LAKE RECREATION PLANNING: A CASE STUDY
POWAI LAKE AND FLAG LAKE VORTSJARV – EE
SUBMITTED BY – HEMANT CHANDRAVANSHI ROLL NO-11AR60R32 MCP FIRST YEAR
Case-study-1 (Powai Lake) Introduction Lakes are an inherent part of the ecosystem. Lakes have traditionally served the function of meeting water requirements of the populace for drinking, household uses like washing, for agriculture, fishing and also for religious and cultural purposes. Apart from these functions, which involve direct use of the lake water, lakes are also known to recharge ground water, channelize water flow to prevent water logging and flooding. Lakes are also host to a wide variety of flora and fauna, especially birds. The need to initiate efforts to restore, conserve, manage and maintain the lakes as a valuable part of the whole ecosystem could no longer be ignored. It has been realizes that if the lakes are not conserved without loss of time, the restoration costs later will not only reach phenomenal heights, but will more importantly cause a permanent ecological damage. This may lead to scarcity in potable water, cause heat islands in the cities and affect biodiversity in cities as well as villages. Salient Features of Powai Lake Location : Powai Lake is located about 27 Km away in the North - East of Mumbai City. : 6.61 sq. km. and Water spread when lake is full ---2.10 sq.km. : Varying from 3 Mts to 6 Mts, with top of dam is 58.5Mt.THD (Town hall Datum) : Non potable. Used for recreation, gardening, cattle washing an The only tourist attraction in the Heart of the city of Mumbai. Year of construction : 1891 Catchment Area Height of Dam Water quality Length of Dam : 110 Mts. (stone masonry construction)
Lake water got highly polluted due to untreated disposal of sewage and garbage from nearby residential and slum colonies. So as to save the lake it was necessary to revive and rehabilitate it urgently. Powai Lake under National Lake Conservation Plan. In the Year 1995 under National Lake Conservation Plan of MOEF of Govt. of India, Powai Lake of MCBM was reviewed and identified as one of the Ten major lakes in the country for revival and improvements. A high level committee was therefore formed to check the pollution levels of the lake and to take steps to create public awareness to save the lake. Detailed Feasibility Report (DPR) prepared by consultant M/s. Wockhardt Ltd. was approved by MOEF GOI and sanctioned Rs.6.62 Crore as grant to MCBM for implementation of the scheme on priority. Importance and Status of Powai Lake (Before Revival) Powai Lake which is located in the heart of suburban of Mumbai is surrounded by NITIE , IIT, large housing complexes and unauthorized Hutment colonies.
The water of the lake is supplied to M/s L&T Company and Aarey colony for non domestic uses. During last few decades, Population surrounding the lake has increased substantially, Heavy siltation occurred which has an estimated quantity of 4.5 lakh Cu.M. approx,Eutrophication of lake was observed with abundance of hyacinth & floating weeds on the surface of lake and Dissolved Oxygen level at the bottom of lake has gone low as 0.71 mg/ltr. Major causes of deterioration of lake · · · · Uncontrolled development and unauthorized quarrying activities in the catchments area. Ingress of untreated sewage from the residential areas. Dumping of garbage and other waste materials in the lake. Washing of clothes, vehicles, open defecation etc. On the lakeshore.
Pollution Levels of the Lake Sludge Analysis A physical and analytical survey was carried out to ascertain the pollution levels and Eutrophycation condition in the lake, like water analysi, Sludge Analysis, Phosphorus. Water Analysis Parameter 1 2 3 4 pH Total suspended solid Nitrate Nitrogen Total phosphorus, Average Values (mg/Ltr.) 7.2 43.0 0.23 0.25 4.11 0.71 42.7 119.0
5.a D.O. (Top) 5.b D.O. (Bottom) 6.a C.O.D. (Top) 6.b C.O.D. (Bottom)
Lake Revival Project Implementation Strategy The work was divided in two parts in Pretreatment activities and Contract for revival using aeration and bio- remediation technique.
Pretreatment Activities Pretreatment activities consists of:a) Stop entries of all untreated sewage into the lake by providing treatment facility or connect it to main sewerage system. b) Installation of penstock gates on four major nallahs along Adi Shankaracharya Marg to prevent entry of silt and sullage water into the lake. c) Preventing the activities like open deification, throwing of garbage, washing of cars and clothes on the bank of the lake. Contract for revival using aeration & bio- remediation technique. Contract work consists of :-a) Collection of baseline data. b) Removal of floating and unrooted weeds. c) Providing aeration system. d) Application of speciality Bio-products for biodegradation of sludge. The project work of revival and treatment was proposed to be executed on turnkey basis. The work was awarded to M/s. Ace Housing & Construction Pvt. Ltd. in association with M/s. Clean-flow International USA at the total cost of Rs.4.69 crore (including execution, maintenance and monitoring), who claimed to have international experience in treatment and restoration of large water bodies. The contract period for the project was 12 months for execution and 36 months for maintenance and monitoring. The work commenced on 20-4-2002 and completed within the stipulated period of contract i.e. on 19-4-2003. Further the maintenance period was started from 20-4-2003 and will get over on 19-4-2006. Aeration System:- Consisting of 6 nos of air compressors (5 HP to 40 floating jetties & on the bank of the lake & 195 Nos of Air diffusers HP capacity) installed on
The Aeration System was operated initially for a period of 18 to 20 Hours per day & further it was reduced to 8 to 12 Hours during night time.
