Nova1erra

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5pericl lJiticn
Connected Cities
ConnecIed CiIies is abouI susIainable mobiliIy and
spaIial developmenI. As LU-sponsored lnIerreg lllC
neIwork iI Iocuses on high qualiIy public IransporI
and IransporI developmenI areas, aimed aI improving
mobiliIy and qualiIy oI liIe in urban and rural areas.
1he neIwork acIiviIies will conIinue unIil Ihe end oI zoo).
£uropean network
ConnecIed CiIies brings IogeIher IwenIy-Iive parIners
IhroughouI Lurope. 1he parIners in ConnecIed CiIies
will share Iheir experiences and insighIs Ihrough
managemenI and coordinaIion, inIerregional showcase
workshops, disseminaIion and communicaIion, including
Ihrough a guide Io good pracIice.
hIIp://connecIedciIies.neI
8eIgium
Luropean New 1own PlaIIorm (LN1P)
GhenI UniversiIy / ArchiIecIure and Urban Planning
8uIgaria
MunicipaliIy oI Kard|ali
france
CiIy oI Paris Lngineering School (LlvP)
SénarI Public Local AuIhoriIy
Cermany
kesearch AssociaIion Ior Underground 1ransporIaIion
laciliIies (S1UvA)
Ramburg-Rarburg UniversiIy oI 1echnology (1URR)
Creece
Municipal LnIerprise oI Planning & DevelopmenI
oI PaIras (ADLP)
DevelopmenI Agency oI Magnesia S.A. (ANLM)
MunicipaliIy oI Philippi
kegion oI 1hessaly
UniversiIy oI 1hessaly
ItaIy
MunicipaliIy oI Ancona
MunicipaliIy oI lerrara
NetherIands
DelII UniversiIy oI 1echnology (1U DelII)
Lindhoven kegional GovernmenI AdminisIraIive
sIrucIure (SkL)
NeIherlands CenIre Ior Underground ConsIrucIion(CO8)
1NO LnvironmenI and Geosciences
PortugaI
CiIy Rall oI Covilhã
lnsIiIuIe Pedro Nunes (lPN)
5pain
lederaIion oI municipaliIies and provinces oI
CasIilla-La Mancha (lLMPCLM)
MunicipaliIy oI 1oledo
United kingdom
8risIol CiIy Council
SouIh LasI Lngland DevelopmenI Agency (SLLDA)
1ransporI Ior London (1IL)
82183_OmslNTExtra.indd 1 06-12-2005 10:01:09
ConIenI
Nova 1erra Special on Ihe LU
supporIed pro|ecI 'ConnecIed
CiIies', December zoo<.
hIIp://connecIedciIies.neI
PubIisher
Nirov, 1he Rague, 1he
NeIherlands (www.nirov.nl)
£ditoriaI 8oard
!an Rein 8oersma
Lvelien 8randes
¥II|e leddes
Ruib Raccou
lrank van der Roeven (issue
ediIor)
Derek MiddleIon (Lnglish
ediIing)
Michiel SmiI (ediIor in chieI)
!os|a van der veer
Craphic design
SIudio 8au Winkel, MarIi|n
van Overbruggen
Print
GraIisch 8edri|I 1ui|Iel,
Rardinxveld-Giessendam
Correspondence
Nirov, Michiel SmiI,
PosIbox ¸o8¸¸, z<oo Gv
1he Rague, 1he NeIherlands,
smiI©nirov.nl
OIIice supporI:
Relen Kokshoorn,
kokshoorn©nirov.nl
lSSN
¡<)o-oioz
Pro|ecI parI-Iinanced
by Ihe Luropean Union
£ditoriaI
| coNNcctco cìtìcs
lrank van der Roeven
o ecìNvcNtìNc tuc Ncw
towN uìNosct
Pascaline GaboriI
8 te=Nsroet ocvcLorucNt =ec=s
PeIer Rine, !eremy Ldge, KaIhy Gal and Michael Chambers
5ustainabIe deveIopment and growing mobiIity in
the 5outh £ast of £ngIand
¡z coNNcctìNc tuc cec=tce
soutu c=st
Arno Schmickler
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SIeIan van der Spek and !acques SplinI
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(PhoIo: Luropean CommuniIy)
visiI hIIp://connecIedciIies.neI
Cover illusIraIion: NeIherlands CenIre Ior Ihe Underground ConsIrucIion, Gouda
82183_OmslNTExtra.indd 2 08-12-2005 09:08:18
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / ¸
ConnecIed CiIies
Nova 1erra is a noI-Ior-proIiI magazine. lI publishes
mainly in DuIch and is disIribuIed Io Iwo neIworks in Ihe
NeIherlands: RabiIorum and Ihe NeIherlands lnsIiIuIe
Ior Rousing and Planning (Nirov). 8oIh work Io raise and
mainIain Ihe qualiIy oI spaIial plans, urban design and
developmenI pro|ecIs. 1his Lnglish language supplemenI
Io Nova 1erra is dedicaIed Io Ihe acIiviIies oI Ihe
ConnecIed CiIies pro|ecI, an LU-sponsored lnIerreg lllC
neIwork Ior susIainable mobiliIy and spaIial
developmenI, and dedicaIed Io improving accessibiliIy
and qualiIy oI liIe in urban and rural areas.
ConnecIed CiIies will 'Iravel' Ihrough Lurope; every six
monIhs Ihe Iocus and Ihe locaIion oI acIiviIies will
shiII Io anoIher region. SIarIing oII in Ihe 8elgium/
NeIherlands region, iI will proceed Io 8ulgaria/Greece,
PorIugal/Spain and lIaly/Greece, beIore concluding in
Ihe Lngland/lrance region. 1he cenIral issues during Ihe
IirsI six monIhs are changing urban relaIions, high-
qualiIy public IransporI and 1ransporI DevelopmenI
Areas. 1his supplemenI reIlecIs IhaI Iocus. New 1owns,
once a promising soluIion Io deal wiIh meIropoliIan
growIh in Lurope, now seem Io be sIruggling wiIh Ihe
developmenI oI mulIi-cenIred urban areas. Originally
builI Io serve a one-Io-one relaIion wiIh Iheir moIher
ciIy, Ihe New 1owns are being Iorced Io reinvenI Iheir
role, idenIiIy and IransporI provision.
liIIy years have gone by since Ihe IirsI New 1owns
emerged. MeIropoliIan developmenI in SouIh LasI
Lngland is now guided by Ihe SusIainable CommuniIies
programme, which revolves around Iour growIh areas
ad|acenI Io London. lI will be inIeresIing Io see during
Ihe course oI ConnecIed CiIies how Ihis new Ihinking
engages older pracIices. ProminenIly locaIed in Ihe
growIh areas ouIlined by Ihe SusIainable CommuniIies
programme are Iwo New 1owns: 8asildon in Ihe 1hames
GaIeway and MilIon Keynes in MilIon Keynes-SouIh
Midlands. 1he idea oI 1ransporI DevelopmenI Areas
(1DAs) may play a key role in Ihese new or reinvenIed
ideas. 1DAs are abouI concenIraIing urban growIh in
areas well-served by public IransporI, an approach IhaI
can readily be incorporaIed inIo Ihe spaIial or urban
planning oI many ciIies and regions in Lurope. 8uI iI is
Ihe IirsI Iime IhaI such a pracIice has been expliciIly
labelled and presenIed as a coherenI seI oI acIions.
1his may help Io Iocus aIIenIion on exisIing policies
and plans IhaI supporI Ihe idea, as well as implanI Ihe
concepI where no such 'IradiIion' exisIs.

1he DuIch province oI Zuid-Rolland is sIruggling Io
become meIropoliIan and seems Io be developing iIs
own version oI 1DAs: SIedenbaan. 1his conversion oI
older IransporI sysIems inIo new ones goes hand in hand
wiIh a shiII in spaIial policies. 8uI as Ihe IransiI sysIems
in Zuid-Rolland goes Ihrough a period oI rapid change,
who is acIually keeping an eye on Ihe neIwork as a
whole? 1he IacI IhaI Iechnical disIincIions beIween lighI
rail, meIro, rapid IransiI, commuIer Irain and regioIram
have all buI disappeared has noI been reIlecIed in
pracIice. lor underground consIrucIion iI maIIers liIIle
whaI direcIion Ihe developmenI oI such a neIwork Iakes,
and in dense urban areas iI is clear IhaI vasI sIreIches
will have be builI underground. AIIer decades oI
experience in Ihe use oI underground IaciliIies, we have
come Io undersIand IhaI underground IaciliIies need
diIIerenI design and managemenI sIraIegies Io deliver
Iheir Iull poIenIial.
WiIh so much aIIenIion Ior rail-based IransporI one
could easily overlook 8us kaid 1ransiI. CiIies IhaI do noI
yeI have a high-qualiIy public IransporI sysIem mighI
wanI Io look inIo Ihe improved bus sysIems currenIly
oIIer, which can meeI high sIandards aI a much lower
price. 1he case oI Phileas in Lindhoven shows IhaI Ihe
planning oI such a IransporI sysIem can be inIegraIed
inIo Ihe urban planning process. Which brings us back
Io Ihe core oI ConnecIed CiIies - Ihe cuIIing edge oI
susIainable mobiliIy and spaIial planning.
Irank van der Hoeven, De|ft Unìversìty of 1echno|ogy, Lead Partner Connected Cìtìes
:
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 3 05-12-2005 16:38:07
1he idea oI Ihe New 1own
was based upon Ihe Garden
CiIies concepI by Lbenezer
Roward in ¡noz.
William Morris (¡868)
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / i
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 4 08-12-2005 09:05:26
9
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / <
keinvenIing
Ihe New 1own mindseI
1he New 1owns were builI in response Io demographic growIh, urban sprawl and unconIrolled
meIropoliIan expansion. 8uI Ihey have only parIly lived up Io Iheir promise and now experience
similar problems Io Ihe suburbs: poor public IransporI, dependency on Ihe privaIe car and low
urban densiIies. 1he New 1own concepI needs Io be reinvenIed Io promoIe susIainable IransporI
and developmenI.
Pasca|ìne Gaborìt, 1he Luropean New 1owns P|atform (LN1P), 8russe|s
1he idea oI Ihe New 1own arose aI Ihe Iurn
oI Ihe zoIh cenIury wiIh Ihe publicaIion in
¡noz oI Lbenezer Roward's Garden CiIies
oI 1omorrow. AIIer Ihe Second World War,
Ihe UK MinisIry oI 1own and CounIry
Planning launched an exIensive New 1owns
programme under Ihe New 1owns AcI ¡ni6.
Since Ihen z¡ New 1owns have been
esIablished in Ihe UK and more Ihan io in
Ihe whole oI Lurope. WiIh hindsighI, building
New 1owns Irom scraIch cannoI be considered
a very environmenIally Iriendly Iorm oI
developmenI. AlIhough Ihe New 1owns did
reIain some green areas, Ihey did noI preserve
Ihe original landscape or iIs biodiversiIy.
1he New 1owns were creaIed alongside
exisIing Iowns or around several villages.
1hey aIIracIed 'neo-urban' residenIs, who
use diIIerenI cenIres Ior shopping (malls
or ouI-oI-Iown cenIres), employmenI
('Iechnopoles') and enIerIainmenI (cinemas,
green parks, leisure cenIres and sporIs
sIadiums). 1hese urban muIaIions are so
deep and radical IhaI Ihey pervade all
aspecIs oI socieIy, Irom mobiliIy Io Ihe
design oI buildings. 1hey aIIecI liIesIyles,
Iamilies, consumers, employees and workers
in Ihe New 1owns and in Ihe periphery.
lor mosI New 1owns Ihe era oI rapid growIh
is over and Ihey now Iace similar problems:
poor IransporI IaciliIies aparI Irom Ihe links
Io Ihe moIher ciIies, poorly designed
housing, simulIaneous ageing oI buildings,
ouIdaIed inIrasIrucIure and a poor image.
1hey generally lack a proper Iown cenIre,
were builI Io low urban densiIies and have
recenIly aIIracIed low income households.
1he challenge Iacing New 1owns Iace is Io
consolidaIe consolidaIing and resIrucIure
Ihe urban Iabric Io accommodaIe changes
in Ihe populaIion sIrucIure, household
sIrucIure and liIesIyles, and Io redeIine Iheir
susIainabiliIy ob|ecIives.
uousruoto nNo ormocrnruìc cunNcr
ln Ihe New 1owns, as in mosI Luropean
suburbs, housing was designed Ior nuclear
Iamilies. As Ihe qualiIy oI public IransporI
serves was average aI besI, Ihis group
became largely dependenI on Ihe privaIe
car and Ihis had a direcI impacI on Iamily
sIrucIures. Women were more or less
prevenIed Irom Iaking paid employmenI and
had Io sIay aI home Io care Ior Iheir Iamilies.
1he New 1owns generally did noI provide
leisure acIiviIies Ior children or kindergarIens
and crèches wiIhin walking disIance, as in
Ihe old cenIres.
1he housing sIock in Ihe New 1owns made
a similar impacI on public liIe. ln MilIon
Keynes, Ior insIance, 'Ihe single Iamily
housing was emphasised Ior nuclear
Iamilies wiIh Iwo children, assuming a male
breadwinner and a Iemale homemaker.'
¡
1he problems oI accessibiliIy ouIlined above
limiI Ihe opporIuniIies open Io women
by reducing Ihe possibiliIy oI combining
domesIic Iasks wiIh employmenI,
disadvanIaging women in Ihe labour markeI.
ln Ihe indusIrialised world Ihis siIuaIion is
now changing. Local auIhoriIies Iace Iwo
imporIanI demographic processes: Ihe
arrival oI Ioreign migranIs wiIh large
Iamilies and low incomes in need oI decenI
housing, and Ihe ageing oI Ihe populaIion.
ln Ihe DuIch New 1own oI Spi|kenisse, Ior
example, only Ien per cenI oI Ihe populaIion
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 5 05-12-2005 16:39:02
was above << years old in ¡n8¸, buI Ihis will
rise Io IwenIy-Iive percenI in zoon.
z
Such
changes noI only require policy sIraIegies
geared Io providing Ihe Iype oI housing
needed in Ihe IuIure, buI also Io deliver
suiIable IransporI, services, leisure and
oIher IaciliIies.
ìmncr nNo rcoNomìc orvrtormrNt
1he image and aIIracIiveness oI New
1owns has declined, and Ihey are no longer
considered Io be Ihe 'besI choice' Ior Ihose
who wanI Io live ouIside Ihe congesIed
urban areas. People iniIially moved Io Ihe
New 1owns because oI Ihe qualiIy oI Ihe
environmenI and Ihe lower land prices.
Policies designed Io aIIracI Ihe middle
classes Ihrough Ihe provision oI beIIer
housing and educaIion services have been
successIul, buI Ihe conIexI has now changed.
1he main problem Iacing New 1owns Ioday
is Iheir idenIiIy. kaIher Ihan becoming real
communiIies Ihey were simply places Io
live and are now generally IhoughI oI as
dormiIory Iowns, despiIe Ihe IacI IhaI
employmenI provision has grown.
!obs have been creaIed in Ihe New 1owns
mainly because oI Iheir locaIion close Io
large ciIies. 1hey have aIIracIed businesses
by oIIering good inIrasIrucIure, Iax incenIives
and IaciliIies. 8usiness parks have been
developed, oIIen around new Iechnology
clusIers and innovaIive indusIries. Some
Iowns have aIIracIed more services and high-
Iech companies (Ior example Nokia in Lspoo);
oIhers have aIIracIed logisIical companies.
New 1owns have succeeded in providing a
wide range oI culIural and leisure acIiviIies,
and in mosI cases residenIs are encouraged
Io parIicipaIe in Ihe social liIe oI Ihe Iown Io
raise Ihe sense oI communiIy. 1hey now Iace
Ihe diIIiculI Iask oI IurIher sIrengIhening
Iheir economies in a susIainable way Io
avoid negaIive impacIs on Ihe qualiIy oI
liIe oI Iheir inhabiIanIs and Ihe idenIiIy oI
Ihe Iown.
mosìtìtv
1he New 1owns and suburbs have boIh
experienced a period oI rapid growIh,
signalling Ihe end oI Ihe 'ciIy' as a coherenI,
archiIecIural and compacI IerriIory. 1hey had
Io provide services, housing and IransporIaIion
Irom scraIch. 1ransporI provision was a crucial
issue because oI Ihe disIances Io Ihe cenIre
oI Ihe core ciIy, buI low densiIies oI Ihese
new urban areas did noI make iI easy Io build
IuncIional and eIIicienI inIrasIrucIure.
8oIh in Ihe New 1owns and in Ihe periphery,
Ihe planning oI inIrasIrucIure has noI
caughI up wiIh urban developmenI. ln Ihe
besI cases, Ihe demand Ior IransporI
beIween Ihe new urban areas and Ihe
original Iown cenIres has been meI. While
Ihe masIer plans Ior mosI New 1owns
included provisions Ior laIeral connecIions
wiIh oIher cenIres, Ihe available budgeIs
have generally noI been suIIicienI Io deliver
Ihe planned inIrasIrucIure. 1he public
IransporI links IhaI have been builI link Ihe
cenIre oI Ihe meIropoliIan area Io Ihe
periphery via rapid IransiI, meIro and
moIorways. lnIernal rail and bus rouIes and
links wiIh oIher areas in Ihe periphery were
noI provided; virIually all Ihese |ourneys are
IhereIore made by car.
1he image and
aIIracIiveness
oI New 1owns
has declined
1he DuIch New 1own oI Spi|kenisse, near koIIerdam. (phoIo: Mischa Kei|ser/ RR)
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / 6
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 6 05-12-2005 16:39:31
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / )
MilIon Keynes is a good example. lIs urban
sIrucIure is based on a grid and Ihe Iown
is zoned inIo separaIe residenIial and
indusIrial blocks, and employmenI is
dispersed across Ihe Iown in diIIerenI
locaIions. 1he populaIion densiIy is
exIremely low, which means IhaI people
have Io Iravel long disIances beIween
acIiviIies. MilIon Keynes was specially
designed Io caIer Ior easy and IasI Iravel by
car, wiIh plenIiIul parking and dispersed land
uses, so iI is no surprise IhaI Ihe use oI public
IransporI in MilIon Keynes is abouI halI Ihe
naIional average Ior Iowns oI a similar size.
Changing Ihis siIuaIion will require a
considerable increase in public IransporI
provision and sIringenI measures Io curb car
use. Moreover, Ihe sIrucIure oI Ihe Iown,
which is ill suiIed Io Ihe operaIion oI public
IransporI, and Ihe car culIure are ma|or
obsIacles IhaI have Io be overcome.
DespiIe Ihese obsIacles, MilIon Keynes
Council has launched a programme Io
sIimulaIe greaIer use oI public IransporI.
1he long-Ierm vision is Io increase |ourneys
by public IransporI Io Ihree Io Iour Iimes
currenI levels. Given Ihe growIh in Ihe
populaIion, Ihis would equaIe Io an increase
in Ihe number oI public IransporI Irips per
year Irom abouI ) million now Io abouI ¸<
Io io million in zo¸¡. 1he council is currenIly
sIudying Ihe sIrucIure oI Ihe ciIy and iIs
suiIabiliIy Ior public IransporI, Iocusing on
opIions Ior 8us kapid 1ransiI. 1he need
Io reduce dependency on Ihe car is widely
IelI and MilIon Keynes is |usI one many
New 1owns IhaI aim Io improve Iheir
IransporIaIion sysIems.
townros sustnìNnstr Nrw towNs
MosI New 1owns now have a public
IransporI policy, and many oI Ihese propose
beIIer bus or lighI rail connecIions, high-
qualiIy IaciliIies and IrequenI services.
ln some Iowns, like MilIon Keynes, improving
public IransporI will require considerable
invesImenI Io overcome Ihe problems posed
by Ihe urban sIrucIure. ln oIher cases, Ior
example in lrance, local auIhoriIies are
relying on regional or naIional decisions Io
improve Ihe IransporI sysIem. 1ransporI
policies Ior mosI oI Ihe Iowns are sIill quiIe
limiIed: car use is someIimes sIill IaciliIaIed
Ihrough Ihe provision oI parking places and
many areas wiIhin Ihe New 1owns are noI
accessible by public IransporI.
kaising urban densiIies may be an imporIanI
condiIion Ior Ihe inIroducIion and use oI
more susIainable IransporI sysIems. 1his is
a longer-Ierm goal and will noI be easy Io
achieve - iI would mean developing real
Iown cenIres and require IurIher economic
growIh and higher local auIhoriIy budgeIs.
ln Ihe meanIime, decision makers in New
1owns have realised Iwo Ihings: increasing
congesIion is noI an asseI Ior Iheir Iown; and
Ihey need an alIernaIive public IransporI
sysIem direcIed principally aI Ihe elderly,
lower-income Iamilies and sIudenIs, buI also
Io oIIer viable opIions Ior people who do noI
wanI Io Iravel by car every day.
