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THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM The Circulatory System is an organ system that passes nutrients, gases, hormones, blood cells,

etc. to and from cells in the body to help fight diseases, stabilize body temperature and pH, and to maintain homeostasis. The Cardiovascular System and the Lymphatic System collectively make up the Circulatory System. The Cardiovascular System Parts of the Cardiovascular System: HEART Functions of the Heart: 1. 2. 3. 4. Generating Blood Pressure Routing Blood Ensuring one way Blood Flow Regulating Blood Supply

The Heart is cone-shaped, about the size of a fist, and is located in the Thoracic Cavity between the Lungs directly behind the Sternum. The Heart is tilted so that the Apex is oriented to the Left. The walls of the Heart 1. 2. 3. 4. Epicardium Myocardium Endocardium Pericardium

The Right side of the heart pumps blood from the body into the lungs, where oxygen poor blood gives up carbon dioxide and picks up oxygen. The Left side of the heart pumps oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the rest of the body. The Chambers of the Heart Right and Left Atria receives blood from the veins. Right and Left Ventricles pumps blood out of the heart. The Left Ventricle is the thickest chamber of the heart because it has to do most of the work to pump blood to all parts of the body. Vertically dividing the Right and Left sides of the Heart is a common wall called the Septum. Pulmonary Circulation is the circulation of blood from the body to the Lungs Systemic Circulation is the circulation from the Heart to the body.

a. Coronary circulation - supplies blood to the heart. b. Renal circulation - supplies blood to the kidneys. Nearly one-fourth of the blood that is pump into the aorta by the left ventricle flows to the kidneys. The kidneys filter waste from the blood. c. Hepatic portal circulation - nutrients are picked up by capillaries in the small intestines and are transported to the liver. Excess nutrients are stored in the live for future needs. The liver receives oxygenated blood from a large artery that branches of the aorta. The Heart Beat (Cardiac Cycle) is the sequence of events in one heartbeat. It is the simultaneous contraction of the two Atria, followed by the simultaneous contraction of the two Ventricles. Two phases: Phase 1 - SYSTOLE is the term for contraction. It occurs when the ventricles contract, closing the AV valves and opening the SL valves to pump blood into two major vessels leaving the heart. Phase 2 - DIASTOLE is the term for relaxation. It occurs when the ventricles relax, allowing the back pressure of the blood to close SL valves and opening AV valves. The Cardiac Cycle also creates the Heart Sounds: each heartbeat produces two sounds, often called LUBB-DUP that can be heard with a stethoscope. The first sound, the loudest and longest, is caused by the Ventricular Systole. The second sound is caused by the closure of the Aortic and Pulmonary Valves (SL). If any of the valves do not close properly, an extra sound called a heart Murmur may be heard.Grading of Heart Murmurs: Grade I II III IV V VI Description Faint; heard after nurse has concentrated Faint murmur heard immediately Moderately loud, not associated with thrill Loud and may be associated with a thrill Very loud; associated with thrill Very loud; heard with stethoscope off chest; associated with thrill

Although the heart is a single muscle, it does not contract in a single motion. The contraction spreads over the heart like a wave. The wave begins in a small bundle of specialized heart muscle cells embedded in the Right Atrium called the Sinoatrial Node, which is the natural pacemaker of the heart. It initiates each heartbeat and sets the pace for the heart rate. The impulse spreads from the pacemaker through the cardiac muscle cells in the Right and Left Atrium, causing both Atria to contract almost simultaneously. When the impulse initiated by the SA node reaches another special area of the heart known as the Atrioventricular Node. The AV node is located in the septum between the Right and Left Ventricles. The AV node relays the electrical impulse to the muscle cells that make up the Ventricles. The Ventricles contract almost simultaneously after the Atria, completing one full heartbeat, these contractions causes the chambers to squeeze the blood, pushing it in the proper direction along its path.

The Autonomic Nervous System does influence heart rate, the Sympathetic Nervous System increases heart rate and the Parasympathetic Nervous System decreases it. Blood Vessels (Arteries, Veins and Capillaries) Arteries and Arterioles (Small Arteries) carry blood from the heart to capillaries and the rest of the body. Except for the pulmonary arteries, all arteries carry oxygen-rich blood. Capillaries are networks of very small blood vessels when arterioles branch out. Veins collects blood from every part of the body and carries it back to the heart.

