This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Dr. Stefan Brück Qualcomm Corporate R&D Center Germany
Radio Interface and Application Protocols
Radio Interface and Application Protocols
Logical, Transport and Physical Channels Channel Mapping in UMTS and LTE Layer 3 Control Plane Protocol
Radio Resource Control (RRC)
Layer 2 Protocols
Radio Link Control (RLC) Medium Access Control (MAC)
MAC Architecture in HSPA and LTE
PDU Formats for MAC-hs, MAC-ehs, LTE MAC (DL-SCH)
Stop and Wait Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request Protocol Example of an Application Protocol: X2 Application Protocol
UMTS and LTE Channels
Downlink – transmitted by UTRAN, received by UE Uplink – transmitted by UE, received by UTRAN Common – carriers information to/from multiple UEs Dedicated – carries information to/from a single UE using dedicated resources Shared – carries information to/from a single UE using shared resources Logical – defined by what type of information is transferred, e.g., signaling or user data Transport – defined by how data is transferred over the air interface, e.g., multiplexing of logical channels Physical – defined by physical mapping and attributes used to transfer data over the air interface, e.g. spreading rate
Channel Mapping – UMTS Release 99 Channels 5 Slide 5 .
g. e.Channel Mapping – UMTS Dedicated Channels These channels carry user and signaling data between UTRAN and an individual UE DCCH carries RRC and NAS signaling The number of DTCH assigned is determined by the application. There is always exactly one DPCCH 6 Slide 6 . power control bits. for voice three DTCHs are assigned to one UE DCCHs and DTCHs are mapped to a single DCH or may be assigned an individual DCH In R99 deployments all DCHs are mapped to a single DPDCH The DPCCH carries information generated at PHY such as pilot.
4kbps signalling + AMR Voice 12.2kbps 3.4kbps signalling + PS I&B 128kbps 3.4kbps signalling + AMR Voice 12.2kbps 3.2kbps 3.2kbps 3.4kbps signalling + PS I&B 384kbps 3.4kbps signalling + CS 64kbps ≡ Interactive & Background ≡ Streaming Service Combination Downlink 3.Typical UMTS R99 Service Combinations Service Combination Uplink 3.2kbps 3.2kbps 3.4kbps signalling + PS I&B 64kbps + AMR Voice 12.4kbps signalling + PS I&B 8kbps + PS Strm 64kbps+ AMR Voice 12.4kbps signalling + CS 64kbps I&B Strm 7 Slide 7 .4kbps signalling + PS I&B 8kbps + PS Strm 16kbps+ AMR Voice12.4kbps signalling + PS I&B 64kbps + AMR Voice 12.
HSDPA and HSUPA Channel Mapping 8 Slide 8 .
4kbps signalling + PS I&B HSDSCH + AMR Voice 12.4kbps signalling + PS I&B EDCH EDCH signalling + PS I&B EDCH Service Combination Downlink 3.4kbps signalling + PS I&B HSDSCH + CS 64kbps 3.4kbps signalling + PS I&B 64kbps 3.4kbps signalling + PS I&B 8kbps + AMR Voice 12.4kbps signalling + PS I&B HSDSCH 9 Slide 9 .4kbps signalling + PS I&B HSDSCH 3.2kbps 3.Typical UMTS HSPA Service Combinations Service Combination Uplink 3.4kbps signalling + PS Strm HSDSCH 32kbps + PS I&B HSDSCH + AMR Voice 12.4kbps signalling + PS I&B 384kbps 3.4kbps signalling + PS Strm 32kbps + PS I&B 8kbps+ AMR Voice 12.4kbps signalling + PS I&B 64kbps + CS 64kbps 3.2kbps 3.4kbps signalling + PS I&B HSDSCH 3.4kbps signalling + PS I&B HSDSCH 3.2kbps 3.2kbps 3.
Channel Mapping – LTE Downlink Most DL data is carried on the DL-SCH and its corresponding PDSCH In contrast to UMTS. there are no dedicated transport channels in LTE 10 Slide 10 .