MobiliIy and IransporI have implicaIions Ior
all Ihe oIher aspecIs oI Ihe New 1owns: Iheir
economies, urban planning and governance.
1hese are global challenges which require
whaI SIevenage calls Ihe 'reinvenIion oI Ihe
New 1own mindseI'. 1his should seek Io
generaIe wider ownership oI Ihe New 1own
concepI by exIernal sIakeholders and Iocus
on developing Ihe poIenIial oI Ihe New
1owns wiIhin Ihe wider sub-regional and
regional conIexI.
Notes
¡ !ane Robson, New 1owns, Ihe modernisI planning
pro|ecI and social |usIice: Ihe case oI MilIon-Keynes
UK, conIerence lecIure abouI 'urban developmenI',
Cairo LgypI, 6Ih OcIober ¡nnn.
z GemeenIe Spi|kenisse, SIaIisIisch |aaroverzichI zooi,
Ihe NeIherlands.
keferences
- !P. AnIoni, Urban sprawl modelling: A meIhodological
approach, in Cybergeo zo), ¡ March zooz.
- Akio DoIeuchi, 1he changing Iace oI suburban
New 1owns - Seeking Ihe 'slow liIe' Ior an ulIra-aging
socieIy, NLl Social DevelopmenI kesearch Group,
OcIober zoo¸.
- LN1P, ConIexIual analysis oI 6 New 1owns, NLW1ASC
lN1LkkLG lll8 pro|ecI.
- Pierre Merlin, New 1owns in PerspecIive, lN1A Press,
April ¡nn¡.
- Alan Parker, 1ransporI and ecologically susIainable
ciIies, 1own and CounIry Planning AssociaIion
oI vicIoria, AusIralia, zooi.
- k1Pl News, No sound planning basis Ior Ihe
developmenI oI MilIon Keynes, Planning,
!une i, zooi.
- kevue LspriI, La ville à Irois viIesses: genIriIicaIion,
relegaIion, périurbanisaIion, !acques DonzeloI,
March-April zooi lrance.
hIIp://www.newIowns.neI
1he lrench New 1own oI Melun-SenarI, near Paris.
(phoIo: Pascaline GaboriI)
!obs have been creaIed
in Ihe New 1owns
mainly because oI Iheir
locaIion close Io Ihe
large ciIies
:
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 7 07-12-2005 15:02:45
1he koyal lnsIiIuIion oI CharIered Surveyors
(klCS) has been developing Ihe concepI oI
Ihe 1ransporI DevelopmenI Area (1DA) wiIh
key sIakeholders Ior a number oI years
now. ln zooz klCS published a good pracIice
guide IhaI provides planning and IransporI
pracIiIioners wiIh Ihe Iools needed Io
idenIiIy and implemenI 1DAs.
¡
1he guidance
was sponsored and supporIed by IhirIeen
governmenI auIhoriIies, proIessional
insIiIuIes and IransporI organisaIions.
z

1his sponsorship lenI signiIicanI backing
Ior implemenIing Ihe ideas developed in
Ihe guidance. 1DAs can be developed in a
wide range oI circumsIances, ranging Irom
IransporI nodes in large conurbaIions Io
relaIively small markeI Iowns.
ln essence, a 1DA is a means oI securing well
designed, higher densiIy, mixed-use
developmenI around good public IransporI
nodes in Iowns and ciIies. lI does noI seek
Io lay down a rigid blueprinI and can be
applied in ways IhaI suiI Ihe needs oI a
parIicular locaIion.
lI does noI require new legislaIion or
changes in policy, buI iI does require Ihe
commiImenI oI local auIhoriIies and oIher
parIners iI Ihe concepI is Io be carried
Iorward successIully. 1DA is an inIegraIed
land use planning approach Io creaIe a more
speciIic relaIionship beIween developmenI
densiIy around urban public IransporI
inIerchanges and Ihe level oI public
IransporI services provided. As an economic
concepI, 1DAs are also a Iocus Ior more
insIiIuIionalised arrangemenIs whereby
public IransporI operaIors receive addiIional
Iunding based on Ihe IransIer, where
appropriaIe, oI parI oI Ihe higher hnancial
reIurns Io developmenI which mighI be
achievable in such areas. 1DAs, IhereIore, can
deliver signihcanI IransporI and developmenI
benehIs by enabling hnancially more
aIIracIive (or aI leasI less uncerIain)
developmenI opporIuniIies, and by oIIering
Ihe prospecI oI addiIional invesImenI in
public IransporI improvemenIs. 1hey also
conIribuIe Io Ihe susIainabiliIy ob|ecIives oI
Ihe 1ransporI WhiIe Papers by inIegraIing land
use and IransporI, reducing boIh Ihe need Io
Iravel and reliance on privaIe IransporI.
tur ton nrrroncu
1he basic concepI oI Ihe '1DA Approach' is
already recognised wiIhin Ihe exisIing policy
Iramework. Rowever, our research Iound
IhaI Ihe approach Io idenIiIying and
implemenIing 1DA-sIyle developmenI oI key
siIes or locaIions wiIhin urban areas has
been boIh inadequaIe and inconsisIenI.
While Ihe planning sysIem can and does
deliver 1DA-sIyle developmenI, beneIiIs
can be gained Irom greaIer clariIy or more
posiIive direcIion aI Ihe policy level, and
Irom Ihe provision oI deIailed guidance on
1DA idenIiIicaIion and delivery.
Securing widespread applicaIion oI Ihe
1DA Approach across a range oI urban
circumsIances will require commiImenI by
all sIakeholders. 1he klCS guidance seIs ouI
Ihe pracIical mechanisms Ior designaIing
and delivering 1DAs and Ihe policy process
IhaI will be needed Irom Ihe naIional Io local
planning level. 1he key messages in Ihe
guidance are IhaI 1DAs should be a key Iocus
oI locaIional policy, Ihe 1DA Approach is a
lounded on an undersIanding oI Ihe inIerrelaIionships beIween accessibiliIy, locaIion, design
and inIensiIy oI land use, Ihe 1ransporI DevelopmenI Area concepI developed in Ihe UK is a cross-
secIoral mechanism Ior delivering higher densiIy developmenI around public IransporI nodes.
1he approach uniIes land use planning and Ihe developmenI indusIry wiIh IransporI planning
and IransporI operaIors. Urban design, communiIy involvemenI and acIive urban managemenI
are key componenIs Ior a workable package.
1ransporI DevelopmenI Areas
Peter Hìne, Symonds Group / !eremy Ldge, Knìght Irank / Kathy Ga|, ga|.com / Mìchae| Chambers, k|CS
OpporIuniIy diagram
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / 8
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 8 05-12-2005 16:39:57
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / n
mechanism Ior delivering suiIable ouIcomes,
and IhaI long-Ierm planning is essenIial.
AlIhough Ihe concepI oI concenIraIing
developmenI around appropriaIe IransporI
nodes is noI new, iI is diIIiculI Io realise
successIully because many diIIerenI
elemenIs need Io be broughI IogeIher Io
make iI work. 1DAs are noI a quick Iix,
buI early acIion can be Iaken.
1he 1DA approach is noI exclusively meanI
Ior Ihe UniIed Kingdom. lI can work in many
diIIerenI siIuaIions IhroughouI Lurope.
1he Iollowing discussion oI Ihe UK siIuaIion
serves only Io illusIraIe Ihe relaIion beIween
1DA and naIional, regional and local policy
Irameworks. 1he underlying principles
remain Ihe same Ior oIher counIries.
rrcìoNnt cuìonNcr
1here is considerable scope Ior Ihe new
kegional SpaIial SIraIegies being developed
wiIhin Ihe UK Io Iake accounI oI Ihe 1DA
approach and promoIe iIs inclusion wiIhin
more local planning Irameworks and local
IransporI plans. 1DAs should be acIively
promoIed as a regional ob|ecIive, Io be
applied across as wide a range oI urban
seIIlemenI Iypes and rural cenIres as
possible. lI is viIal Io Ihe approach IhaI key
sIakeholder groups, such as Ihe IransporI
providers and Ihe developmenI indusIry,
are engaged aI an early sIage.
Where appropriaIe, kegional SpaIial
SIraIegies should encourage local auIhoriIies
Io ensure IhaI wiIhin 1DAs permissions Ior
higher densiIy developmenI include
developer conIribuIions Iowards public
IransporI and local IransporI ob|ecIives. 1he
kegional 1ransporI SIraIegy - prepared as an
inIegral parI oI regional spaIial planning -
should include measures relevanI Io 1DAs,
such as accessibiliIy criIeria, increased public
IransporI choice, car parking sIandards and
demand managemenI.
1he London Plan - Ihe IirsI spaIial
developmenI sIraIegy in Ihe UK - indicaIes
IhaI designaIion oI siIes Ior 1DA-sIyle
developmenI should be underIaken by Ihe
various London boroughs, wiIh Ihe London
Plan iIselI providing appropriaIe policy
advice and characIerising Ihe key
opporIuniIies across GreaIer London.
Local auIhoriIies should seek Io make
maximum use oI Ihe mosI accessible siIes,
such as Ihose in Iown cenIres and oIhers
which are, or will be, close Io ma|or IransporI
inIerchanges. 1hey should develop a clear
vision Ior developmenI oI Ihese areas,
prepare siIe brieIs and, where appropriaIe,
consider using compulsory powers Io bring
developmenI Iorward. 1he 1DA Approach
supporIs GovernmenI policies designed Io
promoIe boIh urban and rural regeneraIion,
wiIh access Io key services and IaciliIies
delivered Ihrough inIegraIed local IransporI
soluIions.
1DA Linkages
9
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 9 05-12-2005 16:40:08
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / ¡o
survrv, nNntvsìs, rtnN
AI Ihe pre-deposiI consulIaIion sIage,
sIrucIure plans and local developmenI
Irameworks should incorporaIe as a speciIic
ob|ecIive Ihe promoIion oI 1DAs as a Iocus Ior
locaIional policy Io be applied across a range
oI urban seIIlemenI Iypes and rural cenIres.
Key siIes and cenIral locaIions will normally
be Ihe mosI appropriaIe Ior Iormal 1DA
designaIion. OIher locaIions such as nodal
poinIs and inIerchanges on main public
IransporI rouIes, however, will readily lend
Ihemselves Io adopIion oI Ihe underlying
principles. Local auIhoriIies should apply Ihe
1DA approach in Ihree key phases: survey,
analysis and plan-making. Knowledge abouI
Ihe likely locaIions oI 1DAs is crucial. Local
auIhoriIies should keep a number oI IacIors
under review. lirsI, Ihe principal physical and
economic characIerisIics oI Ihe area,
including supply and demand in Ihe real
esIaIe markeI as well as Ihe size,
composiIion and disIribuIion oI populaIion.
1he communicaIions, IransporI sysIem and
IraIIic in Ihe area should be considered, as
well as Ihe environmenIal characIerisIics.
linally, we should noI overlook overall
accessibiliIy appraisal, including Ihe IransporI
neIwork, service levels, neIwork capaciIy and
scope Ior expansion.
1he survey phase will idenIiIy likely locaIions
wiIh Ihe poIenIial Io adequaIely serve more
inIensive land use developmenIs and
markeIs able Io promoIe and supporI such
developmenI. 1he analysis sIage should
consider signiIicanI excess capaciIy in
exisIing inIrasIrucIure, including public
IransporI, uIiliIies and social inIrasIrucIure.
lI should look aI Ihe poIenIial Ior
developmenI in exisIing or new public
IransporI corridors. And iI has Io idenIiIy
opporIuniIies Ior improving public IransporI
accessibiliIy.
Larly discussion and liaison beIween local
auIhoriIies, developers, landowners,
operaIors, Ihe kegional DevelopmenI
AuIhoriIies (kDAs), Local LnIerprise
Companies (LLCs), Ihe Welsh DevelopmenI
Agency and all oIher sIakeholders is essenIial
Io Ihe successIul applicaIion oI Ihe 1DA
Approach, wiIh developmenI Irameworks
and local IransporI plans providing Ihe iniIial
basis Ior Ihis. Local planning auIhoriIies
should prepare appropriaIe 1DA-relaIed
policies and proposals, Iaking parIicular
accounI oI boundaries, IransporI
accessibiliIy appraisals, urban design,
densiIy, parking sIandards and oIher key
issues. Planning Irameworks should idenIiIy
key criIeria relevanI Io Ihe 1DA Approach,
parIicularly in relaIion Io IransporI
accessibiliIy and urban design. Ma|or 1DA
developmenI opporIuniIies should be
supporIed by a deIailed design or
developmenI brieI including, where
appropriaIe, boundaries and densiIy ranges
(parIicularly Ior residenIial developmenI).
lmplemenIing Ihe 1DA Approach 1he key
ingredienIs Ior successIul implemenIaIion
oI Ihe 1DA Approach are Ihe esIablishmenI
oI an overall parInership, Iunding, land
assembly, a speciIic delivery mechanism and
on-going moniIoring and review.
Pcrtnerships
1he mosI complex schemes may beneIiI Irom
Iorming 1DA delivery companies Io secure
implemenIaIion, delivery and managemenI.
GovernmenI regeneraIion policy underlines
Ihe need Io secure an Urban kenaissance
Ihrough eIIecIive parInerships. 1hese should
allow '|oined-up sIraIegies' Io be developed
wiIh local people and oIher organisaIions
and inIeresIs involved Io Iackle local
problems and realise local opporIuniIies.
ParInerships Iormed Io Iake Ihe 1DA
Approach Iorward should include Ihe local
auIhoriIy, normally in Ihe lead or enabling
role, landowners, invesIors, developers,
designers, IransporI operaIors/providers and
occupiers. 1DA developmenI may involve
developer conIribuIions Io public IransporI
inIrasIrucIure, buI Ihis will vary greaIly
according Io local circumsIances and Ihe
economic viabiliIy oI individual schemes
wiIhin Ihe 1DA.
1DA ManagemenI Company Model
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 10 05-12-2005 16:40:22
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / ¡¡
lcnJ cssemblv
Land assembly will oIIen be an imporIanI
issue Ior 1DA-Iype developmenI, parIicularly
Ior large developmenI siIes. Many parIies
may hold land wiIhin a poIenIial 1DA and
land ownership surveys need Io be
underIaken by Ihe 1DA promoIer aI an early
sIage. ln some cases Ihe use oI, or IhreaI oI
Ihe use oI, compulsory purchase will be
necessary Ior planning auIhoriIies Io secure
Ihe 1DA developmenI wiIhin appropriaIe
boundaries. Rowever, in mosI cases
agreemenI beIween all landowning
sIakeholders should be Ihe ob|ecIive.
Artive urbcn mcncqement
Much oI Ihe advanIage Io be gained Ihrough
Ihe 1DA Approach will be squandered unless
an appropriaIe regime oI on-going acIive
urban managemenI is puI in place. 1own
lmprovemenI Schemes are a poIenIial
mechanism Ior allowing local auIhoriIies
and oIher sIakeholders Io deal wiIh area
improvemenI and mainIenance oI
environmenIal qualiIy. 1he concepI may
prove Io be oI parIicular imporIance wiIh
regard Io 1DAs, along wiIh appropriaIe |oinI
venIures and/or parInership agreemenIs.
tons ìN nctìoN
Since klCS published iIs guidance reporI,
Ihe 1DA pro|ecI has conIinued Io aIIracI wide
supporI Irom a range oI diverse groups,
including Ihe Local GovernmenI AssociaIion,
Ihe koyal lnsIiIuIion oI 8riIish ArchiIecIs, Ihe
GreaIer London AuIhoriIy, ScoIIish LnIerprise
and Ihe lnsIiIuIion oI Righways and
1ransporIaIion. While Ihese organisaIions
recognise Ihe beneIiIs oI 1DAs, oIhers have
been implemenIing Ihem in pracIice. 1he klCS
guidance conIains a wealIh oI case sIudies
Irom locaIions IhroughouI Ihe counIry. 1hese
cover 1DAs aI Iown, ciIy and even up Io counIy
level. SpaIial sIraIegies Ior regions such as
London and SouIh LasI Lngland have Iocussed
heavily on Ihe need Io produce 'well-designed,
higher densiIy, mixed-use areas, siIuaIed
around good public IransporI access poinIs in
urban areas'. kecognising Ihe imporIanI
leadership role IhaI London can play, klCS
published IurIher research in zoo¸ IhaI
looked aI how 1DAs could be developed
IurIher in London.
¸
1he sIudy Iound IhaI 1DAs
have Ihe capabiliIy oI delivering many
oI Ihe London Plan's key ob|ecIives, Irom
aIIordable housing Io IransporI
improvemenIs and urban regeneraIion.
5ustcincble rcmmunities
'SusIainable communiIies' has rapidly
become Ihe new buzz phrase in UK planning.
virIually every consulIaIion paper or reporI
issued by Ihe OIIice oI Ihe DepuIy Prime
MinisIer now has Ihe 'susIainable
communiIies' sIrapline. 1his may be an
excellenI markeIing sIraIegy, buI Ihere is a
danger IhaI Ihe consIanI repeIiIion oI Ihe
susIainable communiIies manIra and Ihe
mulIiple ways in which Ihe Ierm is
inIerpreIed will, in Ihe end, leave iI devoid oI
meaning. 1haI would be a piIy because Ihe
concepI, however iI is inIerpreIed, is
inIrinsically sound. 1he UK GovernmenI
launched iIs SusIainable CommuniIies Plan
in lebruary zoo¸ wiIh Ihe avowed ob|ecIive
oI creaIing 'prosperous, inclusive and
susIainable communiIies'. lrom an klCS
perspecIive, some oI Ihe key prioriIies
should be:
- locaIing new housing and commercial
developmenI in Ihe mosI susIainable
places;
- providing Ihe inIrasIrucIure needed Io
supporI communiIies;
- socially inclusive policies in housing IhaI
creaIe balanced communiIies;
- regeneraIion policies IhaI are sensiIive Io
local communiIies' needs and reIlecI Ihe
'soul' oI an area;
- sIraIegies Ior areas in decline as well as
growIh areas in Ihe SouIh LasI.
1ransporI-orienIed developmenI 1hrough
iIs work on 1DAs, klCS has argued IhaI Ihe
successIul inIegraIion oI land use and
IransporI can play a key role in reducing many
oI Ihe diIIiculIies posed by modern urban
developmenI. 1he orienIaIion oI inIegraIed
economic and residenIial acIiviIies around
public IransporI nodes and Ihe creaIion
oI relaIively selI-relianI sub-cenIres wiIhin
wider meIropoliIan areas are imporIanI
IacIors in reducing Ihe need Io Iravel and
encouraging Ihe use oI more susIainable
public IransporI modes. 1he 1DA good
pracIice guide has demonsIraIed Ihe beneIiIs
IhaI can be gained Irom providing high-
densiIy, high-qualiIy, mixed-use developmenI
around IransporI nodes. 1esIing Ihis approach
in London and Ihe 1hames GaIeway
¸
will be
Ihe Iocus oI Ihe GreaIer SouIh LasI acIiviIies
wiIhin Ihe ConnecIed CiIies pro|ecI.
Notes
¡ koyal lnsIiIuIion oI CharIered Surveyors, 1ransporI
DevelopmenI Areas - Guide Io Good PracIice, London,
zooz.
z 1he GreaIer London AuIhoriIy; Ihe lnsIiIuIion oI
Righways and 1ransporIaIion; Ihe lnsIiIuIe oI
LogisIics and 1ransporI; L1 ProperIy; Ihe Local
GovernmenI AssociaIion; kailIrack ProperIy; Ihe
koyal lnsIiIuIe oI 8riIish ArchiIecIs; Ihe koyal 1own
Planning lnsIiIuIe; ScoIIish LnIerprise; Ihe SIraIegic
kail AuIhoriIy; SIraIhclyde Passenger 1ransporI
LxecuIive; 1ransporI Ior London; and Ihe klCS London
kegional 8oard.
