Animal Nutrition Chapter 41

Nutritional Requirements Food types and Feeding Mechanisms Food Processing Mammalian Digestive System Evolutionary Adaptation of Vertebrate Digestive Systems

Nutritional Requirements
Diet has to satisfy three needs:
-fuel for all cellular work -Organic raw materials for biosynthesis -Essential nutrients

Essential role of ATP:
-Powers basal metabolism, activity and temperature regulation (endotherms) -Derived from organic fuel molecules: -Carbohydrates -Proteins -Fats

Homeostatic mechanisms manage animal’ s fuel:
-glucose regulation -Caloric imbalance -Obesity (role of leptin)

Figure 41.1 Homeostatic regulation of cellular fuel

Insulin stimulates glucose transport inside cells

Glucagon promotes breakdown of glycogen and release of glucose in blood

Figure 41.2 A ravenous rodent

Nutritional Requirements
Diet has to satisfy three needs:
-fuel for all cellular work -Organic raw materials for biosynthesis -Essential nutrients

Essential role of ATP:
-powers basal metabolism, activity and temperature regulation (endotherms) -Derived from organic fuel molecules: -Carbohydrates -Proteins -Fats

Homeostatic mechanisms manage animal’ s fuel:
-glucose regulation -Caloric imbalance -Obesity

Essential Nutrients:
-Amino acids -Essential Fatty Acids, or Vitamins -Minerals

Figure 41.3 Obtaining essential nutrients

Essential Amino Acids
-Animals require 20 amino acids -They can synthesize about 10 -Remaining 10 are “essential” and must be obtained from food -Diet insufficient in amino acids causes malnutrition and protein deficiency -Most reliable source of essential amino acids is meat -Most plant proteins are incomplete, i.e., lack essential amino acids; vegetarians need combination of plants “Essential” fatty acids: animals can synthesize most fatty acids; the few essential fatty acids are abundant in most diets (linoleic acid)

Figure 41.4 Essential amino acids from a vegetarian diet

Table 41.1 Vitamin Requirements of Humans: Water-Soluble Vitamins

Table 41.1 Vitamin Requirements of Humans: Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Table 41.2 Mineral Requirements of Humans

Food types and Feeding Mechanisms
- Most animals are opportunistic feeders -Three diet categories: - Herbivores (gorillas, cows, snails) - Carnivores (sharks, hawks, spiders, snakes) - Omnivores (humans, crows, bears)

Diverse feeding adaptations: -Suspension feeders (clams, oysters, whales) -Substrate feeders (maggots, leaf miners, earthworms-deposit feeders) -Fluid feeders (mosquitoes, leech) -Bulk feeders (most animals)

Figure 41.6 Suspension-feeding: a baleen whale

Figure 41.7 Substrate-feeding: a leaf miner

Figure 41.8 Fluid-feeding: a mosquito

Figure 41.9 Bulk-feeding: a python

Food Processing
Four main stages of food processing: -Ingestion: the act of eating -Digestion: breaking down food into small molecules by enzymatic hydrolysis -Absorption: transport of small molecules into cells -Elimination: elimination of undigested material Digestion takes place in specialized compartments: -Intracellular Digestion: food vacuoles fuse with lysosomes -Extracellular Digestion: - Gastrovascular cavities -Complete digestive tracts or alimentary canals (unidirectional)

Figure 41.10 Intracellular digestion in Paramecium

1: Food intake

2: Formation of food vacuoles

4 1 3: Transport 3

4: Digestion

5: Elimination

2

5

Figure 41.11 Extracellular digestion in a gastrovascular cavity

Figure 41.12 Alimentary canals

Mammalian Digestive System
-Consists of alimentary canal plus various accessory glands -Peristalsis, or rhythmic waves of contraction, pushes the food -Junctions between specialized segments are called sphincters and regulate movement between segments -Glands are: -3 pairs of salivary glands -Pancreas -Liver -Gallblader