CONCLUSION · Powai Lake having catchment area of 6.61 Sq. Kms & lake surface area of 2.10 Sq. Kms is improved within a period of 12 months. This is the 1st successful project executed in India using “Aeration and Bio-remediation Technique”. remediation The status of lake was transformed from Hypertrophic condition to Mesotrophic condition. Use of the aeration and bioremediation technique was effective for improving the quality of lake water to the accepted standard for water bodies being used for fishing and recreational purposes. Though the installation cost of equipment, power and monitoring the water quality is high, the cost of maintenance is relatively low.
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References: 1. Enviromental status of powai lake ,Mumbai(india) Sengupta, m. and Dalwani,R.(EDITOR) 2008 2. Estimating Intangible Benefits of Improving Water Quality of Powai Lake in India: A Contingent Valuation Approach ai Approach-Vijaya Gupta*G. Mythili* G. 3. byShri M.R. Sohoni,Dy. Municipal Commissioner (Special Engineering),Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai
CASE-STUDY -2 Developing a recreation area - FLAG Lake Vortsjarv – EE Introduction The main aim of the project was to develop the tourism potential of Joessuu, an area in the north of the , Lake Vortsjarv region, by developing fishing tourism and building on the area´s fishing culture and traditions. A supportive entrepreneurial environment was established and, with the help of fishing eneurial oriented tourism products, visitors were attracted to the area. These tourism products have included trips in an old sailing boat (“kale-boat“) and demonstrations of traditional fishing methods and tools. boat“) hods The Lake Vortsjarv region is made up of seven municipalities bordering the lake. The municipalities are situated in the territories of three different counties: Tartu, Valga and Viljandi. The population of the Vortsjarv region is around 18 000, with a population density of approximately 6.7 persons/km². An important feature of the area is the presence of the lake, the second largest in Estonia, covering an area of 270 km². This supports the local fisheries sector, which includes 45 license owners’ and 65 professional wners’ fishermen. Its historical, cultural and natural assets, the region has many potential visitor attractions. However, before the project it was not actively promoted as tourist destination and its tourism infrastructure was under developed. Because of this, local entrepreneurs had little interest in investing in tourism products services or in raising standards. Many potential tourism attractions were poorly presented and were sometimes inaccessible. Vortsjarv’s nature reserves, which form part of Estonia’s Natura 2000 network, ’s attracted large numbers of hikers and campers, but their movement was unregulated and sometime schussed disturbance to wildlife and/or pollution of the natural environment. The Lake Vortsjarv region is made up of seven municipalities bordering the lake. The municipalities are situatedin the territories of three different counties: Tartu, Valga and Viljandi. The population of the Vortsjarv region is around 18 000, with a population density of approximately 6.7 persons/km². An pproximately important feature of the area isthe presence of the lake, the second largest in Estonia,covering an area of 270 km². This supports the local fisheries sector, which includes 45 licence owners’ and65 professional fishermen. Thanks to its historical, cultural and natural assets, the region has many potential visitor attractions. However, before the project it was not actively promoted as a tourist destination and its tourism infrastructure was underdeveloped. Because of this, local entrepreneurs had little interest in investing in tourism products services or in raising standards. Many potential tourism attractions were poorly presented and were sometimes inaccessible. Vortsjarv nature reserves, which form part of Estonia Natura 2000 network, Estonia’s attracted large numbers of hikers and campers, but their movement
was unregulated and sometimes caused disturbance to wildlife and/or pollution of the natural environment. Project objectives The main objective of the project was to develop the tourism potential of Joesuu by establishing an esuu integrated, varied and sustainable network of visitor services, and by developing activities on the waterway. The ultimate aim was to create one of the most attractive tourism destinations in the south of Estonia. Specific objectives included: · · · · · · · · Making the area of Joesuu an attractive and esuu environmentally sustainable tourist destination Preserving and harnessing the cultural and hi historical assets of the Vortsjarv region Developing the image of Vortsjarv as an attractive tourism destination and raising its profile at international level (promotion, information dissemination etc.) Increasing visitor awareness of Vortsjarv’s natural environment and the threats it faces Improving access to the Vortsjarv recreational area Creating a supportive environment for entrepreneurs Facilitating navigation and cruising on Lake Vortsjarv (e.g. by developing marinas or berthing areas) Creating a supportive environment for hiking tourism in the region (e.g. information stands, toilets, signage etc.)