¸ 1DAs - Ihe London dimension, april zoo¸, klCS
London kegion. See also www.rics.org
Prime MinisIer 1ony 8lair and DepuIy Prime MinisIer !ohn PrescoII visiI GreenhiIhe in KenI.
(Source: OIIice oI Ihe DepuIy Prime MinisIer)
:
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 11 05-12-2005 16:40:30
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / ¡z
1he region around London in Ihe SouIh LasI
oI Lngland is home Io abouI z¡ million people
living on only ¡6% oI Ihe IoIal UK IerriIory.
1his economic powerhouse creaIes iz% oI
Ihe UK's gross value added
¡
and many global
headquarIers are locaIed in Ihis area. Key
inIernaIional gaIeways, such as ReaIhrow
AirporI, SouIhampIon and lelixsIowe
seaporIs and Ihe Channel 1unnel provide
access Io London as one oI Ihree world
ciIies.
z
SIricIly speaking, London iIselI is only
a small buI very imporIanI parI oI GreaIer
London; GreaIer London consisIs oI Ihe CiIy
oI London, Ihe CiIy oI WesIminsIer and ¸¡
oIher London boroughs. ln order Io beIIer
undersIand and reIlecI Ihe inIrinsic relaIion
beIween London and iIs surrounding region,
Ihree kegional DevelopmenI Agencies have
recenIly |oined Iorces in Ihe GreaIer SouIh
LasI super-region, including GreaIer London,
Ihe LasI oI Lngland and Ihe SouIh LasI
Lngland regions.
nccommoontìNc crowtu ìN tur crrntrr
soutu rnst
Ma|or populaIion growIh needs Io be
accommodaIed wiIhin Ihe GreaIer SouIh
LasI. London iIselI is expecIed Io grow Irom
currenIly ).i million inhabiIanIs Io 8 million
by zo¡6, and IurIher growIh will Iake place in
Ihe LasI and SouIh LasI. 1o respond Io Ihis
challenge Ihe OIIice oI Ihe DepuIy Prime
MinisIer (ODPM) launched Ihe CreaIing
SusIainable CommuniIies plan in zoo¸. 1his
documenI seIs ouI policies, resources and
Arno Schmìck|er, South Last Lng|and Deve|opment Agency (SLLDA), Guì|dford, UK
|||ustratìons: SLLDA (un|ess ìndìcated otherwìse)
5ustcincble Jevelcpment cnJ qrcwinq mcbilitv in the 5cuth lcst c[ lnqlcnJ
ConnecIing
Ihe GreaIer SouIh LasI
1he Luropean SpaIial DevelopmenI
PerspecIive proposes creaIing several
dynamic zones oI global economic
inIegraIion and a neIwork oI
inIernaIionally accessible meIropoliIan
regions. Such a vision can only become
realiIy by complemenIing inIernaIional
and naIional hubs wiIh regional and
local growIh opporIuniIies. Row is Ihis
vision applied Io Ihe 1hames GaIeway
kegeneraIion Corridor in Ihe GreaIer
SouIh LasI region oI Lngland?
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 12 07-12-2005 15:04:27
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / ¡¸
5ustcincble Jevelcpment cnJ qrcwinq mcbilitv in the 5cuth lcst c[ lnqlcnJ
ConnecIing
Ihe GreaIer SouIh LasI
parInerships Io achieve a sIep change in
Ihe GovernmenI's approach Io Iackling 'Ihe
challenges oI a rapidly changing populaIion,
Ihe needs oI Ihe economy, serious housing
shorIages in London and Ihe SouIh LasI and
Ihe impacI oI housing abandonmenI in
places in Ihe NorIh and Midlands'.
¸

1he CreaIing SusIainable CommuniIies
programme aims Io Iake pressure oII London
Ihrough Ihe provision oI z<o,ooo new homes
in Ihe SouIh LasI. 1hese new homes will
mainly be locaIed in Iour growIh areas:
1hames GaIeway, AshIord, MilIon Keynes-
SouIh Midlands and London-SIansIed-
Cambridge. Alongside housing growIh, an
exIra ¡zo-¡8o,ooo |obs in Ihe 1hames
GaIeway and ¡zo-¡<o,ooo in MilIon Keynes-
SouIh Midlands are envisaged by zo¡6 as a
key componenI oI Ihe programme.
Delivery oI Ihe SusIainable CommuniIies
programme can only be achieved by
inIerdisciplinary and cross-secIoral working.
1he UK Planning Policy Guidance on
1ransporI
i
makes Ihe case Ior a swiIch away
Irom reliance on Ihe privaIe car and urban
dispersal Iowards more susIainable modes oI
Iravel and urban growIh. 1he key principles
ouIlined in Ihis guidance are imporIanI
precondiIions Ior urban renaissance and Ihe
delivery oI Ihe SusIainable CommuniIies
plan. 1hey include promoIing more
susIainable IransporI choices and reducing
Ihe need Io Iravel; promoIing social inclusion,
in parI by reviIalising Iowns and ciIies as
places Io live and work; Iocusing ma|or
generaIors oI Iravel demand in urban areas
near Io public IransporI; giving more road
space Io pedesIrians and cyclisIs, and giving
prioriIy Io people over IraIIic in Iowns.
n rotvcrNtrìc mrcn-cìtv rrcìoN
1he GreaIer London area is undergoing a
process oI decenIralised concenIraIion -
concenIraIion on a global scale (global ciIies)
wiIh simulIaneous decenIralisaIion and
suburbanisaIion aI Ihe regional and local
scales. 1he ever increasing mobiliIy oI people
and goods in parIicular presenIs a challenge
Io urban cohesion. NoI only IransporI
Iechnologies buI also inIormaIion and
communicaIion Iechnologies have alIered
seIIlemenI sIrucIures. 1he combinaIion oI
boIh - IransporI and communicaIion
Iechnologies - is leading Io a new correlaIion
beIween space and Iime, and hence Io
IundamenIal changes in Ihe relaIionship
beIween Ihe ciIy and Ihe region.
<

ln parIicular, IransporI Iechnologies have
enabled a IransIormaIion oI residenI
communiIies inIo iIineranI communiIies: an
ever increasing number oI people undersIand
Ihemselves Io be global commuIers in a digiIal
markeI place. CasIells inIroduced Ihe concepIs
oI Ihe 'neIwork socieIy' and 'inIormaIional
capiIalism' Io describe Ihis process.
6
WiIhin a region like SouIh LasI Lngland Ihe
challenge is Io beIIer uIilise Ihe exisIing
inIrasIrucIure and Io encourage people Io
use public IransporI by improving Ihe qualiIy
oI Ihe Iravel environmenI. 1he exisIing
inIrasIrucIure, however, was mainly
developed Ior Ihe purpose oI serving indusIry
and Iollowed Ihe planning ideal oI separaIing
IuncIions; Ior example, Ihe rail neIwork in Ihe
GreaIer SouIh LasI is London-cenIric Io
accommodaIe hisIoric commuIing paIIerns
Irom Ihe urban Iringe Io Ihe core ciIy. 1his
segregaIion oI IuncIions and socio-spaIial
IragmenIaIion can be seen as Ihe peak oI Ihe
planning ideal oI Ihe indusIrial age (lordism).
8uI Ihis ideal loses iIs sIrengIh when
economic growIh, as well as scienIiIic and
social progress, begins Io demand a higher
inIegraIion oI IuncIions and a more
susIainable approach Io dealing wiIh scarce
resources. Urban and regional planning,
IhereIore, needs Io adapI mechanisms as
well as Ihe builI environmenI and iIs
inIrasIrucIure Io Ihe needs and requiremenIs
oI posI-indusIrial regions.
1o achieve Ihis change iI is imporIanI Io
undersIand Ihe economic and communiIy
relaIions wiIhin Ihe region and beyond.
A viIal aspecI oI Ihis is recognising Ihe
inIerdependency oI London and Ihe SouIh
LasI Io keep Ihe region on a successIul Irack:
Ihe global ciIy oI London relies on Ihe SouIh
LasI and vice versa. lor London Io be a global
hub and Io conIinue creaIing Ihe economic
power needed Ior Ihe whole counIry - and Ior
Lurope - iI is crucial Io counIerbalance Ihe
regional economies around Ihose hubs
(economic equilibrium). ln Ihis conIexI Ihe
concepI oI a polycenIric mega-ciIy region
needs Io be looked aI in more deIail.
srntìnt nNo ruNctìoNnt rotvcrNtrìcìtv
1he Luropean SpaIial DevelopmenI
PerspecIive (LSDP) argues Ior polycenIric
spaIial developmenI and a new urban-rural
relaIionship.
)
1he LSDP also calls Ior Ihe
SouIh LasI Lngland: Areas oI OuIsIanding NaIural 8eauIy, Green 8elI land and Ihe GrowIh Areas.
Source: OIIice oI Ihe DepuIy Prime MinisIer, CreaIing susIainable
communiIies: Making iI happen, 1hames GaIeway and Ihe GrowIh Areas,
London zoo¸, p.)
9
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 13 05-12-2005 16:40:49
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / ¡i
creaIion oI several dynamic zones oI global
economic inIegraIion and a neIwork oI
inIernaIionally accessible meIropoliIan
regions wiIh an inIegraIed hinIerland - areas
like Ihe GreaIer SouIh LasI Lngland. 1he
quesIion IhaI arises is how Ihese zones oI
global economic inIegraIion develop in Ierms
oI Iheir spaIial and IuncIional organisaIion.
kecenI research carried ouI in Ihe lnIerreg
lll8 NWL POL¥NL1 pro|ecI led by Ihe ¥oung
loundaIion sIudied eighI Luropean mega-
ciIy regions in NorIh WesIern Lurope: SouIh
LasI Lngland, khine-Main, khine-kuhr, 8assin
Parisien, Luropean MeIropoliIan kegion
NorIhern SwiIzerland, CenIral 8elgium,
GreaIer Dublin and Ihe kandsIad. POL¥NL1
emphasised IhaI polycenIriciIy is noI only
scale-dependenI, buI also IhaI Ihere is a very
clear disIincIion Io be made beIween spaIial
and IuncIional polycenIriciIy. One acIiviIy oI
Ihe pro|ecI Iocused parIicularly on business-
Io-business communicaIion (virIual as well
as physical/I-z-I) in advanced producer
services in order Io map spaIial and
IuncIional polycenIriciIy in Ihe sIudy
regions.
8
8ased on Ihis exIensive quanIiIaIive and
qualiIaIive research, POL¥NL1 deIined <¡
IuncIional urban regions (lUks) in Ihe
GreaIer SouIh LasI. lUks 'comprise a core
deIined in Ierms oI employmenI size and
densiIy, and a ring deIined in Ierms oI regular
daily |ourneys (commuIing) Io Ihe core'.
n

1hirIy lUks are locaIed Io Ihe wesI oI London
and only eighIeen Io Ihe easI - Ihis illusIraIes
a greaIer dependency oI Ihe easI on London
and is an indicaIor oI an increasing easI-wesI
imbalance. While Ihe idea oI sIrengIhening
regional economies should in principle lead
Io an economic equilibrium, Ihere are sIill
(and will always be) IacIors Iavouring cerIain
locaIions above oIhers. ln Ihe GreaIer SouIh
LasI Ihe WesIern Corridor is economically
very successIul and buoyanI (1hames valley
economy), whereas Ihe 1hames GaIeway
regeneraIion corridor in Ihe LasI is sIruggling
Io realise some mixed-use developmenI IhaI
would include higher-order businesses. 1his is
why workers Irom Ihe 1hames GaIeway sIill
generally commuIe Io business locaIions in
Canary WharI or Ihe CiIy oI London.
coNNrctìNc uìcurr orNsìtv wìtu
uìcurr ountìtv
Some key spaIial policy quesIions can be
derived Irom Ihe polycenIric developmenI
paIIern in Ihe GreaIer SouIh LasI. Row
should policy respond Io Ihe increasing easI-
wesI imbalance? CurrenI public Iunding is
very much aimed aI Ihe easI and norIh oI
London Io achieve a shiII oI graviIy in Ihe
GreaIer SouIh LasI region - will Ihe markeI
Iollow Ihe Iunding? And how can a shiII Io
more susIainable modes oI IransporI be
achieved? Advanced IuncIional polycenIriciIy
creaIes orbiIal and IangenIial movemenI
paIIerns IhaI are no longer dependenI on a
core ciIy. very oIIen Ihese movemenIs cannoI
be accommodaIed by public IransporI using
exisIing inIrasIrucIure neIworks IhaI are
cenIred on a core ciIy; as a resulI Ihe privaIe
car becomes an even more predominanI
mode oI IransporI.
1o respond Io Ihese challenges, changes in
policy and subsequenI implemenIaIion are
needed. Decoupling gross domesIic producI
Irom IransporI growIh was Iormally
inIroduced onIo Ihe Luropean agenda aI Ihe
GoIhenburg Council in zoo¡, adding Ihe
environmenIal dimension Io Ihe Lisbon
agenda. 1his policy is oI parIicular
imporIance Ior developing Ihe GreaIer SouIh
LasI, where Ihe exisIing IransporI neIworks
are being puI under exIremely high
pressures. SusIainable IransporI and a shiII
Irom Ihe privaIe car Io oIher modes oI
IransporI are aI Ihe hearI oI Ihe GoIhenburg
Council and subsequenI naIional/regional
policies Io address climaIe change and reduce
greenhouse gas emissions (KyoIo IargeIs).
1ogeIher wiIh Ihe LSDP's goal oI develop
dynamic, aIIracIive and compeIiIive ciIies
and urbanised regions, providing a pariIy oI
access Io inIrasIrucIure and knowledge,
Ihese aims can only be achieved by concerIed
acIion. Such a vision can only become realiIy
by complemenIing inIernaIional and naIional
hubs wiIh regional and local growIh
opporIuniIies, parIicularly in locaIions IhaI
can provide susIainable mobiliIy - in oIher
words, public IransporI hubs. ln Iackling Ihe
challenge oI building susIainable urban
spaces in growing meIropoliIan regions, we
need Io ensure IhaI IuIure growIh is achieved
wiIh Ihe maximum possible social cohesion
and proIecIion oI Ihe environmenI. More
selI-conIained urban areas can help Io reduce
commuIing and bring abouI mixed
SouIh LasI Lngland: luncIional Urban kegions.
Source: POL¥NL1 reporI, AcIion ¡.¡ SL Lngland, p.¸
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 14 05-12-2005 16:40:53
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / ¡<
communiIies, buI Ihe inIegraIion oI land use
planning and IransporI is also essenIial Io
deliver IhaI vision.
1he aim oI achieving higher densiIies
around public IransporI hubs needs Io be
accompanied by high qualiIy urban and
archiIecIural design. Righer densiIy should
noI only be Iinancially more aIIracIive Ior
invesIors buI also provide a higher qualiIy oI
liIe and supporI more susIainable paIIerns oI
developmenI. 1his comes close Io Ihe
American pracIice oI 1ransiI OrienIed
DevelopmenI (1OD) or Ihe idea oI 1ransporI
DevelopmenI Areas (1DAs) IhaI Ihe koyal
lnsIiIuIion oI CharIered Surveyors (klCS) has
been developing wiIh key sIakeholders Ior a
number oI years.
¡o
ConcenIraIing developmenI and inIegraIing
land use and IransporI have also been
idenIiIied as key acIions Io assisI Ihe Urban
kenaissance agenda in Lngland. 'ln Lngland,
urban areas provide Ior n¡% oI Ihe IoIal
economic ouIpuI and 8n% oI all Ihe |obs.
MainIaining and improving Ihe economic
sIrengIh oI our Iowns and ciIies is IhereIore
criIical Io Ihe compeIiIive perIormance oI Ihe
counIry as a whole.
¡¡
1he poIenIial Ior change
is limiIed since 'more Ihan no% oI our urban
Iabric will sIill be wiIh us in ¸o years Iime.'
¡z

1hereIore Ihe qualiIy oI new developmenIs is
decisive Io achieve Ihe sIep change Iowards
building a susIainable urban environmenI.
'SuccessIul urban regeneraIion is design-
led.'
¡¸
tur tunmrs cntrwnv crowtu nrrn
WiIhin Ihe GreaIer SouIh LasI subsIanIial
public Iunding is being channelled inIo Ihe
1hames GaIeway, a ma|or regeneraIion
corridor. A greaI challenge Ior Ihis area is Io
avoid becoming a clusIer oI dormiIory Iowns
Ior people commuIing inIo London. 1hereIore
iI is imporIanI Io sIrengIhen locally
disIincIive paIIerns oI culIure and inIegraIe
mixed IuncIions. ln Ihe conIexI oI large
mega-ciIy regions, iI is viIal Ior small and
medium-sized Iowns Io build upon Iheir
inIrinsic local poIenIial and develop an
idenIiIy. A clear vision is needed which
complemenIs raIher Ihan duplicaIes exisIing
or emerging urban paIIerns in polycenIric
ciIy regions. 1he conIribuIion small and
medium-sized Iowns can make Io a larger
ciIy region goes well beyond providing cheap
housing wiIhin easy commuIing disIance Io
employmenI cenIres. ParIicularly in Iimes
when Ihe pressures resulIing Irom Ihe core
ciIy are increasing - boIh in Ierms oI demand
Ior housing and employmenI land - iI is
imporIanI Io careIully maIure Ihe concepI oI
a neIwork oI complemenIary small and
medium-sized Iowns.
¡i
1he 1hames GaIeway already has an
esIablished hisIory, beginning wiIh Ihe
developmenI oI Ihe Docklands area. 1he
beneIiIs oI Canary WharI and Ihe lsle oI
Dogs in London are becoming visible and
accounIable some z< years aIIer sIraIegic
decisions were made. WiIh Ihe shiII in Iocus
Io Ihe easI, London is aiming Io regeneraIe
ma|or areas oI previously developed land and
Io provide space Ior IurIher growIh. 1he
proposals Ior Olympia zo¡z, wiIh Ihe main
IaciliIies Io be builI in Ihe easI oI London
cenIred around Ihe new high-speed Irain
sIaIion Io be opened in SIraIIord, underpins
Ihe new role oI Ihe 1hames GaIeway. 8uI Ihe
1hames GaIeway exIends well beyond Ihe
boundaries oI London.
rrcrNrrntìoN Nrros
1he GovernmenI has noI deIined Ihis
regeneraIion corridor along adminisIraIive
boundaries buI by regeneraIion needs,
including large areas oI derelicI land and
deprived communiIies. 1he 1hames GaIeway
is an area oI approximaIely 8o,ooo hecIares
in size, measuring 6< kilomeIres long and up
Io abouI ¸o kilomeIres wide. lI conIains
abouI )oo,ooo households and is home Io
around ¡.6 million people and provides abouI
<oo,oo |obs.
¡<
1he 1hames GaIeway oIIers Ihe greaIesI
developmenI opporIuniIies in Ihe SouIh LasI,
IogeIher wiIh Ihe ma|or concenIraIion oI
previously developed land and deprivaIion in
Ihe counIry. lI has Ihe poIenIial Io deliver
around ¡zo,ooo new homes and zoo,ooo
new |obs by zo¡6, sub|ecI Io Ihe appropriaIe
physical and social inIrasIrucIure being in
place. 1he GaIeway will play a key parI in
delivering susIainable growIh Ior SouIh LasI
Lngland. As iI has Ihe largesI collecIion oI
previously developed land (¸ooo hecIares)
near any Luropean capiIal ciIy iI represenIs a
ma|or opporIuniIy Io address Ihe housing
shorIage wiIhouI large-scale release oI green
belI land.
¡6
rnìt cntntvst
1he high-speed Channel 1unnel kail Link
(C1kL), wiIh iIs inIernaIional passenger
sIaIions in AshIord, LbbsIleeI, SIraIIord and
King's Cross/SI Pancras, can be seen as a
prime regeneraIion caIalysI in Ihis corridor.