Figure 41.13 The human digestive system

Mammalian Digestive System
-Consists of alimentary canal plus various accessory glands -Peristalsis, or rhythmic waves of contraction, pushes the food -Junctions between specialized segments are called sphincters and regulate movement between segments -Glands are: -3 pairs of salivary glands -Pancreas -Liver -Gallblader Initiation of food processing: -Oral cavity: chewing, grinding, secretion of saliva: -Saliva contains a glycoprotein, mucin, which serves as lubricant, plus buffers and antibacterial agents - It also contains amylase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes starch and glycogen -Tong manipulates food and shape the food into a ball called bolus -Pharynx: junction that opens to both esophagus and the trachea; swallowing reflex uses the epiglottis to close the glottis - Esophagus conducts food to the stomach by peristalsis

Figure 41.14 From mouth to stomach: the swallowing reflex and esophageal peristalsis (Layer 1)

Figure 41.14 From mouth to stomach: the swallowing reflex and esophageal peristalsis (Layer 2)

Figure 41.14 From mouth to stomach: the swallowing reflex and esophageal peristalsis (Layer 3)

The Stomach
Stomach stores food and performs preliminary digestion: -Can stretch to store about 2 liters of food and fluid -Secretes gastric juice and mixes with food with smooth muscles -Gastric juice consists of: -HCl (pH 2.0), secreted by parietal cells -Pepsin (protease), secreted as pepsinogen by chief cells located in gastric pits -Stomach also secretes mucus to protect against self-digestion -Mitosis renews stomach lining every 3 days -Gastric ulcers are caused by an acid-tolerant bacterium

-As a result of mixing, the mixture becomes a broth called acid chyme -Most of the time, stomach is closed at both ends (backflow in esophagus is heartburn) -Pyloric sphincter regulates flow into the intestine

Figure 41.15 Secretion of gastric juice

The Small Intestine
-Longest section of alimentary canal (6 m in humans) -First 25 cm is called duodenum: acid chyme is mixed with digestive juices from pancreas, liver, gallblader and gland cells in intestinal wall Enzymatic action in the small intestine: -Carbohydrate digestion: pancreatic amylases, disaccharidases (maltase, sucrase, lactase) -Protein digestion: proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin), also dipeptidases, carboxypeptidases and aminopeptidases (many secreted in inactive form and require activation) -Nucleic acid digestion: nucleases -Fat digestion: fat insoluble in water, emulsification by bile salts from gallblader, then lipases -Absorption of small molecules in jejunum and ileum Absorption of nutrients: -Trough the epithelium of small intestine (huge surface area, 300 m2) and specific structures, called villi and microvilli -Each villus is irrigated by a net of microvessels (capillaries) and vessels of lymphatic system, called lacteal -Transport of some nutrients is passive (diffusion down concentration gradient) -Other nutrients are actively transported against concentration gradient -Fats are absorbed by epithelial cells, mixed with cholesterol, and coated with proteins to form chylomicrons, and transported in lacteal, before reaching blood veins. - Capillaries converge into the hepatic portal vessel ----> liver Very efficient system: 80-90% of the organic matter is absorbed, the rest eliminated

Figure 41.16 The duodenum

Figure 41.17 Enzymatic digestion in the human digestive system

Figure 41.18 Activation of protein-digesting enzymes in the small intestine

Figure 41.19 The structure of the small intestine

Figure 41.x1 Large intestine

Hormones regulate digestion -Gastrin: secreted by stomach wall into circulation and stimulates secretion of gastric juice -Enterogastrones: secreted by wall of duodenum: -Secretin: stimulates release of bicarbonate from pancreas (neutralizes HCl) -Cholecystokinin (CCK): stimulates bile release from gallblader Large intestine (colon) reclaims water: -T-shaped junction between small and large intestines: one arm is the cecum with a finger-like extension, the appendix, the other branch the colon (1.5 m) -Water is reabsorbed in small and large intestine -Waste (feces) move in 12-24 hrs -Rich flora of harmless bacteria lives in large intestine: they produce gases and vitamins

Terminal portion is the rectum

Evolutionary Adaptation of Vertebrate Digestive Systems

-Structural adaptations are associated with diet -Dentition in mammals (compare teeth from carnivores, herbivores and omnivores) -Large expendable stomachs in carnivores (rare meals) -Length of digestive system (carnivores vs herbivores/omnivores) -Symbiotic microorganisms in herbivores -Specific adaptations in ruminants

Figure 41.20 Dentition and diet

Figure 41.21 The digestive tracts of a carnivore (coyote) and a herbivore (koala) compared

Figure 41.22 Ruminant digestion