Ian Koll Dr.

Wolf HIST 4082 10/2/2011 Brief description of topic I plan on studying the emergence of jazz as a form of popular music in the early 20th century. More specifically, I plan on researching the racial boundaries between blacks and whites, and the effects of white jazz on black jazz. Jazz helped give black performers a leg up in society, allowing them to move on to film roles, and expand their musical promise. But because jazz was a traditionally black form of music, the fact that white bandleaders began performing took a sizable part of the industry away from black performers. Despite this fact, some black musicians were perfectly accepting of this collaboration, regardless of the fact that white musicians were treated much better, paid higher, and more socially significant than black musicians were. Was this an acceptable act, or yet another example of love and theft? I intend to investigate these points more closely. Major research questions What were the ramifications of whites entering the jazz scene? A large number of whites (especially those from the south) were vehemently opposed to jazz as a music form, dismissing it. How did mixed-race jazz performers affect race relations? Moreover, was the “white jazz” true jazz, or a style of music removed from traditional jazz, and tailored for a white audience? How did black and white jazz (respectively) leave a lasting impact on the popular music scene? Project’s Significance Jazz, as a musical form, was so drastically different from any styles that had ever preceded it. With African Americans slowly gaining notoriety in society after the turn of the 20th century, the black voice was beginning to be heard, and jazz was an integral part of the establishment of a truly black culture. Without jazz, many styles of modern popular music would not exist today, and African American history would be far less rich. Jazz, in addition to bringing about an entirely new style of music and dance, also helped whites to embrace blacks and black culture more freely, and helped improve the mindsets of many whites who may have been wary of blacks beforehand. On the other hand, some overtly traditional whites were disgusted by the advent of jazz, causing them to resent blacks even more. But for blacks, jazz was an important form of cultural expression- not too closely connected with traditional African music, but related enough to have cultural significance. Jazz is also significant in that it developed due to the United State‟s rapid urbanization. Originating in New Orleans, many jazz musicians moved to Chicago or New York, where there were more opportunities to flourish as a professional musician. These urban centers helped characterize jazz as a musical genre- one that had a breath of life in it not seen in any genre that preceded it. Another important ramification Jazz had on society was its acceptance of interracial performances. Never before had a genre of music allowed blacks and whites to perform together, on stage, at the same time. But white and black musicians were open to collaboration, and while

club owners, audiences, critics and others were opposed to the intermingling of whites and blacks, on a strictly musical level, whites and blacks were able to get along. This opened doors for blacks in the entertainment industry, and although change was a very gradual process, blacks gained a heightened sense of social identity through the advent of Jazz, which would later impact white culture on a tremendous scale. Outline I. Introduction A. Opening- slavery, African Music and the advent of „black culture‟ B. Significance of traditional black music C. Music as a liberating force/coping mechanism to escape life‟s hardships D. Thesis statement: incorporate the idea of a black cultural identity through music. The struggle of slavery and years of oppression embodied in a genre of music (jazz.) Were whites aware of this cultural connection, and, by producing jazz, were they defiling its sentimental value? What causes jazz to be “authentic?” Section 1: The Birth of Jazz A. New Orleans as a cultural melting pot- with ties to the Caribbean and a large percentage of blacks living there. Port city, saw lots of different cultures B. The beginnings of Jazz- from field hollers and traditionally “black” forms of music, brass bands throughout New Orleans (with inexpensive instruments after WWI,) Buddy Bolden -> “The Original Creole Band,” vs. ODJB C. Storyville- “a convenient place for all the prostitutes” (as well as the birthplace of Jazz.) Jazz clubs- Who owned these clubs (Madames,) why did they gain notoriety, who played here? D. End of Storyville and the Great Migration- WWI caused Storyville to be shut down (in fear that syphilis/other social diseases would weaken the fighting force.) Jazz singers without jobs/African Americans seeking to escape economic hardship and political oppression migrated to large cities (Chicago/New York.) Chicago will soon become the Jazz capital of the country Section 2: Chicago and New York A. White Jazz- by this time Jazz has been mixed-race, with white/ non-black bands becoming popular (New Orleans Rhythm Kings.) Was it a dislike of jazz or a dislike of the blacks that played it? B. Speakeasies and places of ill refute- Prohibition caused many criminals to open Speakeasies, or illegal drinking establishments. Jazz bands would often play here, which tarnished the reputation of Jazz- expand on this. How did Jazz benefit from Prohibition? C. Racism- It was socially accepted for White and Black Jazz performers to play together on stage, but offstage racism was still a significant problem. How did racism factor in to the development of Jazz? Were black musicians being stripped of cultural identity? D. Harlem Renaissance- The New Negro, increased appreciation for Jazz- Whites became more and more interested in black culture, causing exploitation of