1ogeIher wiIh oIher ma|or regional IransporI
invesImenIs, such as Crossrail and lasIrack,
C1kL will IransIorm accessibiliIy Ior Ihe
1hames GaIeway area. An imporIanI
precondiIion Ior delivering Ihe susIainable
communiIies in Ihe 1hames GaIeway is Ihe
undersIanding IhaI Ihis large-scale
developmenI cannoI be served purely by car-
based IransporI sysIem. New river crossings
are being designed Io accommodaIe mulIi-
modal IraIIic, making room Ior lighI rail and
bicycle connecIions. OI sIraIegic imporIance
here are Iwo new 1hames crossings near Ihe
koyal Docks (Gallions Crossing) and near
1hurrock (Lower 1hames Crossing). 1he laIIer
in parIicular will diverI IraIIic Irom Ihe
Channel porIs away Irom Ihe congesIed
SouIh LasI region and Ihe Mz<, leading iI
direcIly norIh, circumnavigaIing London
compleIely.
rìvr strntrcìc orvrtormrNt tocntìoNs
WiIhin Ihe 1hames GaIeway developmenI
is Iocused on Iive sIraIegic developmenI
locaIions:
¡)
¡ 1he LasI London GaIeway, parIicularly
around SIraIIord and Ihe Lower Lea valley,
accommodaIing Ihe developmenI needed
Io make Ihe London Olympics in zo¡z a
success and building on Ihe good exisIing
IransporI inIrasIrucIure.
z 1he area souIh oI Ihe 1hames Irom
Greenwich Peninsula Io Woolwich, where
Ihere is poIenIial Ior zo,ooo new homes,
developing Ihe Iormer Woolwich Arsenal
siIe and including a new use Ior Ihe Dome
siIe wiIh iIs successIul Millennium
CommuniIy. 9
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 15 05-12-2005 16:40:54
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / ¡6
¸ 1he area norIh oI Ihe 1hames aI 8arking
keach - London's largesI area oI previously
developed land.
i 1hurrock kiverside, wiIh a subsIanIial
developmenI poIenIial Ior employmenI
land, incorporaIing Ihe PorI oI London and
Ihe proposal Ior a new conIainer porI aI
Shellhaven.
< NorIh KenI 1hamesside around LbbsIleeI
lnIernaIional Passenger SIaIion and Ihe
Medway LsIuary.
lurIher housing and employmenI will be
allocaIed Io key locaIions in Ihe GaIeway,
such as Medway, SouIhend, 8asildon and
SiIIingbourne-Sheerness.
sustnìNnstr crowtu turoucu rnrtNrrsuìr
1he key Io delivering governmenI IargeIs
in a susIainable way is Ihe parInership
approach. NeiIher poliIical conIiguraIions nor
individual budgeIs are equipped Io deal wiIh
regeneraIion on such a large, sIraIegic scale.
1he IacI IhaI Ihe public secIor inpuI is
achieved aI all levels, Irom local auIhoriIy
Io a speciIically dedicaIed governmenI
deparImenI, ensures '|oined-up' policy
changes and developmenI implemenIaIion.
1his direcI and coordinaIed public secIor
approach visibly encourages Ihe privaIe
secIor Io begin Io invesI considerable
resources in an area which oIherwise Iails Io
aIIracI privaIe secIor inIeresIs. ln all
underIakings in Ihe 1hames GaIeway, risks
have Io be Iaken and iniIial cosIs Ior
remediaIion oI previously used land are high.
Rowever, an exIremely IighI Green 8elI policy
and governmenI direcIion on reusing
previously developed land oIIers Ihe privaIe
secIor a real incenIive Io look aI building on
recycled land. A relaxaIion oI IhaI policy Ior
Ihe sake oI achieving higher developmenI
proIiIs would ulIimaIely lead Io Ihe Iailure oI
Ihe Urban kenaissance agenda. 1ackling
ma|or conIaminaIion and polluIion issues,
addressing social problems, unemploymenI,
crime and vandalism, and recharging Iormer
indusIrial siIes wiIh Ihe value oI aesIheIics
by using Ihe rich hisIory can change
percepIions and enable Ihe dis|oinIed
communiIies Io reinIegraIe inIo Ihe socio-
economic Iabric oI urban socieIy. lnIegraIion
oI commercial and residenIial use raIher Ihan
segregaIion, provision oI communiIy services
and parks, promoIion oI susIainabiliIy in
Ierms oI recycling and building eIIiciency, and
encouraging high qualiIy design will make a
diIIerence Io Ihe exisIing urban environmenI
in Ihe 1hames GaIeway.
Notes
¡ NaIional SIaIisIics, zz December zooi, www.
sIaIisIics.gov.uk.
z Saskia Sassen, CiIies in a world economy, 1housand
Oaks Ca., ¡nni.
¸ OIIice oI Ihe DepuIy Prime MinisIer, SusIainable
communiIies: 8uilding Ior Ihe IuIure, London,
zoo¸, p.z.
i OIIice oI Ihe DepuIy Prime MinisIer, Planning Policy
Guidance ¡¸: 1ransporI (PPG ¡¸), London, ¡nni.
< See: Arno Schmickler, lrom commuIerland Io regional
ciIizenship. SouIh LasI Lngland - A growing region in
Lurope, in: ChrisI, WolIgang & MarIin lladI, !ahrbuch
der Modellpro|ekIe zoo¸ / zooi, Weimar, zooi.
6 Manuel CasIells, 1he rise oI Ihe neIwork socieIy,
Cambridge, ¡nn6.
) Luropean Commission, LSDP - Luropean SpaIial
DevelopmenI PerspecIive. 1owards balanced and
susIainable developmenI oI Ihe IerriIory oI Ihe
Luropean Union, Luxembourg, ¡nnn, p.¡¡.
8 POL¥NL1 pro|ecI reporIs ediIed by Sir PeIer Rall and
Dr KaIhryn Pain, 1he ¥oung loundaIion, London
zooi/o<, www.icsIudies.ac.uk/hIml/whaIdoA.asp
n POL¥NL1 AcIion ¡.¡, Summary reporI, p.z.
¡o koyal lnsIiIuIion oI CharIered Surveyors, 1ransporI
DevelopmenI Areas - Guide Io Good PracIice,
London, zooz.
¡¡ Urban 1ask lorce, 1owards an urban renaissance: linal
reporI oI Ihe Urban 1ask lorce chaired by Lord kogers
oI kiverside, London, ¡nnn, p.¸z.
¡z Urban 1ask lorce, 1owards an urban renaissance: linal
reporI oI Ihe Urban 1ask lorce chaired by Lord kogers
oI kiverside, London, ¡nnn, p.¡¡¸.
¡¸ Urban 1ask lorce, 1owards an urban renaissance: linal
reporI oI Ihe Urban 1ask lorce chaired by Lord kogers
oI kiverside, London, ¡nnn, p.in.
¡i See: DeIleI R. GolleIz & Arno Schmickler, lrom spaces
Io places. Lnabling SusIainable urban growIh in SouIh
LasI Lngland wiIh a pracIical Iocus on Ihe
Queenborough-kushenden Zone oI Change, in:
8undesamI Iür 8auwesen und kaumordnung, Klein-
und MiIIelsIadIe in SIadIregionen. lnIormaIionen zur
kaumenIwicklung, ReII 8, 8onn, zoo<.
¡< OIIice oI Ihe DepuIy Prime MinisIer, 1he 1hames
GaIeway, London, zooi.
¡6 OIIice oI Ihe DepuIy Prime MinisIer, CreaIing
susIainable communiIies: Making iI happen: 1hames
GaIeway and Ihe GrowIh Areas, London, zoo¸.
¡) OIIice oI Ihe DepuIy Prime MinisIer, CreaIing
susIainable communiIies: Making iI happen: 1hames
GaIeway and Ihe GrowIh Areas, London, zoo¸.
SouIh LasI Lngland: luncIional Urban kegions.
Source: POL¥NL1 reporI, AcIion ¡.¡ SL Lngland, p.¸
1he 1hames GaIe
:
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 16 05-12-2005 16:40:58
Going underground:
lighI, air and spaceI
8uilding underground is becoming more common. lor IransporI inIrasIrucIure and reIail, commercial and
leisure IuncIions, underground spaces can oIIer surprising advanIages - and save money. Design and
saIeIy are key componenIs in making underground IaciliIies successIul. lnge van 8erkel oI Ihe NeIherlands
CenIre Ior Underground ConsIrucIion reviews Ihe case Ior going below ground.
During an unexpecIed diversion on Ihe koIIerdam meIro l passed
8eurs, OosIplein, voorschoIerlaan, Gerdesiaweg and Capelsebrug
sIaIions. lor me and my Iellow sIranded Irain passengers, Ihe
alIernaIive meIro rouIes were well signposIed and clear, and Ihe
brighIly liI sIaIions soon cleared up my morning sleepiness. 8uI aI
Kralingse Zoom iI was suddenly much darker; here Ihe sIaIion is
above ground and Ihe day was sIill dawning. 1he nexI day a lorry
crashed inIo a meIro Irain IurIher up Ihe same sIreIch oI line. 1hese
Iwo experiences in one week do noI seem Io IiI our expecIaIions
abouI Ihe underground. 1he beneIiIs oI going underground oIIen
go unnoIiced.
More and more developmenIs are going underground. NoI
everywhere, buI where land is in greaI demand. Lconomics and saIeIy
are Ihe main reasons. CounIless examples already exisI: dwellings
wholly or parIly underground, oIIices, Iunnels Ior all possible modes
oI IransporI, car parks, public records and archives, museums and
waIer sIorage IaciliIies. 1hey all show IhaI Ihe resIricIions on working
underground can be exploiIed Io raise qualiIy. Many examples can be
Iound in a book published in zooz by Ihe NeIherlands CenIre Ior
Underground ConsIrucIion (CO8),
¡
which showcases buildings IhaI
could never have been builI above ground, such as Ihe Guggenheim
Museum in Salzburg, a museum wiIhouI an exIerior buI wiIh a
uniquely sculpIured inIerior - a work oI arI in iIselI.
rxtrn vntur ror moNrv
1he beneIiIs oI going underground can be counIed in euros
recovered per square meIre. Making double use oI Ihe land reIurns
a proIiI, once Ihe iniIial invesImenIs cosIs have been wriIIen oII.
1he underground IuncIions Iree up space above ground Ior a range
|nge van 8erke|, Nether|ands Centre for the Underground Constructìon (CO8), Gouda
Photos: Nether|ands Centre for the Underground Constructìon (CO8), Gouda
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / ¡)
9
koIIerdam 8laak sIaIion.
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 17 07-12-2005 15:09:54
oI oIher acIiviIies, Irom inIensive uses, such as homes and oIIices
(above underground car parks, Ior example) Io more exIensive
acIiviIies, such as boulevards and wildliIe siIes/naIure parks.
1he exIra beneIiIs in Ihese cases comes Irom Ihe above-ground uses
or combinaIion oI uses. value added can be measured in Ierms oI
improved qualiIy, Ioo. Under cerIain condiIions Ihe underground
elemenI creaIes a mulIiplier eIIecI: a successIul underground
IuncIion can become an aIIracIion in iIselI and generaIe increased
Ilows oI shoppers, Ior example, or museum-goers. Lxamples include
Ihe much Ialked abouI KoopgooI in koIIerdam, Ihe SouIerrain in
1he Rague and Ihe 8eelden aan Zee museum in Scheveningen.
1he cenIral Iheme oI ConnecIed CiIies - susIainable soluIions Ior
IransporI nodes - can be given added value by making innovaIive
and inspired use oI Ihe underground space.
1he underground environmenI creaIes opporIuniIies noI possible
above ground. As Lao 1se poinIed ouI, 'ArchiIecIure is whaI is leII
when you Iake away Ihe walls.' Designers oI underground places are
Iaced wiIh a challenging Iask: in essence, Io design Ihe inner and
underground 'ouIer' spaces IogeIher in a way IhaI creaIes a saIe,
well-organised and aIIracIive experience. 1hese are Ihe mosI widely
used ways Io raise qualiIy:
- DaylighI access: Ihe ArIez Rogeschool voor de KunsIen (RKU
UniversiIy oI ProIessional LducaIion) in Arnhem, Ihe underground
oIIice exIension Io a hisIoric building on Ihe Maliebaan in UIrechI,
Ihe KoopgooI in koIIerdam and Ihe Louvre in Paris, Io name |usI a
Iew. 'LighI, sighIlines and legibiliIy are Ihe Ihree IundamenIal
principles IhaI underpin Ihe layouI oI Ihe underground space.'
z
- Use oI maIerials: Ihe 8eelden aan Zee museum in Scheveningen,
Ihe SouIerrain in 1he Rague, Ihe Moscow MeIro.
- Noise conIrol: prevenIion oI noise reverberaIion, Ior example in
Ihe Second Reinenoord 1unnel under Ihe Oude Maas river.
- OrienIaIion aids: sighIlines, orienIaIion IeaIures, Ior example Ihe
prize-winning underground car park aI Arnhem CenIral SIaIion.
- Physical environmenIal qualiIy: consIanI IemperaIure and
humidiIy, noise insulaIion, as in Ihe Zeeland kecord OIIice in
Middelburg, Ihe NaIional Archives in Limburg and Ihe
underground houses aI Ihe 'Kleine Aarde' in 8oxIel.
Designs should pay parIicular aIIenIion Io (social) saIeIy,
mainIenance and managemenI, and Ihe IransiIion beIween Ihe
surIace and Ihe underground environmenI.
1rcnsiticncl crecs
Design aspecIs IhaI play an imporIanI role in Ihe IransiIion Irom
surIace Io below ground are:
- Lnvelope/inIerior
- views, sighIlines, legibiliIy
- DaylighI, lighIing, colours
- lnIegraIion in Ihe surroundings, idenIiIy
koIIerdam 8laak
sIaIion.
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / ¡8
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 18 05-12-2005 16:41:49
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / ¡n
Some oI Ihe besI designed IransiIional areas are underground
sIaIions. lor example: Canary WharI, where Ihe curving signaIure
glass canopies allow naIural lighI Io peneIraIe deep below ground,
enhanced by IuncIionally designed arIiIicial lighIing; Ihe lighIing
builI inIo Ihe escalaIors accenIuaIes sighIlines and orienIaIion.
Or Ihe 8ilbao meIro, where escalaIors rapidly IransporI Iravellers
Io sIreeI enIrances covered by Iree-shaped glass canopies. ln Ihe
NeIherlands, Ihe 'lid' above 8laak sIaIion boIh signals Ihe locaIion
oI Ihis IransporI node and Iorms a landmark IhaI is recognisable a
long way oII.
Designs can also be inspired by very diIIerenI Iorms and uses. 1he
rooI oI Ihe oval WaIer 1emple in !apan, Ior example, is aI ground level
and consisIs oI a pond Iull oI loIus planIs. 1he enIrance is a concreIe
sIairway which cuIs Ihe pool inIo Iwo as iI descends, Ihe sIillness oI
Ihe surrounding waIer preparing Ihe visiIor Ior Ihe inner sancIuary.
Or Ihe long descenI inIo Ihe underground volcano CenIre aI SainI-
Ours les koches in Ihe Auvergne, where a Iunnel-shaped arIiIicial
craIer Iorms Ihe hearI oI Ihe museum.
5c[etv
Our deep-seaIed Iear oI going below ground, aparI Irom Ihe need
Io seek shelIer or proIecIion (such as hiding in caves), has been
reaIIirmed wiIh regulariIy in recenI years by several accidenIs and
even some aIIacks in Iunnels. ln Ihe NeIherlands, Ihese evenIs have
parIly been responsible Ior Ihe draIIing oI Ihe AddiIion koad SaIeIy
kegulaIions bill, which conIains sIandards Io be meI by Iunnel
designs. A new Commission has also been esIablished Io advise
on Iunnel saIeIy. 8uI Ihe need Io improve Ihe saIeIy and image oI
underground buildings is noI resIricIed Io Iunnels. ln densely
populaIed areas wiIh high levels oI mobiliIy Ihe moIIo is 'cars
underground' and, luckily, we are seeing more and more well-
designed underground car parks. Well-known examples in Ihe
NeIherlands are Laakhaven in 1he Rague, OssenmarkI in Groningen,
Ihe van Reekgarage in Lnschede, SouIerrain in 1he Rague and Ihe
Museumplein in AmsIerdam. WhaI makes all Ihese successIul is Iheir
spacious design and use oI lighI. 1he 'SaIeIy concepI Ior underground
car parks'
¸
is a useIul aid Ior inIegraIing saIeIy inIo Ihe design righI
Irom Ihe sIarI. A similar saIeIy concepI was drawn up Ior
underground reIail areas aI Ihe end oI zoo<, and anoIher is being
conIemplaIed Ior underground IransporI nodes, such as sIaIions.
1rcnspcrt ncJes
Underground IransporI nodes can vary Irom Ihe almosI unnoIiced,
such as viaducIs, Io highly complex 'human hubs', such as 8laak and
Schiphol sIaIions. lor a sIaIion Io qualiIy as 'underground' aI leasI
parI oI Ihe IransIer or IransporI acIiviIies musI have no visual
relaIion wiIh Ihe surrounding area; Ihey musI be covered by oIher
IuncIions and/or locaIed below ground. SomeIimes Ihe IransIer
IuncIion is combined wiIh commercial or leisure acIiviIies, such as
shopping and amusemenIs. MosI meIro sIaIions are underground.
SigniIicanI diIIerences beIween Irain and meIro are IhaI meIro
Irains Iend Iop be shorIer Ihan heavy rail and have shorIer breaking
disIances, Ihey sIop aI every sIaIion (in general Ihere are no
'sIopping-Irain sIaIion') and Ihe IimeIable is more IrequenI.
1haI is why every world ciIy has an easily accessible meIro sysIem.
1he decision Io go underground is generally made Ior one or more
oI Ihe Iollowing reasons:
- CompacI inIerchange beIween IransporI modes
- Avoiding Ihe barriers presenIed by Ihe ciIy
- 1he only physical opIion
- Lconomic poIenIial
1he design oI Ihe enIrances Io Ihe sIaIions may be Ihe decisive IacIor
in Iheir ease oI use. Good examples are boIh diverse and numerous.
Some are indusIrial in characIer, such as Ihe WilhelminasIaIion in
koIIerdam and Ihe !ubilee Line in London, oIhers are grand or
monumenIal, as in Moscow, and a Iew are almosI homely, like Ihe
SouIerrain in 1he Rague. lmporIanI IacIors are a Ieel Ior scale and
dimensions; visual calm; use oI susIainable, high qualiIy building
maIerials and producIs; avoiding dead corners, reverberaIions or
draughIs; and - always - regular mainIenance and good
managemenI.
uNorrcrouNo wìNs oN ountìtv
Underground use oI space can be Ihe viIal soluIion Ior connecIed
ciIies where no realisIic opIions are available above ground. 1he
challenge oI working underground inspires original design and
susIainable soluIions Ior urban nodes, which in Iurn beneIiIs Ihe ciIy.
One expression oI Ihis are Ihe popular underground museums Iound
Ihe world over, such as Ihe Museonder in Ihe Roge veluwe NaIional
Park, Ihe WaIer Museum in Arnhem, Ihe volcano museum in
Auvergne menIioned earlier, Ihe Noashima ConIemporary ArI
Museum in Kagawa and Ihe underground exIension oI Ihe van Gogh
Museum in AmsIerdam. AnoIher are Ihe public IransporI nodes IhaI
are aIIracIions in Ihemselves, like Ihe meIros on Moscow, London and
1he Rague; and Ihe pedesIrian Iunnel aI Ihe WilheminasIaIion in
koIIerdam, which won a DuIch Design Award. Lven Ihe underground
shopping cenIres IhaI aIIracI huge numbers oI visiIors. 8y making
Ihe necessary invesImenIs in qualiIy, Ihe beneIiIs oI underground
developmenI, below as well as above Ihe ground, can be counIed ouI
in hard cash - and, above all, experienced.
1his crtirle is bcseJ pcrtlv cn c presentcticn bv k.G.M. 5trinqc (lcllcnJ kcilrcnsult) ct the
CO3-MiJJcq in zooz. Other mctericl is Jrcwn [rcm verbcrqen ruimte bv vcn Meijen[elJt
et cl., CO3/v+k, zooz.
