activities. How must scaffold platforms be planked? a.

Why should you never use a ladder. What is the most preferential measure to prevent falls on scaffolds? *a. . By ladders or braces if the scaffold is properly constructed b. What scaffold tag indicates the scaffold is safe to use? a. They prevent falling object hazards also d. Personal fall arrest systems are preferable c. signed and dated that day 4. Guardrails prevent the fall from occurring in the first place b. By ladders that extend to the level of the platform 6. A green tag inspected within the last week c. A green tag b. A signed red tag *d. Guardrails and midrails b. boxes. Keeping the platform clear of all obstacles 3. Personal fall arrest protection systems c.*b. barrels or other objects to elevate your height while on a scaffold? Choose the best answer. Only by the proper means designed for that scaffold d. A green tag. It varies depending on the type of scaffold d. Only by external extension ladders *c. Wire netting d. Fully planked from post to post with no more than one inch space between planking c. With scaffold grade planking with no more than 3 inch space between planks 2. How should you access scaffolds? a. Why are guardrails and midrails preferable to personal fall arrest systems? *a. It is best practice to always use both on scaffolds 5.

Electrical circuits can energize the entire scaffold endangering everyone on the scaffold b. Seven feet (7’) *c.a. They raise your body above the guardrails designed to prevent falls 7. It is against NIOSH regulations c. What is the distance a scaffold or any conductive material on them must be from insulated power lines of 300 volts? a. Twelve feet (12’) . Power lines cannot be de-energized c. Ten feet (10') or more d. Three feet (3') b. Personal fall arrest systems may not be effective using these *d. What is an acceptable alternative to debris netting or canopies for falling object protection? *a. What are toeboards designed to do? a. Why are electrical hazards of particular concern when working on scaffolds? *a. Prevent tripping 9. Add to the structural integrity of the scaffold *b. Prevent objects from falling off of the scaffold c. Personal fall arrest system d. The scaffold is not grounded d. Protective coveralls 8. Barricade area below scaffold b. They are not a part of the scaffold b. Hard hats c. Provide additional fall protection d. Electrical hazards are difficult to control 10.

Planks must be at least 1 inch thick c. Chemical burns d. The planks must be laminated to add strength *d. Five times (5x) 14. How high should materials be stacked on the scaffold? a. As low as practical 13. Falls from elevation *b. .11. Greater load bearing capacity c. What is the most common type injury with handling materials? a. Stamped scaffold grade lumber 16. Ten times (10x) *b. No more than a height of 3 feet c. The load bearing capacity is lessened b. Not over the height of the toeboards b. Lower than the midrails *d. Musculoskeletal injuries such as broken bones or back injuries c. What type of wood planks must be used on scaffolds? a. Why is point loading a potentially hazardous practice? Choose the best answer. Heat stress 12. Load capacity is not affected by the span of a plank d. Eight Times (8x) d. Load bearing capacity is more affected by the width of the plank 15. How does the span of the plank affect its load bearing capacity? *a. Scaffolds and components must be able to support __________their maximum intended load. Planks must be no more than 8 feet in length b. Four times (4x) c. a.

It can cause the scaffold to tip over .a. The materials are stacked higher than toeboards b. All of the weight of the load is concentrated in one spot d. It exceeds the intended load *c.

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