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black works in white compositions. Jazz still paved the way for the acceptance of blacks into modern popular society (a very, very gradual process.) Section 3: Jazz and the General Public A. White gentry‟s view of Jazz- Many upper-tier whites viewed jazz as “jungle noise.” (Use “The Appeal of the Primitive Jazz” for this section.) Yet when played by white performers, these racial stigmas were overlooked, thus emphasizing a deep hatred of the performers, not the music. B. The power of the periodical- Whites would use journals and magazines to preach about the evil and uncivilized nature of Jazz, most often resorting to racism and insults to dehumanize the African American populace as a whole. Important magazines included Literary Digest and, for blacks, The Crisis (Magazine of the NAACP) C. Jazz and acceptance of blacks- Jazz slowly helped integrate blacks into society, gaining them a separate-but-almost-equal status towards the late 30‟s and early 40‟s. What caused this shift, and why were whites so intrigued by black culture? Conclusion What was the lasting impact of Jazz on the American social strata? Were racial relations improved through the integration of Jazz bands, or were white performers viewed as imitators? Was authenticity upheld?

Methods I will use, among other methods, an analysis and comparison of both black and white publications concerning the cultural significance of jazz. Through early print magazines, I will be able to find jazz critics and supporters (from both ends of the racial spectrum), which will give my arguments validity. In addition to these comparisons, I will chronologically track the progression of Jazz from it‟s most simplistic roots to its emergence in urbanizing cityscapes. Secondary sources will only be used to provide information that could not be found from a firsthand account. First-hand accounts will come from music journals, newspaper articles, criticisms and reviews from the Jazz Era, and will be used to construct an opinion on whether or not white jazz had the same level of authenticity as black jazz. Principal Sources Primary Sources "Farewell, Jazz." Cleveland Advocate, September 09, 1919, http://dbs.ohiohistory.org/africanam/det.cfm?ID=8706 (accessed September 24, 2011). Koenig, Karl. Jazz in print (1856-1929): an anthology of selected early readings in jazz . Pendragon Press, 2002. (accessed October 2, 2011). An anthology of hundreds of writings from the earliest days of jazz, from white and black authors alike. This book is an invaluable catalogue of information that will save me significant amounts of searching through archives.

"Nina Simone." BrainyQuote.com. http://ranking.brainyquote.com/cgi-bin/citation.pl (accessed December 5, 2011). Schuyler, George. "George Schuyler Argues against “Black Art”." History Matters. http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5129 (accessed September 24, 2011). This article criticizes the advent of black art, stating that black and white art are equally diverse. Furthermore, the article goes on to argue that black “art” does not exist, and that blacks should not expect a uniform style of art to their own. Provides important insight for the white mindset during the late 1920‟s. African Dancing. 1935. Christian Science Monitor (1908-Current file), September 10, http://www.proquest.com/ (accessed September 24, 2011). This newspaper article provides an explanation of the African drumming rituals from which jazz was based off of, and claims there is little connection between tribal African music and jazz, stating that Europeans simply do not have the ability to discern between the two forms of music. "Louis Armstrong Billed Wednesday." The Atlanta Constitution (1881-1945), Jul 21, 1935. 5B, http://search.proquest.com/docview/502268460?accountid=14537.