Notes
¡ von Mei|enIeldI eI al., verborgen ruimIe, CO8, Gouda, zooz.
z !aap Ruisman, in verborgen ruimIe (p.¡o6).
¸ veiligheidsconcepI voor ondergrondse parkeergarages, Nienke Maas, kichard
KleeIman, 1NO 8ouw CO8/8ZK, zooi. :
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 19 05-12-2005 16:41:51
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / zo
ln Ihe second halI oI Ihe zoIh cenIury Ihe
number oI people using public IransporI in
Ihe NeIherlands Iell Iar below Ihe numbers
Iravelling by car. 1he IoIal lengIh oI Ihe
|ourneys people make each day has increased
considerably. MoIorway IraIIic in Ihe
kandsIad has increased Io Iive, Ien and on
some roads even IwenIy Iimes Ihe volumes
IourIy years ago. On some sIreIches, Ihe
number oI vehicles already exceeds zoo,ooo
per day. AI Ihe same Iime, Ihe ciIies have
grown in size and are enveloping roads IhaI
originally lay beyond Ihe urban edge. 1hese
new urban areas suIIer Irom high levels oI
noise disIurbance, air polluIion and
congesIion. 1o sIimulaIe Ihe use oI
susIainable IransporI sysIems, DuIch
planning policies promoIe new developmenI
near sIaIions and IransporI hubs Io shorIen
disIances beIween public IransporI sIops
and places where people live and work.
ConcenIraIing homes, shops, educaIional
insIiIuIions and oIIices near Ihe sIaIions and
hubs served by bus rapid IransiI, lighI rail,
meIro and Irain services will make Ihese
services more compeIiIive. 1he high-qualiIy
public IransporI lines would Ihen have Ihe
poIenIial Io Iorm Ihe backbones oI dispersed
conurbaIions like Ihe urban area oI Zuid-
Rolland - Ihe 'SouIh Wing oI Ihe kandsIad'.
Such a susIainable approach Iowards
mobiliIy and urban planning involves simple,
sIraighIIorward principles and can be
designed wiIh ease: Ihere is always a railway
line IhaI can be exIended or a sIaIion IhaI
can be added Io open up new areas Ior
developmenI. AlIernaIively, exisIing urban
areas surrounding sIaIions and sIops can be
inIensiIied. 8uI in Ihe DuIch province oI
Zuid-Rolland Ihings are noI IhaI easy.
1he ciIies oI koIIerdam and 1he Rague are
gradually merging Io Iorm inIo one larger
regional urban neIwork. New Iowns like
Capelle aan den l!ssel, Spi|kenisse and
ZoeIermeer have grown as big as Ihe smaller
ciIies oI DelII, Gouda, vlaardingen and
Schiedam, and Ihe IuncIional relaIionships
beIween Ihe new Iowns, ciIies and urban
cenIres are becoming sIronger. All Ihis
IranslaIes inIo an increase in IraIIic and a
1he 5outh Wing network in zo¡o.
SWlNGneI
Several new public IransporI sysIems are being inIroduced in Ihe urban conurbaIion oI Zuid-Rolland:
1ramPlus, kandsIadkail, SIedenbaan and Ihe ki|n-Gouwe LighI kail line. 1hese oIIer Iremendous
opporIuniIies Ior susIainable urban developmenI based on closer Iies beIween IransporI and spaIial
developmenI. 8uI alIhough Ihe planning communiIy is buzzing wiIh Ialk oI 'urban neIworks',
liIIle IhoughI is given Io Ihe neIwork iIselI. lI is Iime Io puI IhaI righI.
lrank van der Roeven DelII UniversiIy oI 1echnology, laculIy oI ArchiIecIure
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 20 07-12-2005 15:10:48
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / z¡
growIh in Ihe number oI criss-cross
relaIionships. 1he neIwork serving privaIe
vehicles is relaIively well equipped Io deal
wiIh such sIrucIural changes, buI Ihe public
IransporI neIwork is sIill Iocused on Ihe
cenIres and cenIral sIaIions oI iIs Iwo largesI
ciIies: koIIerdam and 1he Rague.
tur rxìstìNc rustìc trnNsrort Nrtworx
ln Ihe ¡nnos Ihe regional public IransporI
neIwork in Ihe SouIh Wing oI Ihe kandsIad
consisIed oI Ihe MeIro/lighI rail, Ihe SprinIer
(rapid IransiI) and local Irain services
(commuIer rail). 1his neIwork is supporIed
by ciIy and rural bus services and a Iram
sysIem in Ihe koIIerdam/1he Rague urban
area.
Metrc/liqht rcil 1he koIIerdam MeIro/lighI
rail sysIem has Iwo, largely underground
Irunk lines: Ihe Lrasmus line and Ihe Caland
line. ln Ihe easIern parI oI Ihe ciIy Ihe Caland
line branches oII inIo Ihree separaIe lines,
Iwo oI which conIinue as lighI rail services.
5printer 1he SprinIer (rapid IransiI) service
runs on Ihree local lines in Ihe naIional rail
neIwork: Ihe RoIplein, Roekse and
ZoeIermeer lines, Ihe lasI specially builI Ior
connecIing ZoeIermeer new Iown wiIh iIs
moIher ciIy, 1he Rague.
lcrcl trcin servire 1he local Irain service
(commuIer rail) runs on Ihe 'Oude Li|n'
(Leiden-1he Rague-DelII-koIIerdam-
DordrechI), Ihe Iwo lines Irom Gouda
(Gouda-1he Rague and Gouda-koIIerdam)
and Ihe ki|n-Gouwe line (Gouda-Leiden).
1he commuIer rail services share Iheir
inIrasIrucIure wiIh inIerregional Irains,
inIerciIy Irains, high speed Irains and even
IreighI Irains.
tur rmrrcìNc rustìc trnNsrort Nrtworx
ln Ihe period Io zo¡o several imporIanI
addiIions and changes will be made wiIhin
Ihe overall neIwork: 1ramPlus, Ihe MeIro,
kandsIadkail koIIerdam, kandsIadkail
1he Rague, LighI kail and SIedenbaan.
1rcmPlus koIIerdam is making a real eIIorI Io
updaIe a limiIed number oI Iramlines wiIh
iIs 1ramPlus iniIiaIive. 1his will improve
connecIions wiIh Ihe souIhern parI oI
koIIerdam, 8arendrechI, Schiedam and Ihe
norIhern parI oI vlaardingen.
Metrc ln zoo¸ boIh oI Ihe koIIerdam MeIro
Irunk lines were connecIed and now share
a common rouIe in Ihe new Iown oI
Spi|kenisse.
kcnJstcJkcil 1he lcque ConsIrucIion oI Ihe
Iram Iunnel in Ihe cenIre oI 1he Rague was
compleIed in zooi. 1his Iunnel is an
indispensable link in 1he Rague's version oI
kandsIadkail, a hybrid Iram/Irain. ln zoo6
kandsIadkail will replace Ihe SprinIer using
Ihe ZoeIermeer line, providing direcI
connecIions beIween ZoeIermeer and Ihe
wesIern parI oI 1he Rague, including Ihe
ciIy cenIre. kandsIadkail uses Iormer parIs oI
Ihe naIional rail neIwork and parIs oI Ihe
exisIing Iram neIwork in 1he Rague.
kcnJstcJkcil kctterJcm 1wo years aIIer
kandsIadkail replaces Ihe SprinIer on Ihe
ZoeIermeer line, Ihe koIIerdam version oI
kandsIadkail will replace Ihe SprinIer on Ihe
RoIplein line, which will be connecIed
Ihrough a Iunnel Io Ihe koIIerdam MeIro aI
koIIerdam CenIral sIaIion. 1he koIIerdam
varianI oI kandsIadkail is noI a hybrid Iram/
Irain as in 1he Rague, buI is a meIro IhaI
runs on a Iormer railway line. 8ecause oI
Iheir diIIerenI backgrounds, Ihe versions oI
kandsIadkail in 1he Rague and koIIerdam
diIIer Iechnically: Ihe carriages in 1he Rague
have a low Iloor and Ihose in koIIerdam have
a high Iloor. 8eIween ZoeIermeer and 1he
Rague boIh sysIems will share Ihe same
inIrasIrucIure and sIop aI Ihe same sIaIions.
RalI oI Ihe plaIIorms aI Ihese sIaIions will be
low and halI will be high. 1he Iwo sysIems
will separaIe in 1he Rague and Ihe
koIIerdam version will end aI 1he Rague
CenIral SIaIion because iIs high Iloor makes
inIegraIion wiIh Ihe Iram sysIem in 1he
Rague impossible.
liqht kcil DuIch kailways and Ihe Province oI
Zuid-Rolland are experimenIing wiIh a lighI
rail vehicle on Ihe railway line beIween
Leiden and Gouda: Ihe ki|n-Gouwe line. 1he
idea is Io exIend Ihis line inIo Ihe ciIy cenIres
oI boIh Leiden and Gouda aI sIreeI level.
5teJenbccn ln Ihe meanIime, Ihe local and
regional auIhoriIies in Ihe Zuid-Rolland
urban region (Ihe 'SouIh Wing PlaIIorm')
are building up poliIical pressure Io replace
Ihe exisIing commuIer rail services wiIh a
sysIem called SIedenbaan, which Ihey
describe as being a meIro-like sysIem.
DuIch kailways speak abouI renewing Iheir
SprinIer Iormula. 1he (phased) inIroducIion
oI Ihe SIedenbaan will be possible when Ihe
doubling oI Ihe rail inIrasIrucIure Io Iour
Iracks, begun in Ihe laIe ¡n8os, is compleIe.
Doubling Ihe inIrasIrucIure will make iI
possible Io separaIe Ihe diIIerenI Irain
sysIems. AlIhough Ihis widening is only
parIly compleIed, addiIional capaciIy is
already available. ln zoo) Ihe new rouIes Ior
Ihe Righ Speed 1rain Io 8elgium (RSL Zuid)
and Ihe dedicaIed rail IreighI line Io
Germany (8eIuwerouIe) will come inIo
service and Ihese high speed Irains and
IreighI Irains will no longer use Ihe exisIing
inIrasIrucIure. lI should be noIed here IhaI
Ihe SIedenbaan concepI is noI limiIed Io
inIroducing a new sysIem; iIs main purpose
is Io acI as a caIalysI Ior building new homes,
schools and oIIices around Ihe sIaIions on
Ihe neIwork.
rrorrìNìNc tur soutu wìNc
rustìc trnNsrort Nrtworx
ln Ihe beginning oI Ihe ¡nnos Ihe IransiI
neIwork in Ihe SouIh Wing consisIed oI Ihree
sysIems: Ihe MeIro, SprinIer and Ihe local
Irain services. ln zoo8 iI will consisI oI six
sysIems: 1ramPlus, Ihe MeIro, kandsIadkail
(Iwo versions), Ihe ki|n-Gouwe LighI kail and
SIedenbaan. AI Ihe momenI no one seems Io
care abouI Ihe compleIe picIure; each
auIhoriIy is working on iIs own peI pro|ecI:
1he Rague ciIy region (Raaglanden) on
1he Rague version oI Ihe kandsIadkail,
AI Ihe momenI no one
seems Io care abouI Ihe
compleIe picIure
9
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 21 05-12-2005 16:42:08
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / zz
koIIerdam ciIy region on Ihe koIIerdam
version, Ihe Province oI Zuid-Rolland on
Ihe lighI rail beIween Leiden and Gouda, and
Ihe SouIh Wing PlaIIorm is puIIing all iIs
eIIorIs inIo Ihe SIedenbaan concepI. A
comprehensive vision on how Ihe diIIerenI
sysIems could be inIegraIed inIo a Ilexible
neIwork serving Ihe needs oI Ihe regional
populaIion is lacking. SIandardising Ihe
diIIerenI sysIems would be a logical sIep,
wiIh a view Io Ihe need Io privaIise Ihe
public IransporI companies and Ihe
obligaIory procuremenI oI Iheir services.
8uI is sIandardisaIion acIually possible?
WhaI are Ihe main similariIies and
diIIerences beIween Ihe six sysIems?
1rcmPlus/liqht kcil 1ramPlus represenIs
whaI Ihe 8riIish or Americans would call
LighI kail: Ihe modern ciIy Iram, a Iram wiIh
a higher Ihan average speed (zo-z< km/
hour), a greaIer reach (· ¡o km), high-qualiIy
sIops and a rail vehicle wiIh a low Iloor IhaI
maIches iIs raised plaIIorm. 1he longesI
disIance Ihe 1ramPlus Iravels Irom Ihe ciIy
cenIre is abouI ¡o kilomeIres (koIIerdam
CenIre Io vlaardingen Roly). AI z.i meIres
wide, Ihe Iram is relaIively narrow compared
wiIh a meIro or Irain carriage.
Metrc 1he meIro is a classic and well known
rail sysIem. lI is characIerised by a high-
capaciIy vehicle wiIh a high Iloor using
Iracks separaIe Irom oIher inIrasIrucIure,
elevaIed or underground. 1he koIIerdam
MeIro is a parIially hybrid sysIem running aI
sIreeI level in Ihe easIern parI oI Ihe ciIy, and
so parI oI iIs neIwork is in IacI similar Io
lighI rail. 1he lines serving parIially as lighI
rail cover a disIance up Io ¡o kilomeIres
(koIIerdam cenIre Io Ommoord/Zevenkamp).
1he lines serving Iully as a meIro cover a
disIance oI up Io ¡< kilomeIres (koIIerdam
CenIre Io Spi|kenisse).
kctterJcm kcnJstcJkcil 1he koIIerdam
kandsIadkail is very similar Io Ihe koIIerdam
MeIro. lI diIIers only in name and iIs use oI a
Iormer railway Irack and Ihe vehicles have
a high Iloor - and IhaI is Ihe mosI sIriking
diIIerence wiIh Ihe 1he Rague version oI
kandsIadkail. 1he Iechnically minded reader
will noIe Ihe larger sysIem reach oI up Io z<
kilomeIres (1he Rague CenIral Io koIIerdam
Zuidplein). kegioIram ln DuIch pracIice, Ihe
Ierm lighI rail is used Ior everyIhing IhaI is
noI heavy rail. lI reIers especially Io lighI rail
sysIems IhaI use Ihe naIional rail
inIrasIrucIure, like Ihose in Karlsruhe, Kassel
and Saarbrücken. 1he Germans call such
sysIems kegioIram. 1he version oI
kandsIadkail in 1he Rague comes close Io
Ihis concepI and covers a disIance oI ¡<
kilomeIres (1he Rague CenIre Io ZoeIermeer
OosIerheem), similar Io Ihe koIIerdam
MeIro. CurrenIly in Ihe SouIh Wing Ihe Ierm
lighI rail is only used Io describe Ihe ki|n-
Gouwe line. When Ihis line operaIes in Ihe
cenIre oI Leiden in zo¡o iI will become a Irue
kegio1ram, in Ihis case covering disIances up
Io z< kilomeIres (Leiden CenIraal Io Gouda).
5teJenbccn AlIhough Ihere is much hype
surrounding Ihe SIedenbaan, Ihere is no
clear picIure oI whaI sysIem or lines will be
involved. lI mighI be a new version oI Ihe
SprinIer Iormula. 1he main connecIions cover
disIances up Io ¸o kilomeIres (koIIerdam-
Leiden or 1he Rague-Gouda), which is only
marginally longer Ihan Ihe koIIerdam
kandsIadkail or Ihe ki|n-Gouwe line.
tur srNrrìt or uvsrìo svstrms
1he IacI IhaI all oI Ihese rail sysIems
cover more or less Ihe same disIances
suggesIs IhaI 1ramPlus, Ihe MeIro,
Light raiI in the £ngIish city of Nottingham: a modern tram. (source: 8ombardier) New vehicIe kotterdam kandstadkaiI. (source: AIstom)
New vehicIe 1he Hague kandstadkaiI. (source: AIstom)
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 22 05-12-2005 16:42:35
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / z¸
kandsIadkail (zx), lighI rail and SIedenbaan
are inIerchangeable. 1his mighI oIIer room
Ior improvemenI. 1he key Io such an
opIimisaIion may lie in Ihe hybrid naIure oI
kandsIadkail, which provides whaI Ihe urban
sIrucIure oI Ihe SouIh Wing oI Ihe kandsIad
needs. 1he SouIh Wing requires a IransporI
sysIem wiIh vehicles IhaI can IuncIion in Ihe
ciIy or conurbaIion like a meIro or lighI rail,
which do a beIIer |ob in connecIing housing
areas and ciIy cenIres. 8uI Ihe average speed
oI Irains makes Ihem a beIIer choice Ior
rouIes beIween Ihe conurbaIions and ciIies.
Combining Ihe besI oI boIh Ihese Iypes oI
service in one sysIem or one vehicle can be
made Io work.
1he pro|ecIions Ior kandsIadkail IorecasI a
signiIicanI increase in Ihe use oI Ihe
ZoeIermeer line and Ihe RoIplein line aIIer iI
replaces Ihe SprinIer. 1he number oI
passengers on Ihe ZoeIermeer line will
increase Irom ¡),ooo Io iz,ooo; on Ihe
RoIplein line an increase Irom )ooo Io
z8,ooo passengers is expecIed.
townros two ìNtrcrntro Nrtworxs
1he hybrid naIure oI kandsIadkail could
Iorm Ihe basis oI an opIimised neIwork Ior
Ihe SouIh Wing oI Ihe kandsIad. We will
reIer Io Ihis neIwork as SWlNGneI. WiIh Iwo
kandsIadkail versions Ihere are several
possible scenarios, explored in Ihis arIicle
Irom Ihe koIIerdam perspecIive. WiIh Iour
parallel sysIems (1ramPlus, MeIro,
kandsIadkail, SIedenbaan) iI musI be possible
Io devise a beIIer operaIional sysIem.
1o sIarI wiIh, we have Io abandon Ihe usual
Iocus on 'sysIems'. lnsIead we could examine
Ihe 'neIwork'; Ihe IacI IhaI Ihe koIIerdam
IransiI neIwork is used by Ihree diIIerenI
sysIems (Ihe MeIro, lighI rail and
kandsIadkail) is noI IhaI imporIanI. 1he
IransiI neIwork makes iI possible Io run an
inIegraIed service avoiding unnecessary
IransIers, and IhaI is whaI counIs Ior Ihe
user. 1he nexI quesIion is whaI
characIerisIics Ihis neIwork should have.
1ramPlus, Ihe MeIro, kandsIadkail and
SIedenbaan could in principle use Ihe same
neIwork. Rybrid vehicles like Ihe kegioIram
make Ihis possible.
8uI iI we Iry Io combine all Ihese lines we
run inIo a Iew pracIical problems. 1hings go
wrong when Ihe koIIerdam IransiI neIwork
has Io be connecIed aI Schiedam CenIral
SIaIion Io Ihe Spi|kenisse MeIro, Ihe Roly
and KeIhel 1ramPlus, and Io Ihe DelII/1he
Rague SIedenbaan. 1his Irunk line cannoI
cope wiIh Iour high-Irequency connecIions.
We have Io make choices.
1he SouIh Wing requires a IransporI
sysIem wiIh vehicles IhaI can
IuncIion like a meIro or lighIrail
New vehicIe 5printer. (source: 8ombardier)
9
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 23 05-12-2005 16:42:56
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / zi
keqic1rcm cnJ 5teJenbccn 8eIIer inIegraIion
wiIh kandsIadkail in 1he Rague would be
possible iI Ihe koIIerdam IransiI neIwork is
adapIed Io Ihe kegioIram concepI. lI could
Ihen absorb Ihe 1ramPlus lines wiIh
8everwaard, Carnisselande, Schiedam-Noord
and vlaardingen-Noord. 1he koIIerdam
IransiI and 1ramPlus neIworks could be
inIerconnecIed aI Schiedam CenIral SIaIion
and aI ParksIad sIaIion Io provide a beIIer
service Ior Ihe norIh-wesIern and souIh-
easIern parI oI Ihe koIIerdam conurbaIion;
Ihe presenI neIwork only serves Ihe norIh-
easI and souIh-wesI. 1ranslaIing such a
model Io Ihe scale oI Ihe SouIh Wing
would resulI in Ihree kegioIram neIworks:
koIIerdam, 1he Rague and Ihe ki|n-Gouwe
line. SIedenbaan could link Ihese neIworks
IogeIher. AlIhough Ihis is a logical model, iI
would require adapIing Ihe rail
inIrasIrucIure in koIIerdam Io low-Iloor
vehicles. PlaIIorms would have Io be lowered
or Ihe Iracks raised, and rolling sIock would
have Io be wriIIen oII premaIurely.