Project description These projects were supported financially by the EU and the EIC (Environmental Investment Centre). The Environmental interior of the visitor centre was also equipped with the help of the LEADER program programme (€76 694). However, certain work still needed to be carried out and this is where Axis 4 came in. The project included a clean-up of the coastal area, the planting of hedges and the erection of way mark sand traffic signs. up f Additional buildings for visitors were required (booths for swimmers, bicycle ranks), canoes (for renting), and the kaleboat, “Paula”,needed certain repairs and maintenance. Safety problems also had to be addressed (fire-extinguishers, lifejackets etc). nguishers, The kale-boat, in particular, was intended to capitalize on the area´s fishing heritage by demonstrating boat, traditional fishing methods to tourists on board, telling stories and jokes and presenting an overview of the local fishing area, Lake Vortsjarv. During the kale boat tour, tourists will be offered smoked fish to eat and . kale-boat will also learn how fish is cleaned and smoked.
Main actors involved The project leader was the Vortsjarv Foundation, which was established in 2000 to organize the joint planning of the development of the Lake Vortsjarv region. The Foundation has two staff members; a director and a tourism coordinator, and its activities are planned and overseen by a seven-member board, nominated by the seven municipalities bordering Lake Vortsjarv. The manager of the Axis 4 project was the director of the Foundation, Jaanika Kaljuvee. Project outcomes (conclusion) The project was an additional step in the overall development of the Vortsjarv region as an internationally recognized and competitive tourism destination. It also helped to establish a more supportive environment for entrepreneurship and to raise living standards in the region. In general, the project had the greatest impact on the following interest groups: 1. Consumers of tourism services in Vortsjarv region and those interested in nature and culture benefited from: a. The availability of a wider range of services; b. An improvement in the quality of the services available; c. The development of fishing-oriented tourism services; d. Better access to information. 2. Service providers benefited from: a. New infrastructure which encourages investment and entrepreneurship; b. Better marketing and an improved image of the region, which has also promoted better cooperation between different actors. In particular, the project has helped to establish a basis for better cooperation between the seven local authorities around developing a recreation area - FLAG Lake Vortsjarv – EEand has made it easier for them to jointly implement development plans for the region. 3. Fishermen: The investments enable fishermen to offer their services and products as the project should attract more tourists and visitors to the area. Different services and products are mixed and combined and fishermen can offer their products on the kale-boat trip. The success of the project activities was demonstrated by the fact that the number of the visitors to the Lake Developing a recreation area - FLAG Lake Vortsjarv – EE Visitor Centre increased from 3 990 in 2007 to 7 829 in 2010. Of these, 70% were Estonian tourists. In addition, 2 490 people sailed in the kale-boat in 2010, compared with 2 100 in 2007, and two jobs were created and maintained in the Developing a recreation area - FLAG Lake Vortsjarv – EE Foundation.
The project was the winner of the contest, “Undiscovered treasures of Estonia 2010”, in recognition of its focus on cooperation and sustainable tourism, the quality of its tourism products, and its identified need for a long term tourism strategy. It was also recognized as a “European Destination of Excellence” in 2010. Overcoming obstacles: key lessons The project highlighted the importance of process for the success of the actions undertaken. The coming together and joint working of the different actors concerned helped to promote a better awareness of the potential of the area and to develop a cooperative mindset. This process took time and resources but ultimately it helped the different sectors involved to develop a common perspective on the development of tourism in the area. This cooperation meant that human and financial resources could be combined and used more efficiently. It also helped to ensure that a wider range of services were developed and that the uniqueness of the region was better expressed which in turn contributed to the success of the marketing activities. Future prospects During the project it became clear that in addition to the development of tourism products and infrastructure, marketing is also necessary to establish a successful tourism area. The need for a marketing strategy and plan has, therefore, been identified. To inform this, research will be conducted to learn more about existing and potential target groups. The development activities initiated by the project will also be continued in the future, with basic financing provided by Lake Developing a recreation area - FLAG Lake Vortsjarv – EE Foundation. Transferability This project represents a good example of howan area’s fishing “story” (fishermen, the kaleboat, fish, fishing tools and facilities, the life of a fisherman, and a fishing village) can form the basis of a tourism development strategy. However, key to the success of such a venture is the need for cooperation between the actors concerned, which can help to ensure a diversified product that is developed and promoted in a coherent way. The project demonstrates that a lot can be done with minimal resources once those involved are prepared to start small and remain focused on a longer term goal (“big rivers emerge from small streams”). Small investments for the purchase of a lifejackets might seem unimportant at first, but they helped to establish the basic requirements that had allowed subsequent activities to take place. The project also shows how an active project team, following proper procedures, can successfully implement a project and effectively manage the project finances.
Total cost and EFF contribution Total cost and EFF contribution Total Project cost: € 24 232 Axis 4 contribution: € 18 174 (75%) Lake Vortsjarv Foundation € 6 058 The Vortsjarv Visitor Centre is now managed by the Vortsjarv Foundation and the income from the centre’s commercial activities (the sale of souvenirs, renting rooms, kale boat trips, etc) has helped it to become a profitable, stand-alone enterprise. Project information Title: Developing a recreation area in Joesuu Duration: 1 year (Feb 2010 – Feb 2011) Project promoter: Vortsjarv Sihtasutus (Lake Vortsjarv Foundation) 15 Kruusa, Elva 61 503, Estonia www.vortsjarv.ee