Secondary Sources Anderson, Maureen. "The white reception of Jazz in America." Find Articles. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2838/is_1_38/ai_n6148033/?tag=content;col1 (accessed October 2, 2011). Discusses many of the racist attitudes whites had towards jazz- not towards the music expressly, but to the fact that blacks were gaining a leg-up in society. Provides useful excerpts from historical publications. Gioia, Ted. The History of Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. This book contains a wealth of information concerning the differences between white and black jazz bandleaders, from their pay to their general place in society. Has numerous examples of famous black jazz musicians who were treated improperly due to their race. Haber, Nadev. "Race Relations and Their Expression in Jazz." All About Jazz. http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/article.php?id=22008&pg=1. (accessed September 24, 2011).

This article discusses the importance of race in the development of jazz, and how it originated from a burning desire for blacks to retain their humanity and culture. This article will be invaluable in expressing the different sides of the racial spectrum in the early history of jazz. Hager , Carl L. "Jazz History Time Line." All About Jazz. http://www.allaboutjazz.com/timeline.htm. (accessed September 24, 2011). This webpage has a comprehensive, interactive timeline with information regarding Jazz from its earliest beginnings to modern times. Will be useful in tracking the progression of Jazz throughout the 1910‟s and 20‟s, as well as understanding the growing importance jazz had within the black community. Louis Armstrong And His Orchestra, (What Did I Do To Be) Black And Blue, OKeh Electric, 1929, Shellac.

Katz, M. Ruth Mark. "The Significance of Jazz (African Rhythms) In Our Community." Drums of Change, Drums of Spirit. http://www.drumsofchangedrumsofspirit.com/SIGNIFICANCEAND-IMPORTANCE-OF-JAZZ-IMUSIC---IN-THE-AFRICAN-AMERICANCOMMUNITY.html (accessed October 2, 2011). Discusses the cultural significance of Jazz to African Americans Mintz, S. "The Jazz Age: The American 1920s." Digital History. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/subtitles.cfm?TitleID=67. (accessed September 24, 2011). Analysis of Jazz and the different social and political factors that affected its development- from the KKK to prohibition, this resource goes into detail about the many different elements that made jazz such a popular form of music. Morgan, Thomas L. "Jazz, The First Thirty Years." Jass. http://jass.com/jazzo.html. (accessed September 24, 2011). Provides an Informational chronicle of the emergence of jazz in New Orleans, with additional information concerning the migration of jazz to Chicago and eventually New York. Discusses some of the largest names in Jazz at the time, and explains the shift to swing jazz and big band music once white bandleaders began to perform. Newman, Scott A. "Chicago Race Riot of 1919." Jazz Age Chicago. http://chicago.urban-history.org/evt/evt01/evt0100.shtml. (accessed September 24, 2011).

Offers concise information regarding the Chicago Race Riot of 1919, which would be an excellent topic to mention while discussing the volatile race relations between blacks and whites in the early 20th century. Ruen, Millie. "History Of The 2nd. Klan." Putnam Voice. http://putnam.limaohio.com/articles/kkk-20121-klan-members.html (accessed December 5, 2011).

Schuller, Günther. Early Jazz: Its Roots and Musical Development. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968. Has excellent information regarding form and the traditional African music from which Jazz originated. Goes into an in-depth analysis of polyrhythm, which will be most beneficial in explaining the roots of Jazz. Sweetman, Ron. “Recording Activity in New Orleans in the „Twenties: A Discography of a Decade in the Crescent City.” http://www.bluesworld.com/NODiscog.html Teichroew, Jacob. "Jazz and the Civil Rights Movement: How Jazz Musicians Spoke Out for Racial Equality." About.com. http://jazz.about.com/od/historyjazztimeline/a/JazzCivilRights.htm (accessed December 5, 2011).

Weinstock, Len. "The Origins of Jazz." Red Hot Jazz. http://www.redhotjazz.com/originsarticle.html (accessed December 4, 2011).

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