5teJenbccn cnJ liqht kcil lI Ihe koIIerdam
IransiI neIwork is inIegraIed wiIh
SIedenbaan iI could link desIinaIions up Io
z< Io ¸o kilomeIres aparI: 1he Rague, Gouda
and DordrechI. ln Ihis model, lighI rail
sysIems like 1ramPlus, 1he Rague
kandsIadkail and Ihe ki|n-Gouwe line could
cover disIances Irom ¡o Io ¡< kilomeIres. 1he
problem oI premaIure replacemenI oI rolling
sIock can be avoided as long as SIedenbaan
and kandsIadkail in 1he Rague are operaIed
separaIely, much like Ihe currenI plans.
keqictrcm cnJ liqht kcil SeparaIing Ihe
IransiI neIworks in 1he Rague and
koIIerdam, as in Ihe previous model, does
noI seem very logical aI IirsI sighI. 1hings
mighI work beIIer when kegioIrams arriving
Irom Ihe koIIerdam conurbaIion (RoIplein
line or Ihe 'Oude Li|n') can use Ihe ciIy Iunnel
in 1he Rague. 1his will be possible when Ihe
koIIerdam IransiI neIwork adapIs (in Iime)
Io low-Iloor vehicles and when Ihe
koIIerdam and 1he Rague neIwork link up
wiIh Ihe ki|n-Gouwe line using Ihe
SIedenbaan inIrasIrucIure. 1he resulIing
inIegraIed neIwork would serve Ihe whole
SouIh Wing. 1ramPlus (m ¡o km) could Ihen
become a role model Ior upgrading Ihe
koIIerdam and 1he Rague Iram sysIems.
townros oNr ìNtrcrnt swìNcNrt
kail Iechnology is so Iar advanced IhaI Ihe
disIincIion beIween a commuIer Irain, rapid
IransiI, meIro and lighI rail exisIs only in our
heads. ln a complex and dispersed urban area
like Ihe SouIh Wing oI Ihe kandsIad we
should IorgeI abouI Ihem. We need Io
reIocus our eIIorIs on Ihings like 'new sIops'
and 'adding houses and oIIices'. 1his is Ihe
link wiIh urban planning and urban design.
We can Ihen concenIraIe on Ihe spaIial
qualiIy oI Ihe sIaIion areas and Iheir day-Io-
day use by Ihe Iravelling public. Raving
concluded IhaI we need |usI one, possibly
Iwo sysIems Io build a coherenI SWlNGneI, iI
is high Iime we Iurned our aIIenIion Io Ihese
key planning issues.
Information sources
- AlsIom 1ransporI: www.IransporI.alsIom.com
- 8ombardier: www.bombardier.com
- kandsIadkail: www.randsIadrail.nl
- ki|n-Gouwe LighI kail: www.ri|ngouweli|n.nl
- SIedenbaan, 8esIuurli|k PlaIIorm Zuidvleugel,
1he Rague, zoo¸.
- SIedenbaan brengI sIaIionslocaIies IoI leven,
8esIuurli|k PlaIIorm Zuidvleugel, 1he Rague, zoo<.
- 1ramPlus: www.Iramplus.nl
- ZuidvleugelneI Zuid-Rolland:
www.humanhub.nl/zuidvleugelneI.hIml
NeIwork wiIh kegio1ram and SIedenbaan. NeIwork wiIh SIedenbaan and LighI kail. NeIwork wiIh kegio1ram and LighI kail.
We need Io reIocus our eIIorIs
on Ihings like 'new sIops' and
'adding houses and oIhces'
:
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 24 05-12-2005 16:43:24
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / z<
MosI people's idea oI a meIropolis is
dominaIed by skyscrapers - and IhaI scares
Ihem. 1his is hardly surprising, buI ill-
Iounded. Skyscrapers dominaIe cenIral
business disIricIs, buI Ihe resI oI a
meIropoliIan area consisIs mainly oI green
suburbs, business parks, universiIies,
seaporIs and airporIs, landscape parks and,
in Ihe polynuclear kandsIad, a dozen hisIoric
ciIy cenIres and an awIul loI oI waIer.
A meIropolis is |usI an urban region IhaI
provides Ihe widesI choice oI nearly
everyIhing: houses, |obs, schools, leisure
acIiviIies and, essenIially, IransporI.
A good public IransporI sysIem is a basic
requiremenI Ior a meIropolis, buI is sadly
lacking in Ihe kandsIad. OI course, Ihe car
will conIinue Io dominaIe Ihe modal spliI,
buI wiIh Ihe inIensiIicaIion oI developmenI
around sIaIion areas and improved
inIerconnecIiviIy Ihere is an opporIuniIy Io
develop a proper alIernaIive Io Ihe car in Ihe
¡o Io ¸o kilomeIre range: a rapid IransiI
neIwork.
stur-vrttow cntrrrìttnrs
1he DuIch Irains crawl like blue-yellow
caIerpillars Ihrough virginal green meadows,
Ierrying commuIers; day in, day ouI. 1he public
IransporI sysIem in Ihe kandsIad already
works like a meIropoliIan IransiI sysIem.
8uI iI perIorms even worse Ihan Ihe ouIdaIed
IransiI sysIem in London because iI was noI
designed Ior Ihe purpose. NaIional railway
sysIems are builI Io uniIe a counIry, boIh
economically and socially: Io make iI possible
Io do business in anoIher region, or Io visiI
your aunI aI ChrisImas (and sIay Ior a week).
1hey are noI meanI Ior inIensive use by
hundreds oI Ihousands oI people each day. 8uI
Ihis is exacIly whaI we have been doing Ior
decades in Ihe kandsIad. lor shorI disIances
Ihe Irains are Ioo heavy Io acceleraIe rapidly,
so Ihey do noI sIop very oIIen. 1he Irequency
oI services is Ioo low and Ihe seaIs Iake up Ioo
much space, leaving no room Ior sIanding
passengers. We urgenIly need Io redehne Ihe
hierarchy in our IransporI sysIem: besides Ihe
naIional sysIem served by lnIerCiIy Irains we
need a meIropoliIan IransiI sysIem daily
commuIing in Ihe ¡o Io ¸o kilomeIre range.
rrrNcu trssoNs
Row is Ihis done elsewhere? Many
meIropoliIan areas have dealI wiIh Ihis issue
beIore. A classic example is Paris. lorIy years
Daan ZandbelI, ZandbelI&vanden8erg, koIIerdam/DelII UniversiIy oI 1echnology, laculIy oI ArchiIecIure
lllusIraIions: ZandbelI&vanden8erg (unless indicaIed oIherwise)
ln a globalising world, meIropoliIan developmenI
is noI an opIional exIra, buI a necessiIy.
MeIropoliIan areas are Ihe engines and porIals oI
Ihe LU, simply because Ihey conIain Ihe largesI
pool oI labour - and IalenI. 1he kandsIad is one oI
Ihese Luropean engines, buI iI has noI made
eIIecIive use oI iIs meIropoliIan qualiIies. 1he
SIedenbaan pro|ecI resenIs an opporIuniIy Io
close Ihe gaps in Ihe spaIial sIrucIure and creaIe
a Iruly meIropoliIan condiIion.
Lmerging neIwork Ior
Ihe kandsIad meIropolis
keinvenIion oI Ihe DuIch rail sysIem.
9
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 25 08-12-2005 07:56:25
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / z6
aIIer London iI inIroduced Ihe rhemin Je [er
metrcpclitcin, Ihe currenI meIro. 1his sysIem
runs underground mosI oI Ihe way and has a
maximum reach oI approximaIely ¡o
kilomeIres. AIIer World War ll Paris suIIered
Irom severe congesIion and iIs ouIer disIricIs
had become slums. 1o overcome Ihese
problems a Iully-Iledged masIerplan Ior
expansion was carried ouI as conceived. live
new Iowns were builI and served by a new
Iorm oI public IransporI, Ihe kLk, a rapid
IransiI sysIem builI beIween ¡n6< and Ihe
¡nnos. 1en lines Ian ouI Irom Ihe ciIy Ior
some ¸< kilomeIres in all direcIions, wiIh a
IoIal |ourney Iime oI under an hour.
1wo lessons can be learned Irom Ihe Parisian
experience. One is IhaI Paris remains more or
less a monocenIric meIropolis. Like mosI
lrench IransporI inIrasIrucIure, all Ihe kLk
lines run Io Ihe hearI oI Paris. 1hey are all
inIensively used, Io such an exIenI IhaI Io
prevenI a IoIal gridlock in Ihe rentre ville, a
circle line (l'crbitcle) has been inIroduced.
1his is a big diIIerence Irom Ihe NeIherlands
where |ourney paIIerns are much more 'criss-
cross'. 1he kandsIad is clearly polynuclear.
1he second lesson is IhaI enormous energy
and deIerminaIion are needed Io sIick Io Ihe
plan and carry iI ouI as conceived. 1his may
seem obvious, buI Ihe experiences wiIh Ihe
8eIuwe cargo line and Ihe Righ Speed Line
(RSL) clearly show IhaI Ihe DuIch poliIical
sysIem makes iI impossible Io carry ouI such
plans as originally inIended. A mulIiIude oI
sIakeholders and oIher parIies have Ihe rand
power Io inIluence Ihe planning process
and endlessly Iorce Ihrough amendmenIs,
hampering implemenIaIion.
outcu oìsrnsr
1his is a general obsIacle in DuIch
planning, which has Iwo causes, iI seems.
Local auIhoriIies are more powerIul Ihan
regional auIhoriIies and so local inIeresIs
always prevail over regional ones. 1he second
reason is a simple lack oI vision and resolve.
1here are many parIies involved, buI no-one
owns Ihe problem. lI someIhing goes wrong,
no-one can be held accounIable. NeiIher
does any parIy Ieel responsible Ior Ihe
bigger, long-Ierm picIure. 1his DuIch disease
has already IrusIraIed urban and suburban
developmenI in Ihe 'SouIh Wing', one oI Ihe
mosI densely builIup areas in Ihe kandsIad
IhaI includes 1he Rague and koIIerdam. An
enormous urban Iield is under consIrucIion
righI now in Ihe area beIween Ihese Iwo
cenIres. 1he 'vlNLX' suburbs
¡
in Ihis area
make up Ihe largesI componenI oI Ihis new
developmenI, nexI Io business parks,
regional parks and greenhouse complexes.
1ogeIher Ihey amounI Io a ciIy oI ¡oo,ooo
residenIs, equivalenI Io Ihe size oI DelII - buI
wiIhouI Ihe |obs and Ihe ciIy cenIre IhaI
normally go wiIh iI. 1hey are supposed Io
have a bilaIeral relaIion wiIh Iheir moIher
ciIy: live in Ihe suburb; use Ihe moIher ciIy
Ior work and IaciliIies. ln realiIy, Ihe vlNLX
residenIs use Iheir new homes as a sIraIegic
locaIion in Ihe web oI Ihe kandsIad's
(moIorway) neIwork. 1heir daily urban
sysIem covers a IerriIory IhaI exIends on
average abouI zo kilomeIres Irom Iheir
house in several direcIions, whereas Ihe
moIher ciIies oI Ihe vlNLX disIricIs are only
Iive Io Ien kilomeIres away.
An aIIempI was made Io Ihink oI Ihese
housing schemes as a compleIe developmenI
package, buI iI Iailed. Now every ciIy has iIs
own suburb, wiIh noIhing in common excepI
IhaI Ihey look Ihe same. 1he legacy oI Ihe
aIIempI aI some Iorm oI coherenI
developmenI programme is Ihe kandsIadrail
and Ihe Ni)o, a regional road. 1hese Iwo
sIepchildren are worIhy in Ihemselves, buI
by no means do Ihey Iorm a Irue neIwork.
1hey mainly connecI Ihe suburbs Io Iheir
moIher ciIies.
1he planning oI new rail inIrasIrucIure Iook
a slighIly diIIerenI course. 1here was noI
even an aIIempI Io creaIe a coherenI
neIwork; Ihe consIrucIion oI a single line is
considered diIIiculI enough. 1he kandsIad is
now blessed wiIh a whole series oI separaIe
plans Ior rapid IransiI lines. ln Ihe SouIh
MasIer neI vs. emerging neIwork. Paris kandsIad
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 26 05-12-2005 16:43:58
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / z)
Wing alone Ihere are aI leasI Iive. Rowever,
Ihis accumulaIion oI separaIe developmenI
may also have iIs advanIages, alIhough iI is a
piIy IhaI any beneIiIs will be down Io sheer
luck raIher Ihan IoresighI.
rmrrcìNc Nrtworx
ln Ihe spring oI zoo) Ihe RSL beIween
AmsIerdam and koIIerdam will come inIo
operaIion. 1he new RSL line will Iree up
capaciIy on Ihe 'old' line beIween Leiden,
1he Rague, koIIerdam and DordrechI. 1he
SIedenbaan pro|ecI will make use oI Ihis
capaciIy by inIroducing a commuIer Irain
service wiIh 'meIro qualiIy' on Ihis line and
on Ihe koIIerdam-Gouda and 1he Rague-
Gouda lines by replacing, exIending and
upgrading Ihe currenI local sIopping Irain
service. 8uI Ihere is more Io come.
1he SIedenbaan pro|ecI oIIers Ihe
opporIuniIy Io link IogeIher several concepIs
inIo a single rapid IransiI neIwork, greaIly
increasing Ihe number oI desIinaIions in Ihe
¡o Io ¸o kilomeIre range IhaI can be reached
comIorIably. 1he shrewd aspecI oI Ihis
emerging neIwork is iIs boIIom-up sIraIegy.
ln Ihe complicaIed DuIch poliIical conIexI, iI
is easier Io creaIe a IransporI neIwork in
incremenIal sIages Ihan by imposing a Iop-
heavy masIerplan. SIedenbaan will connecI
no less Ihan Iive diIIerenI IransiI lines.
kandsIadrail, Ihe mosI prominenI, is a kLk-
like rail connecIion beIween koIIerdam and
1he Rague IhaI links Iheir vinex suburbs and
includes Ihe ZoeIermeer SIadsli|n (ciIy line).
1here are plans in an advanced sIage oI
developmenI Ior Ihe ki|nGouwe line
beIween Gouda, Alphen aan den ki|n and
Leiden, Io be exIended laIer Io Ihe coasI.
LasI AugusI Ihe exIension oI Ihe koIIerdam
meIro sysIem Io Nesselande was opened,
and a Iorward connecIion Io Ihe
Zuidplaspolder is a possibiliIy. 1he Roekse
line will be upgraded and run Irom Schiedam
Io Ihe coasI. 1hese developmenIs will allow
people Io Iravel more easily Irom one place
Io anoIher and expand Ihe sphere oI Iheir
daily acIiviIies. lor example, someone living
in a Schiedam suburb will be able Io go Io
Ihe cinema on a weekday nighI noI |usI in
koIIerdam, buI also in 1he Rague or
ZoeIermeer, or Ior a sIudenI living wiIh his
parenIs in Alphen Io sIudy in Leiden, 1he
Rague or Gouda.
As well as oIIering residenIs in Ihe region a
wider choice, Ihe greaIer connecIiviIy oI Ihe
new neIwork will expand Ihe caIchmenIs oI
a whole range oI IaciliIies and ameniIies
(e.g. swimming pools), making iI easier Io
generaIe suIIicienI income Ior Iheir
operaIion and mainIenance. SIedenbaan
Iaps inIo unsaIisIied demand. OI course, as
long as Ihe IoIal populaIion does noI grow,
IoIal demand will noI increase dramaIically,
buI iI will rise gradually as our needs and
wishes conIinue Io grow. On Ihe oIher hand,
Ihe average household size is decreasing,
which means more homes will have Io be
builI Io house Ihe same number oI people.
Our recreaIional needs will grow, Ioo, boIh
Ior builI IaciliIies, such as reIail and sporIs
IaciliIies, and Ior ouIdoor recreaIion - more
beaches, urban parks and waIer-based
recreaIional IaciliIies aI Ihe lakes in Ihe
Green RearI, like Ihe Kager Plassen. Possibly
Ihe mosI exciIing opporIuniIy is IhaI
connecIing several IransiI lines will generaIe
a larger criIical mass Io supporI programmes
now considered wholly ouI oI reach.
urcrnor
lnIeresIingly enough, mosI oI Ihese lines -
Ihe ki|nGouwe line, kandsIadrail, SIedenbaan
and Roekse line - run mosIly on exisIing Iracks.
1he really new elemenI will be upgrading boIh
Iheir hardware and soIIware. lmprovemenIs in
Ihe soIIware will be IwoIold: more convenienI
and aIIracIive vehicles, and more IrequenI
services, which will be sIepped up Irom once
every ¸o minuIes Io six Irains per hour in each
direcIion in zo¡i.1he hardware upgrade will
involve building new sIaIions. OI Ihe i8
sIaIions on Ihe SIedenbaan, ¡6 are new, Ihree
oI which have already been planned: ¥penburg,
Schiedam Spaland and Sassenheim. On Ihe
sIrengIh oI Ihe neIwork's improved cenIraliIy
and accessibiliIy, new developmenI will be
lreedom oI choice
9
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 27 05-12-2005 16:44:09
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / z8
clusIered around Ihe sIaIions and provide parI
oI Ihe hnancing Ior Ihe consIrucIion oI Ihe
neIwork. ln Ihe meanIime, SIedenbaan will be
resIricIed Io Ihe souIhern parI oI Ihe kandsIad,
wiIh exIended branches Io Schiphol AirporI
and Raarlem. ln Ihe long run opporIuniIies
exisI Io connecI iI Io Ihe range oI regional
IransiI sysIems in Ihe norIh, including Ihe
ZuidIangenI, Ihe AmsIerdam meIro sysIem
and NorIh-SouIh line. We would Ihen have a
rapid IransiI neIwork covering Ihe whole
kandsIad.
cnr coNNrctìoN
1he rapid IransiI neIwork also provides an
opporIuniIy Io combine car and Irain. 1hese
high-qualiIy public IransporI sysIems always
emphasise access Io sIaIions by IooI, bicycle
and local public IransporI. Rowever, iI is noI a
sIrange idea Io consider cars as well. Good Park
& kide IaciliIies will enlarge Ihe caIchmenI
area oI Ihe sIaIions and allow people Io drive
Io Iheir local sIaIion and geI on Ihe Irain in Ihe
morning wiIhouI Ihe problem oI IraIhc |ams or
high parking charges. 1he sIaIions would only
have Io be well posiIioned in Ihe local road
inIrasIrucIure, because Ihe car serves as
Ieeder only.
Places IhaI are very well connecIed Io boIh Ihe
regional road and rail neIworks can rapidly
develop inIo an edge ciIy. Luropean edge ciIies
have a couple oI IeaIures IhaI seI Ihem aparI
Ihem Irom NorIh American ones. 1he Luropean
version is served by high qualiIy public
IransporI and parking is more eIhcienIly solved
by sIacking Ihe cars in buildings or on Iop oI
shops. 1he buildings do acIually have an
enIrance Ior pedesIrians, making Ihem more
aIIracIive places Io go Io, even wiIhouI a car.
koIIerdam Alexandrium is a good example.
Over Ihe pasI Iwo decades iI has accumulaIed
suIhcienI criIical mass, wiIh Ihe consIrucIion
oI a ring oI suburban areas, Io supporI Ihe
OosIerhoI local shopping cenIre. Once
accessibiliIy was improved wiIh a meIro sIop,
an inIerciIy sIaIion and a moIorway exiI, Ihe
shopping cenIre evolved inIo a mega 'home
Iurnishings' mall. (1rue regional shopping
malls are noI permiIIed in Ihe NeIherlands.)
Alexandrium is also an imporIanI oIhce park
and is Ihe home oI NkC newspaper and Coca-
Cola among oIhers. NoI every SIedenbaan
sIaIion will grow inIo such an edge ciIy, buI
some will.