Blood Pressure 1. Blood moves through our circulation system because it is under pressure. 2. This pressure is caused by the contraction of the heart and by muscles that surround blood vessels. 3. A measure of force that blood exerts against a vessel wall is called blood pressure. 4. Blood pressure is always highest in the two main arteries that leave the heart. 5. Blood pressure is maintained by two ways: (1) the nervous system, which can speed up or slow down the heart rate; (2) the kidneys, which regulate blood pressure by the amount of fluid in our blood. 6. When our pressure is too high, kidneys remove water from blood, lowering the total amount of fluid in the circulatory system. 7. Both high and low blood pressure can cause our bodies problems. 8. Blood pressure is usually measured in the artery supplying the upper arm. 9. to measure blood pressure: a. A cuff is inflated around a persons arm - stopping the flow of blood through the artery. b. Air pressure in the cuff is slowly released- the first sounds of blood passing through the artery means that the ventricles have pump with enough force to overcome the pressure exerted by the cuff. c. This measurement is known as the systolic pressure or the pressure of the blood when it leaves the ventricles. Normal pressure is about 120 mm hg for males, and 110 mm hg for females. d. Air pressure is continued to be released - listening for the disappearance of sound, which indicates a steady flow of blood. This known as the diastolic pressure or the pressure of the

blood is sufficient to keep arteries open constantly even with the ventricles relax. Normal pressure is about 80 mm hg for males and 70 mm hg for females.

The Lymphatic System The Lymphatic System is a network of vessels that collects the fluid from the blood that leaks into tissue and returns it to the circulatory system. Lymph is the loss fluid, transparent yellowish fluid, and is collected in Lymphatic Capillaries and moves to larger Lymph Vessels. Lymph Nodes are small bean-shaped enlargements where Lymph Vessels pass through. They produce Lymphocytes. BLOOD Blood is a liquid connective tissue that constitutes the transport medium of the Circulatory System. Functions: (1) Transport nutrients and oxygen to the cells and carry carbon dioxide, (2) Waste materials away from the cells, (3) Transfers heat to the body surface, and (4) Defends the body against disease. Blood plasma The fluid portion of the blood which makes up its 55%. It is the straw-colored liquid portion of blood and is 90% water and 10% dissolved fats, salts, sugars, and proteins called plasma proteins. Plasma proteins are divided into three types: a. Albumins - help regulate osmotic pressure (maintain normal blood volume and blood pressure). This is the most abundant plasma protein. b. Globulins or antibodies - include antibodies that help fight off infection. Antibodies initiate the destruction of pathogens and provide us with immunity. c. Fibrinogen - responsible for the ability of blood to clot. Blood cells or solids The cellular portion of blood makes up the other 45 percent and includes several types of highly specialized cells and cell fragments. They are red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Red Blood Cells (RBC) erythrocytes are the most numerous of the blood cells. One micro liter of blood contains approx. 5 million RBCs. They are biconcave, or shaped so that they are narrower in the center than along the edges.

White Blood Cells (WBC) leukocytes main function is to protect the body against invasion by foreign cells or substances. Platelets (thrombocytes) are not cells; they are tiny fragments of other cells that were formed in the bone marrow. It helps the clotting process by clumping together and forming a plug at the site of a wound and then releasing proteins called clotting factors.

Blood types Blood type is determined by the type of antigen present on the surface of the RBC. An antigen is a protein or carbohydrate that acts as a signal, enabling to recognize foreign substances in the body. Three of the most important human antigens are called A, B, and Rh. The A-B-O system is based on the A Blood type Antigen Antibody and B antigen. A A Anti-B Type AB is known as a universal receiver. B B Anti-A AB A and B None Type O is known as a universal donor. O None Anti-A Anti-B Rh system An antigen that is sometimes on the surface of RBC is the Rh factor, named after the Rhesus monkey in which it was first discovered. Basic Cardiac Physiological Mechanisms 1. Cardiac Output is dependent on the relationship of between the heart rate and stroke volume; It is the product of these two variables. SV x HR = CO Stroke Volume is the amount of blood ejected by a ventricle during systolic contraction. Heart Rate is the number of times the ventricles contract per minute, it is controlled by ANS. 2. Preload 3. Afterload 4. Contractility is the force of contraction generated by the myocardium under given under loading conditions.