New developmenIs around Ihe sIaIions,
accessible Io a large number oI people, will
give Ihe neIwork as a whole a meIropoliIan
dimension. SIedenbaan is a Iool Io diversiIy,
inIensiIy, specialise and reorganise Ihe seI oI
local condiIions. DiversihcaIion can be
achieved by adding new IuncIions Io
monoIuncIional areas; inIensihcaIion by Ihe
consIrucIion oI new buildings, Ihus avoiding
greenheld developmenI by making more
eIhcienI use oI exisIing urban areas. SIaIion
areas can become more specialised by
aIIracIing acIiviIies wiIhin a specihc held, such
as knowledge inIensive companies, and
making connecIions beIween sIaIions more
aIIracIive. keorganisaIion can be achieved
Ihrough regeneraIion; deprived
neighbourhoods will be reviIalised by Iheir
new cenIraliIy and accessibiliIy. SIedenbaan
can conIribuIe Io an urban renaissance.
1he 'rapid IransiI neIwork' as a whole noI only
oIIers an excellenI alIernaIive means oI
IransporI Io Ihe car, buI iI also inIerconnecIs
all Ihese diIIerenI developmenI programmes
and environmenIs Io Iorm a more coherenI
and richer whole.
ntrtìrr zuìovtrucrt
1he AIelier Zuidvleugel, seI up by Ihe
Province oI Zuid-Rolland Io explore opIions Ior
Ihe 'ciIy plan' Ior Ihe SouIh Wing, is analysing
Ihe spaIial developmenI opporIuniIies oI all
Ihe SIedenbaan sIaIion areas. 1he research
Ieam have already drawn up an invenIory oI
Ihe developmenI poIenIial in Ierms oI land
area, based on Ihe 'spheres oI inßuence' oI each
sIaIion dehned by a radius oI ¡zoo meIres.
1he i8 spheres oI inßuence invesIigaIed by
Ihe AIelier Zuidvleugel have an accumulaIed
IerriIory oI ¡8,ooo hecIares. OI Ihis enormous
land area only z8oo hecIares, a sixIh oI Ihe
IoIal, is available Io be IransIormed in Ihe
decade beIween zo¡o and zozo. AlmosI Iwo-
Ihirds oI Ihis developmenI poIenIial involves
Ihe regeneraIion oI exisIing, predominanIly
residenIial urban areas.
1hese maximum possible growIh models
have been |uxIaposed wiIh Ihe regional
developmenI ambiIions Ior Ihese siIes,
which are based on housing needs. 1he SouIh
Wing housing needs assessmenI esIimaIes
1hree case sIudies. (source: DelIaneI)
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 28 05-12-2005 16:44:21
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / zn
IhaI ¡)<,ooo new homes will be required
beIween zo¡o and zozo. OI Ihese, 6o,ooo are
needed Io replace exisIing inadequaIe
housing and Ihe remaining ¡¡<,ooo will be
addiIional sIock. Around io-<<,ooo oI Ihese
new homes are pro|ecIed around sIaIions,
wiIh Ihe SIedenbaan sIaIions accounIing Ior
z< - io,ooo.
1he ambiIions and space Ior inIensihcaIion
diIIer per region. 1he Raaglanden region
has a healIhy wish Io raise Ihe densiIy oI
developmenI. 1he koIIerdam region has a
greaIer poIenIial Ior growIh Ihan iIs currenI
programmes suggesI. 1he Midden Rolland
region (Gouda and surrounding area) seems Io
be overambiIious, wiIh a growIh pro|ecIion
Ihree Iimes larger Ihan iI can reasonably be
expecIed Io accommodaIe in Ihe space
available. Moreover, Ihe redevelopmenI
poIenIial is unequally divided beIween Ihe
various sIaIions, wiIh nineIy per cenI oI Ihe
growIh poIenIial concenIraIed in abouI a Ihird
oI Ihe sIaIion areas. 1he sIaIions in Ihe
Raaglanden region and Ihe area around Leiden
cenIral sIaIion, in parIicular, have plenIy oI
space.
AnoIher research Ieam, aI DelII UniversiIy oI
1echnology, has been esIablished Io deIermine
Ihe same poIenIial along Ihe oIher lines in Ihe
neIwork (i.e. noI Ihe SIedenbaan).
1hey have idenIihed Iour caIegories oI sIaIions
in Ihe neIwork:
¡ SIops IhaI simply en|oy being hooked up
Io Ihe neIwork, as an enIry poinI oI Ihe
neIwork. 1hey give Ihe neIwork suIhcienI
criIical mass and enrich iIs overall value
by adding addiIional desIinaIions. 1hese
sIaIions will be used more inIensively
and acIiviIies in Ihe surrounding area will
orienIaIe more Iowards Ihe sIaIion.
DevelopmenI poIenIial is modesI.
z OpporIuniIy areas wiIh plenIy oI space
Ior new developmenI, since Iheir once
peripheral locaIion has now become more
cenIral. Car accessibiliIy is good.
ConnecIion Io Ihe rapid IransiI neIwork
has considerably raised Iheir developmenI
poIenIial.
¸ 1ransporI hubs, where several lines and
modaliIies come IogeIher. Access by car
may be poor. 1ypical examples are Ihe
koIIerdam airporI: new cenIraliIies boosI new developmenIs.
A pro|ecI by WiIIeveen+8os and ZandbelI&vanden8erg.
ma|or sIaIions in Ihe kandsIad, such as
koIIerdam CenIral and Leiden.
i 'LmpIy' sIops, which do noI generally
supply a large number oI passengers buI
enrich Ihe overall neIwork value. 1hese
include sIaIions in regional parks, waIer-
based recreaIional areas and beach resorIs.
InrnNrsr stvtr
1he !apanese leiretsu (business alliance)
can serve as a role model Ior developing Ihe
sysIem using a boIIom-up sIraIegy. 1he
leiretsu is a seI oI aIhliaIed companies in
diverse helds, Irom a railway company Io a
consIrucIion hrm and reIail gianIs. 1he
developmenI would proceed as Iollows: privaIe
railway companies are developed in Iandem
wiIh new sIaIions, Ihe sIaIion areas are
iniIially developed as reIail hubs, and Ihen Ihe
wider area around Ihe sIaIions are prepared Ior
residenIial developmenI. ln essence, Ihe new
IerriIories are hrsI made more accessible,
giving Ihem a more cenIral posiIion Ihan
beIore. 1hen consumers and employees are
lured Io Ihese places Io shop and work. And
hnally, Ihe sIops become cenIres oIIering
aIIracIive and convenienI residenIial
accommodaIion. 1he leirestu is responsible Ior
Ihe iniIiaIive, real esIaIe developmenI,
consIrucIion and mainIenance. Since iI is also
Ihe owner oI deparImenI sIores and oIher
properIy aI Ihe sIaIions, iI has Io consIanIly
innovaIe Io keep consumers coming. lnsIead oI
'hiI and run developmenI', Ihere will be a
conIinuous cycle oI design, consIrucIion,
mainIenance and improvemenI.
A Iew lessons can be learned Irom Ihese
experimenIs:
- Acknowledge IhaI power Io conIrol
developmenI is limiIed.
- Share a clear ambiIion by seIIing up a long
Ierm vision (whaI kind oI ciIy do we wanI
Io live in?).
- Use Ihis vision Io build alliances.
- Deliver in small porIions, sIep by sIep,
leaving enough Ireedom Io oIher
sIakeholders, privaIe or public.
SIedenbaan iIselI oIIers an opporIuniIy Io
make a sIarI wiIh a coherenI spaIial neIwork
Ior Ihe kandsIad Ihrough a public rapid IransiI
sysIem. 1he meIropoliIan condiIion Ihis will
creaIe is good Ior people and business.
Note
¡ vlNLX is Ihe DuIch house-building programme Ior
one million new homes beIween ¡nn< and zo¡<, mosI
oI which are being builI in ma|or new urban
exIensions.
keferences
- Kiwa MaIsushiIa, 'DepaIo', in Rarvard Design School
Guide Io Shopping, zoo¡.
- AIelier Zuidvleugel, Pro|ecI SIedenbaan, ooz, zoo<
- lrank van der Roeven, 'ZuidvleugelneI', kooili|n no. ¸,
zoo<.
- ZandbelI&vanden8erg / vereniging DelIameIropool,
DelIaneI, zoo¸/oi.
- ZandbelI&vanden8erg / SIichIing vrienden van de
DelIameIropool, DelIawerk, zooi.
- ZandbelI&vanden8erg / Provincie Zuid-Rolland, Paris
l'hisIoire se répèIe, zooi. :
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 29 07-12-2005 15:16:18
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / ¸o
MobiliIy and environmenIal qualiIy are key
issues in urban planning. ln Ihe NeIherlands,
IraIIic congesIion is a daily occurrence
and Ihe problem is growing as populaIion
numbers and car ownership rise and Ihe
urban area expands. Per person we use more
IraIIic space and Iloor space Ihan ever.
1he mosI recenI wave oI large urban
exIensions (Ihe 'vlNLX' disIricIs) are a ma|or
conIribuIory IacIor because Ihey were builI
wiIhouI good qualiIy public IransporI links,
leaving Ihem eIIecIively isolaIed Irom oIher
areas oI Ihe ciIy and residenIs compleIely
dependenI on Iheir cars. AlIhough many oI
Ihese disIricIs are now served by Iram and
bus lines, and Iemporary Irain sIaIions have
been builI, Ihe relaIion beIween urban
IuncIion, densiIy and public IransporI
remains limiIed.
AlIhough Ihe moIorway neIwork is
conIinually being improved, congesIion is
worsening, noI only during Ihe rush hour buI
also during Ihe day, in Ihe evening and aI Ihe
weekend. A minor accidenI is enough Io
cause long Iailbacks, buI increasing Ihe
capaciIy oI exisIing moIorways and building
more roads is noI Ihe soluIion. SaIelliIe
images reveal Ihe shocking air qualiIy in Ihe
NeIherlands.
¡
AlIhough vehicle emissions oI
Iine parIiculaIes and NOx are only parIly Io
blame, Ihere is a real problem in Ihe mosI
densely populaIed areas in Ihe wesI oI Ihe
counIry.
z
1he problems oI IraIIic congesIion
and unaccepIably high levels oI air polluIion
are noI resIricIed Io moIorways and ring
roads, buI also aIIecI Ihe qualiIy oI liIe across
wider urban areas and in Ihe ciIy cenIres.
1raIIic congesIion in Ihe urbanised areas oI Ihe NeIherlands is reaching criIical levels. kail-based mass
IransiI sysIems have always been considered Ihe soluIion, buI Ihe cosIs are oIIen prohibiIive. Modern 8us
kapid 1ransiI sysIems are more aIIordable, Ilexible and clean, and can be readily inIegraIed inIo Ihe urban
Iabric oI exisIing and planned developmenIs. 1he Phileas in Lindhoven demonsIraIes Iheir poIenIial.
Stefan van der Spek, De|ft Unìversìty of 1echno|ogy, Iacu|ty of Archìtecture
!acques Sp|ìnt, Lìndhoven Cìty Councì|, Department of Urban Deve|opment and Management
Photo's: Stefan van der Spek
8us kapid 1ransiI
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 30 07-12-2005 15:18:07
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / ¸¡
ctrnN mnss trnNsìt: rnìt or ronor
1here are Iwo main Iypes oI mass IransiI:
road and rail sysIems. koad IransiI is
generally IhoughI oI in Ierms oI Ihe bus, a
slow, low-qualiIy, polluIing and inadequaIe
carrier. kail sysIems, such as Iram, lighI rail,
meIro or Irain are higher in Ihe hierarchy oI
public IransporI sysIems because oI Iheir
IasIer operaIing speeds and greaIer
capaciIies. 8us kapid 1ransiI (8k1) may change
Ihis. 1he lnIernaIional Lnergy Agency (lLA)
claims IhaI Ihe qualiIy oI bus sysIems can be
improved Io a level normally associaIed wiIh
rail sysIems
¸
and 8k1 is Iar less expensive and
more Ilexible Ihan lighI rail.
1he lLA IurIher sIaIes: 'Compared Io ciIies
dominaIed by small privaIe vehicles, Ihose
wiIh well designed bus sysIems have much
less IraIIic congesIion, lower polluIanI and
CO
z
emissions, and oIIer beIIer mobiliIy Ior
all social and economic classes. 8us sysIems
... are responsible Ior only a small parI oI
IraIIic congesIion, energy use and polluIion.'
And more imporIanIly: 'Lven "dirIy" buses
emiI Iar less polluIion and COz emissions per
passenger kilomeIre Ihan mosI oIher Iypes
oI vehicles.' OI course, Ihis Iigure depends
on Ihe level oI occupancy oI buses and Ihe
Iechnological level oI oIher Iypes oI vehicles,
buI we may conclude IhaI oIIering high
qualiIy public IransporI - eiIher 8k1 or LighI
kail 1ransiI (Lk1) - alleviaIes IraIIic
congesIion, parking pressures and air
polluIion in Ihe ciIy.
srt nN nttrnctìvr ortìoN
kail-based public IransporI has always
been seen as a soluIion in Ihe NeIherlands,
buI noI every ciIy or region can aIIord such
expensive IransporI sysIems. According Io
Ihe lLA, 8k1 inIrasIrucIure aI grade cosIs
beIween $¡ and $8 million/km, compared
wiIh $¡o Io $¸o million/km Ior Lk1 or meIro
sysIems. 1he cosIs double Ior elevaIed
inIrasIrucIure and are Iwice as high again Ior
underground sysIems. 1he lLA and WrighI
i

sIaIe IhaI Ihe capaciIy oI 8k1 is <o% higher
Ihan Lk1, alIhough Ihis Iigure may vary
according Io vehicle capaciIy, operaIing
speed and Ihe Irequency oI Ihe services.
DuIch experIs, on Ihe oIher hand, sIaIe IhaI
8k1 can never achieve a higher maximum
capaciIy because oI Iheir lower operaIing
speed and saIeIy regulaIions Ior non-guided
mass IransiI. A higher 8k1 neIwork densiIy
and beIIer inIegraIion inIo Ihe urban Iabric
would compensaIe Ior a lower capaciIy,
buI Ihis requires a diIIerenI neIwork
conIiguraIion.
1he mosI signiIicanI diIIerence beIween rail
and road IransiI is Ihe inIrasIrucIure. kailway
inIrasIrucIure is more dangerous Ior cyclisIs
and pedesIrians and less Ilexible in Ihe evenI
oI accidenIs. 1he overhead lines and IracIion
poles are inIrusive IeaIures in Ihe urban
environmenI and creaIe obsIrucIions. lI
should be noIed, Ihough, IhaI innovaIive
soluIions have been developed Io avoid Ihis
problem. lor example, Ihe new wireless lighI
rail in 8ordeaux, lnnorail, obIains iIs power
Irom a Ihird, cenIral rail, which is only
energised in secIions direcIly beneaIh Ihe
Iram. 8uI 8k1 can also Iree ciIy cenIres Irom
overhead lines.
8k1 and Lk1 compared
8us kapid LighI kail
1ransiI 1ransiI
CosI (million $/km) ¡ - 8 ¡o - ¸o
llexibiliIy + -
SpaIial implemenIaIion + -
ldenIiIy - +
1he IirsI wide scale and successIul
inIroducIion oI 8k1 was in ¡n)i in CuriIiba
(8razil, z.z million inhabiIanIs). 1oday, Ihis
WhaI is 8us
kapid 1ransiI?
8us kapid 1ransiI is high-qualiIy, cusIomer-
orienIaIed IransiI IhaI delivers IasI,
comIorIable and low-cosI urban mobiliIy.
8k1 sysIems have some or all oI Ihe Iollowing
elemenIs; many oI Ihese can also make a
valuable conIribuIion Io improving regular
bus services.
- DedicaIed bus corridors wiIh sIrong
physical separaIion Irom oIher IraIhc lanes.
- Modern bus sIops IhaI are more like bus
'sIaIions', wiIh pre-board IickeIing and
comIorIable waiIing IaciliIies.
- MulIi-door buses IhaI 'dock' wiIh Ihe
bus sIaIion Io allow rapid boarding and
alighIing.
- Large, high-capaciIy, comIorIable buses,
preIerably low-emission.
- DiIIerenIiaIed services such as local and
express buses.
- 8us prioriIisaIion aI inIersecIions, eiIher
as signal prioriIy or physical avoidance
(e.g. underpasses).
- CoordinaIion wiIh operaIors oI smaller
buses and paraIransiI vehicles Io creaIe
new Ieeder services Io Ihe bus sIaIion.
- lnIegraIed IickeIing IhaI allows Iree
IransIers, iI possible across IransiI
companies and modes (bus, Iram, meIro).
- Use oI GPS or oIher locaIor Iechnologies
wiIh a cenIral conIrol area IhaI manages
bus locaIion aI all Iimes and IaciliIaIes
rapid reacIion Io problems.
- keal-Iime inIormaIion displays on expecIed
bus arrival Iimes.
- Good sIaIion access Ior Iaxis, pedesIrians
and cyclisIs, and adequaIe sIorage IaciliIies
Ior bikes.
- New regimes Ior bus licensing, regulaIion
and compensaIion oI operaIors.
- Land-use reIorm Io encourage higher
densiIies close Io 8k1 sIaIions.
- Park and ride loIs Ior sIaIions ouIside Ihe
urban core.
- Well-designed handicap access, including
abiliIy Ior wheelchair passengers Io quickly
board buses.
- Lxcellence in cusIomer services IhaI
includes clean, comIorIable and saIe
IaciliIies, good inIormaIion and helpIul sIaII.
- A sophisIicaIed markeIing sIraIegy IhaI
encompasses branding, posiIioning and
adverIising.
Compared wiIh regular bus services, 8k1
oIIers higher speed, higher Irequencies,
beIIer inIormaIion and more comIorI. 8k1 is
a concepI which covers inIrasIrucIure,
vehicles, urban design and managemenI.
Source: WrighI, L., 8us kapid 1ransiI:
SusIainable 1ransporI: a Sourcebook Ior
Policy-makers in Developing CiIies, l1DP,
New ¥ork, USA, zooz
9
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 31 05-12-2005 16:44:52
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / ¸z
Iamous sysIem consisIs oI several backbone
corridors (over <o kilomeIres oI exclusive
busways) and around ¸io kilomeIres oI
Ieeder services. AlIhough a number oI ciIies
have since inIroduced 8k1, iI was noI unIil
Ihe laIe ¡nnos IhaI Ihe success oI CuriIiba
was IirsI replicaIed in 8ogoIa (Colombia,
) million inhabiIanIs) wiIh Ihe 1ransMilenio
sysIem. 1he largesI 8k1 sysIem in Ihe world,
wiIh z<o kilomeIres oI exclusive busways,
can be Iound in Sao Paolo. 8esides Ihese
LaIin American ciIies Ihere are also good
examples oI 8k1 in more developed naIions:
8risbane (AusIralia), OIIowa (Canada) and
kouen (lrance).
i
srt ìN tur NrturrtnNos
8k1 has been inIroduced aI Ihree places in
Ihe NeIherlands: UIrechI (ROv), AmsIerdam-
Schiphol-Raarlem (ZuidIangenI) and
Lindhoven (Phileas). 1he ROv (liIerally 'Righ
QualiIy 1ransiI') is based mainly on a sIill
expanding neIwork oI dedicaIed busways.
1he ZuidIangenI consisIs oI a single main
line designed as a Lk1 buI operaIed as a 8k1.
1he Phileas in Lindhoven is so Iar Ihe only
specially designed overall concepI oI vehicle
Iype, inIrasIrucIure and urban
IransIormaIion in Ihe NeIherlands.
lollowing Ihe publicaIion in Ihe early ¡nnos
oI various governmenI policy documenIs,
such as Ihe NaIional 1ransporI SIrucIure
Plan, local auIhoriIies and regional IransporI
auIhoriIies in Ihe NeIherlands soughI Io
develop IransporI sysIems IhaI oIIered an
alIernaIive Io Ihe privaIe car. 1he ciIy oI
Lindhoven drew up a seI oI requiremenIs Ior
a high-qualiIy public IransporI sysIem and
examined a number oI possible vehicle
sysIems IhaI would meeI Ihese
requiremenIs. Given Ihe size oI Ihe ciIy, a
meIro sysIem was Iinancially ouI oI Ihe
quesIion and even a Iram was Ioo expensive.
8uses were considered Io have a poor image
and provide insuIIicienI qualiIy. 1he ciIy,
IhereIore, looked Ior an alIernaIive IhaI
would combine Ihe advanIages oI Irams
(image, capaciIy) and buses (Ilexible, cheap).
1hey IirsI examined Ihe Guided LighI 1ransiI
sysIem (GL1) manuIacIured by 8N/
8ombardier, a mechanically guided bus
comparable Io lnnorail, unIil a regional
consorIium led by Ihe Noord-8rabanI
DevelopmenI Agency (8OM) and Nedcar
came up wiIh a new proposal: Ihe Phileas.
1he special IeaIure oI Ihis vehicle is IhaI iI
has an elecIrical guidance sysIem raIher
Ihan a mechanical one. AIIer a IeasibiliIy
sIudy conIirmed Ihe viabiliIy oI Ihe sysIem,
Ihe regional and local auIhoriIies and Ihe
business communiIy lobbied Ihe
governmenI Io supporI Ihe inIroducIion oI
Ihe sysIem, holding discussions wiIh oIIicials
aI Ihe IransporI, planning and economic
aIIairs minisIries. kepresenIaIions were
made Io Ihe MinisIry oI Lconomic AIIairs
because aI Ihe Iime Lindhoven was going
Ihrough an economically diIIiculI period
(mass redundancies aI DAl and Philips) and
was keen Io obIain an exIra sIimulus Ior
regional indusIry.
A Iinancial package Ior Ihe pro|ecI was
Iinally agreed in ¡n88, wiIh a governmenI
subsidy covering io% oI Ihe cosIs. 1he
remainder was paid Ior by Lindhoven and
veldhoven municipal councils and Ihe
business communiIy. Luropean Iunding was
also obIained Ior Ihe developmenI oI Ihe
vehicle. 1he pro|ecI was managed by Ihe SkL
(Lindhoven kegional ParInership). Raving
Iaken Ihe original iniIiaIive, Lindhoven
subsequenIly Iocused iIs eIIorIs on building
Ihe required inIrasIrucIure.
rìNouovrN wrst corrìoor:
trnNsrort sncxsoNr
Phileas runs Irom Ihe cenIre oI Lindhoven
Io Meerhoven, Lindhoven AirporI and
veldhoven Iown cenIre, largely wiIhin Ihe
Lindhoven WesI Corridor. 1his corridor was a
Key Pro|ecI in Ihe lourIh NaIional Policy
DocumenI on SpaIial Planning and is a high
proIile example oI good coordinaIion
beIween mobiliIy planning, urban planning
and economic developmenI. Much new
developmenI has been concenIraIed wiIhin
Ihis corridor and more is planned, such as Ihe
redevelopmenI oI old Philips siIes as new
urban areas. 1he Meerhoven urban exIension
will provide in 6<oo new houses and zoo
hecIares oI employmenI land Ior business
developmenI. kighI Irom Ihe sIarI Ihe
Phileas line has been a sIrucIuring elemenI
in Ihis exIension, creaIing Ihe opporIuniIy
Io plan Ihe new housing around Ihe public
IransporI sIops, unlike many oIher ma|or
urban exIensions. 1he pro|ecI sIarIed in zoo¸
as Ihe backbone oI an exIremely modern,
eIIicienI and cusIomer-Iriendly regional
public IransporI neIwork in a region well
known Ior high-Iechnology indusIries,
innovaIion and creaIiviIy.
Lindhoven AirporI is locaIed aI Ihe end oI Ihe
WesI Corridor. 1his regional airporI is rapidly
expanding and passenger numbers are seI Io
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 32 05-12-2005 16:45:01
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / ¸¸
reach z.z million in a Iew years Iime; many
oI Ihem are expecIed Io use Ihe Phileas Io
Iravel Io or Irom Ihe airporI. 1he nexI
corridor Io be developed mighI be a norIh-
souIh corridor Io AalsI/valkenswaard,
passing Ihe Righ 1ech Campus.
An agreemenI has been reached wiIh Ihe
governmenI on supporIing policy measures
Io increase Ihe number oI passengers using
Phileas. Parking prices will be allowed Io rise
and paid parking will be inIroduced in more
areas oI Ihe ciIy. Public IransporI has been on
oIIer in Meerhoven since Ihe IirsI residenIs
moved in, and Ior a Iime public IransporI Ior
Ihese residenIs was Iree. A mobiliIy shop in
Meerhoven and Ihe inIroducIion oI a
Pioneers IickeI providing a discounI on Iravel
by public IransporI in Meerhoven have raised
public supporI Ior Ihe pro|ecI. ln Ihe years Io
come Phileas will demonsIraIe how a new
and innovaIive Iorm oI public IransporI can
be made Io work in Ihe Lindhoven region.
ruìtrns novnNcro rustìc trnNsrort
Advanced Public 1ransporI (AP1) has a
number oI characIerisIics - iI is IasI, Ilexible,
comIorIable, reliable, aIIracIive, puncIual,
saIe and environmenIally Iriendly - and
Phileas combines Ihem all. 1he concepI Ior
Phileas is enIirely new and combines Ihe
IlexibiliIy oI IransporI by bus wiIh Ihe
reliabiliIy oI IransporI by rail or
underground. 1his is oI parIicular inIeresI
Ior medium-sized Io large ciIies, where
IransporI by bus is Ioo small-scale and
IransporI by rail is noI economically viable.
1he concepI was developed by a consorIium
oI companies Irom Ihe region under Ihe
leadership oI AP1S/8erkhoI. 1he IirsI
proIoIype was IesIed in zooz and scheduled
services beIween Lindhoven and veldhoven
began in laIe zooi. Phileas is produced by
AP1S (Advanced Public 1ransporI SysIems) in
Relmond, a subsidiary oI vDL.
0eJircteJ in[rcstrurture
1o ensure opIimum perIormance and
beneIiIs, Phileas runs on a dedicaIed rouIe
IhroughouI virIually iIs enIire lengIh,
unhindered by oIher IraIIic. 1he Phileas bus
lane is made oI z< cm Ihick non-reinIorced
concreIe and is 6.6 meIres wide (Ior Iwo
direcIions). ConcreIe was chosen as Ihe
building maIerial because iI is rigid (non-
deIormable) - under consIanI use asphalI is
sub|ecI Io wheel Irack ruIIing - and because
Ihe diIIerence in colour (grey insIead oI
black) and sIrucIure makes iI more readily
idenIiIiable. Moreover, concreIe has a longer
liIe Ihan asphalI and is Ihus cheaper. AI Iive
places Ihe Phileas line crosses oIher roads aI
grade-separaIed |uncIions and so loses no
Iime. AI Ihe oIher crossings Ihe Phileas has
righI oI way or Ihe sequence oI IraIIic lighIs
gives iI prioriIy, reducing |ourney Iimes and
ensuring a reliable service.
1he busway is well inIegraIed inIo Ihe
surrounding area and parIicular aIIenIion
has been paid Io Ihe green landscaping on
eiIher side. Local supporI and agreemenI Ior
Ihe required changes Io Ihe road inIrasIrucIure
in exisIing residenIial areas was obIained
Ihrough acIive local parIicipaIion in Ihe
planning and design work.
Ccm[crt
1wo versions oI Ihe Phileas are in service:
a double arIiculaIed, ¡8 meIre long version
wiIh a maximum capaciIy oI ¡zo passengers
and a Iriple arIiculaIed version, zi meIres
long, wiIh a maximum capaciIy oI ¡8o
passengers. lIs special wheel suspension,
enIirely IlaI low Iloor, wide doors and well-
spaced seaIing make Ihe Phileas exIremely
comIorIable and easily accessible. 1he
plaIIorms have been consIrucIed on a higher
grade, ¸o cm above ground level and Ihe
same heighI as Ihe Iloor oI Ihe Phileas
vehicles, ensuring easy boarding and
alighIing wiIhouI having Io sIep up or down.
1he gap beIween Ihe side oI Ihe vehicle and
Ihe edge oI Ihe plaIIorm is |usI < cm,
presenIing no insurmounIable barrier Ior
wheelchair access, prams and pushchairs. All
Ihe sIops, which have a modern design, are
IiIIed wiIh a bus shelIer and wooden bench,
a line map and deparIure Iimes, and a pillar
wiIh a dynamic passenger inIormaIion
display indicaIing Ihe waiIing Iimes Ior Ihe
various services. 1he elecIronic passenger
inIormaIion sysIem enables inIormaIion Io
be obIained on IimeIables, deparIure Iimes
and any delays via Ihe inIerneI aI home,
in shops and IheaIres. ln Phileas iIselI,
inIormaIion is given on Ihe rouIe, Ihe
Iollowing sIop and Ihe arrival Iime aI Ihe
Ierminus.
llertrcnir quiJcnre
Phileas is equipped wiIh an elecIronic
guidance sysIem and Iollows a
predeIermined rouIe via magneIic markers
embedded in Ihe road surIace every Iour
meIres. 1his inIrasIrucIure is IhereIore much
cheaper Ihan rail and easy Io mainIain. 1he
dedicaIed rouIes and guidance sysIem
greaIly reduces sIrain on Ihe drivers and
ensures a high level oI saIeIy, parIicularly in
busy ciIy cenIres, while allowing Ihe drivers
Io respond Io any unIoreseen siIuaIion as iI
occurs.
Phileas
combines Ihe
ßexibiliIy oI
IransporI by
bus wiIh Ihe
reliabiliIy
oI IransporI
by rail or
underground
9
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 33 05-12-2005 16:45:11
Nova1erra ConnecIed CiIies / december zoo< / ¸i
lcst cnJ relicble
1he use oI dedicaIed lanes, grade-separaIed
|uncIions and prioriIy aI grade |uncIions
allows Phileas Io Iravel aI higher speeds,
reducing |ourney Iimes. 1he elecIronic
guidance sysIem enables Phileas Io pull up
and sIop accuraIely aI Ihe plaIIorms. Along
wiIh Ihe large sliding doors and elecIronic
paymenI sysIem, Ihis keeps sIopping Iimes
down Io Ihe minimum. !ourney Iimes are
IhereIore considerably shorIer Ihan wiIh
regular bus IransporI. 1he |ourney Iime Irom
Ihe cenIre oI Lindhoven Io Lindhoven AirporI
and Ihe veldhoven Iown cenIre is less Ihan
zo minuIes.
ln addiIion Io speed and comIorI, reliabiliIy
is anoIher imporIanI characIerisIic oI good
public IransporI. 1he elecIronic guidance
sysIem allows Ihe conIrol room Io accuraIely
Iollow Ihe progress oI each vehicle and
ad|usI Iheir speed Io IiI Ihe IimeIable
accuraIely. 1his means IhaI Phileas services
are puncIual and very IrequenI: Phileas
operaIes in boIh direcIions every Iive
minuIes on boIh lines.
tow-rmìssìoN uvsrìo orìvr
Phileas has a hybrid drive in which all
Ihe wheels, aparI Irom Ihe IronI wheels,
are driven by elecIric moIors. 1he elecIrical
energy is generaIed by an economical and
environmenIally Iriendly LPG moIor IhaI
powers a generaIor wiIh conIinuous
roIaIional speed. A seI oI baIIeries provides
a secondary power supply. 1he engine
produces more power Ihan necessary, and
Ihe excess energy and Ihe energy released
during braking is Ied inIo Io Ihe baIIeries.
Phileas is able Io run purely on elecIric power
supplied by Ihese baIIeries, and Ihus
emissions Iree, Ior Ihree kilomeIres, making
iI ideal Ior use in Ihe ciIy cenIre. 8ecause oI
Ihe hybrid drive and iIs lighIweighI
consIrucIion, Phileas consumes less energy
Ihan convenIional vehicles and z< per cenI
less energy Ihan a convenIional LPG moIor. ln
addiIion, Ihe maIerials used in Phileas are
recyclable and environmenIally Iriendly.
n ruturr ror srt
1ackling Ihe problem oI IraIIic
congesIions and air polluIion is noI only a
maIIer oI designing a IransporI sysIem or
inIroducing environmenIally-Iriendly
Iechnology; iI is also a maIIer oI spaIial
planning and urban design. AI Ihe grass
rooIs level, people should be encouraged Io
use oIher modes oI IransporI, such as
walking, cycling and public mass IransiI.
8uilding aI higher densiIies around public
IransporI nodes and locaIing schools,
supermarkeIs and oIher public IaciliIies and
ameniIies wiIhin walking disIance should
make Ihe use oI susIainable IransporI modes
a more obvious choice. All Ihree approaches
musI be used IogeIher Io creaIe susIainable
and liveable ciIies.
1he choice beIween Lk1 and 8k1 is noI |usI a
maIIer oI money and capaciIy. lI also
depends on Ihe exisIing and IuIure urban
siIuaIion, exisIing IransporI modes and
neIworks, and poliIical preIerences. ln mosI
German examples, 8k1 is noI an issue: Lk1
connecIs wiIh heavy rail and shares Ihe same
inIrasIrucIure.
NeverIheless, as a concepI 8k1 seems Io have
a IuIure. CuriIiba, 8ogoIa, Sao Paolo and
many oIher SouIh American ciIies illusIraIe
IhaI 8k1 is a cosI-eIIecIive, eIIicienI and
more environmenIally beneIicial alIernaIive
Io Lk1. 1he inIroducIion oI Phileas in
Lindhoven is Ihe IirsI sIep Iowards
inIegraIed IransporI and developmenI in Ihe
NeIherlands. lurIher sIeps are necessary Io
expand Ihe neIwork inIo a Iully operaIional
backbone and Ieeder sIrucIure.
AlIhough 8k1 will conIribuIe Io upgrading
bus services, in Lurope iI will probably never
overIake Lk1 in Ihe IransporI hierarchy. 8k1
is a good principle Ior upgrading Ieeder
services Ior lighI and heavy rail, buI iIs
IlexibiliIy also makes iI less permanenI: iI
you Iake away Ihe vehicles, all IhaI remains
is a simple piece oI inIrasIrucIure.
Notes
¡ See Ihe Iropospheric NOz measuremenIs on Ihe
KNMl websiIe: hIIp://www.knmi.nl/omi.
z RouI, D. van den, Problems wiIh Air QualiIy, 1NO,
Kennisdag Duurzaam Mobiel, 1U DelII, zn November
zoo<.
¸ lLA, 8us SysIems Ior Ihe luIure: Achieving
SusIainable 1ransporI Worldwide, lnIernaIional
Lnergy Agency, Paris, lrance, zooz.
i WrighI, L., 8us kapid 1ransiI: SusIainable 1ransporI: a
Sourcebook Ior Policy-makers in Developing CiIies,
l1DP, New ¥ork, USA, zooz.
Websites
- hIIp://www.iIdp.org/
- hIIp://Rumanhub.nl/
- hIIp://mobiel.bk.IudelII.nl :
82183_BinwNTExtra.indd 34 05-12-2005 17:06:05
ConIenI
Nova 1erra Special on Ihe LU
supporIed pro|ecI 'ConnecIed
CiIies', December zoo<.
hIIp://connecIedciIies.neI
PubIisher
Nirov, 1he Rague, 1he
NeIherlands (www.nirov.nl)
£ditoriaI 8oard
!an Rein 8oersma
Lvelien 8randes
¥II|e leddes
Ruib Raccou
lrank van der Roeven (issue
ediIor)
Derek MiddleIon (Lnglish
ediIing)
Michiel SmiI (ediIor in chieI)
!os|a van der veer
Craphic design
SIudio 8au Winkel, MarIi|n
van Overbruggen
Print
GraIisch 8edri|I 1ui|Iel,
Rardinxveld-Giessendam
Correspondence
Nirov, Michiel SmiI,
PosIbox ¸o8¸¸, z<oo Gv
1he Rague, 1he NeIherlands,
smiI©nirov.nl
OIIice supporI:
Relen Kokshoorn,
kokshoorn©nirov.nl
lSSN
¡<)o-oioz
Pro|ecI parI-Iinanced
by Ihe Luropean Union
£ditoriaI
| coNNcctco cìtìcs
lrank van der Roeven
o ecìNvcNtìNc tuc Ncw
towN uìNosct
Pascaline GaboriI
8 te=Nsroet ocvcLorucNt =ec=s
PeIer Rine, !eremy Ldge, KaIhy Gal and Michael Chambers
5ustainabIe deveIopment and growing mobiIity in
the 5outh £ast of £ngIand
¡z coNNcctìNc tuc cec=tce
soutu c=st
Arno Schmickler
¡) coìNc uNoceceouNo:
Lìcut, =ìe =No sr=cci
lnge van 8erkel
zz swìNcNct
lrank van der Roeven
z) cucecìNc Nctwoex roe tuc
e=Nost=o ucteoroLìs
Daan ZandbelI
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SIeIan van der Spek and !acques SplinI
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(PhoIo: Luropean CommuniIy)
visiI hIIp://connecIedciIies.neI
Cover illusIraIion: NeIherlands CenIre Ior Ihe Underground ConsIrucIion, Gouda
82183_OmslNTExtra.indd 2 08-12-2005 09:08:18
Nova1erra
Nov= tcee= srccì=L oN tuc cu surroetco reo¡cct 'coNNcctco cìtìcs' / occcusce zoo<
3 coNNcctco cìtìcs
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8 te=Nsroet ocvcLorucNt =ec=s
I2 coNNcctìNc tuc cec=tce soutu c=st
I7 coìNc uNoceceouNo: Lìcut, =ìe =No sr=cci
20 swìNcNct
2S cucecìNc Nctwoex roe tuc e=Nost=o ucteoroLìs
30 sus e=rìo te=Nsìt
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5pericl lJiticn
Connected Cities
ConnecIed CiIies is abouI susIainable mobiliIy and
spaIial developmenI. As LU-sponsored lnIerreg lllC
neIwork iI Iocuses on high qualiIy public IransporI
and IransporI developmenI areas, aimed aI improving
mobiliIy and qualiIy oI liIe in urban and rural areas.
1he neIwork acIiviIies will conIinue unIil Ihe end oI zoo).
£uropean network
ConnecIed CiIies brings IogeIher IwenIy-Iive parIners
IhroughouI Lurope. 1he parIners in ConnecIed CiIies
will share Iheir experiences and insighIs Ihrough
managemenI and coordinaIion, inIerregional showcase
workshops, disseminaIion and communicaIion, including
Ihrough a guide Io good pracIice.
hIIp://connecIedciIies.neI
8eIgium
Luropean New 1own PlaIIorm (LN1P)
GhenI UniversiIy / ArchiIecIure and Urban Planning
8uIgaria
MunicipaliIy oI Kard|ali
france
CiIy oI Paris Lngineering School (LlvP)
SénarI Public Local AuIhoriIy
Cermany
kesearch AssociaIion Ior Underground 1ransporIaIion
laciliIies (S1UvA)
Ramburg-Rarburg UniversiIy oI 1echnology (1URR)
Creece
Municipal LnIerprise oI Planning & DevelopmenI
oI PaIras (ADLP)
DevelopmenI Agency oI Magnesia S.A. (ANLM)
MunicipaliIy oI Philippi
kegion oI 1hessaly
UniversiIy oI 1hessaly
ItaIy
MunicipaliIy oI Ancona
MunicipaliIy oI lerrara
NetherIands
DelII UniversiIy oI 1echnology (1U DelII)
Lindhoven kegional GovernmenI AdminisIraIive
sIrucIure (SkL)
NeIherlands CenIre Ior Underground ConsIrucIion(CO8)
1NO LnvironmenI and Geosciences
PortugaI
CiIy Rall oI Covilhã
lnsIiIuIe Pedro Nunes (lPN)
5pain
lederaIion oI municipaliIies and provinces oI
CasIilla-La Mancha (lLMPCLM)
MunicipaliIy oI 1oledo
United kingdom
8risIol CiIy Council
SouIh LasI Lngland DevelopmenI Agency (SLLDA)
1ransporI Ior London (1IL)
82183_OmslNTExtra.indd 1 06-12-2005 10:01:09

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