Channel Mapping – LTE Uplink Most UL data is carried on the ULSCH and its corresponding PDSCH In contrast to R99 UMTS. there are no dedicated transport channels in LTE 11 Slide 11 .
concatenation and provides various data transfer mode Medium Access Control – maps logical channels onto transport channels. reassembly. scheduling 12 Slide 12 . performs traffic volume reporting.Layer 2 Overview The Layer 2 consists of the following sublayers Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) – performs header compression and decompression of IP streams Broadcast/Multicast (BMC) – supports cell broadcast functions Radio Link Control (RLC) – performs segmentation.
Layer 2 Overview – SDUs and PDUs Protocol Data Unit Unit of data exchanged between peer layers in a network May contain information. and data Service Data Unit Set of data sent by a user of the services of a given layer Transmitted to the peer service semantically unchanged 13 Slide 13 . addressing.
Layer 2 Overview – Data Flow Example (UMTS) 14 Slide 14 .
UMTS Protocol Stack – Control Plane Radio Resource Control (RRC) • Access stratum control • System information processing • Paging and notification • RRC connection management • NAS layer message routing • Ciphering and integrity protection control • Radio Bearer management • RRC mobility • Measurement control and reporting 15 Slide 15 .
UMTS Protocol Stack – User Plane Physical Layer (PHY) • Error detection on transport channels • Forward error correction encoding/decoding • Interleaving/deinterleaving of transport channels • Multiplexing/demultiplexing of transport channels • Rate matching • Modulation/demodulation • Spreading/despreading • Measurements (e. padding • Retransmission control. in-sequence delivery • Error correction • Ciphering – acknowledged and unacknowledged mode Medium Access Control (MAC) • Mapping and multiplexing of logical to transport channels • Priority handling of data flows • UE identification on common channels • Traffic volume measurements • Random Access Channel procedure • Scheduling • Ciphering – transparent mode 16 Slide 16 . flow control • Duplicate detection. concatenation. FER. transmit power) Radio Link Control (RLC) • Segmentation. reassembly..g.
322.RLC Overview – Functions (TS 25.322) Radio Link Control Functions Transfer of user data and signaling Segmentation and reassembly Concatenation Padding Error correction In-sequence delivery of upper layers PDUs Duplicate detection Flow control Sequence number check Protocol error detection and recovery Ciphering (UM and AM only) SDU discard 17 Slide 17 . TS 36.
RLC Overview – Architecture The primary function of the RLC is to transfer user data and signaling Data flow to and from upper layers are carried by Radio Bearers and may carry either signaling data (Signaling Radio Bearer) or user data (Radio Access Bearer) Each Radio Bearer is mapped to a RLC entity. unacknowledged mode UM. or acknowledge mode (AM) 18 Slide 18 . which operates in of the three data transfer modes: transparent mode (TM).
RLC Overview – Data Transfer Modes Transparent Mode (TM) Unreliable service Separate receive and transmit entities Supports a set of fixed SDU sizes configured by RRC Unacknowledged Mode (UM) Unreliable service Separate receive and transmit entities Supports arbitrary SDU sizes Acknowledged Mode (AM) Reliable service Bidirectional entity Supports arbitrary SDU sizes 19 Slide 19 .
RLC Overview – Data Transfer Modes (cntd. CS Voice DTCH Radio Bearers using RLC UM: one DCCH. PS DTCH used for error sensitive and delay tolerant applications 20 Slide 20 . PS DTCH used for error tolerant and delay sensitive applications Radio Bearers using RLC AM: one DCCH. PCCH.) Radio Bearers using RLC TM: BCCH.
PDUs are transferred with little interaction by RLC No header is added Segmentation and reassembly If the SDU size is too large to fit into a single PDU. it may segmented at Tx and reassembled at Rx side Ciphering for logical channels is performed by the MAC 21 Slide 21 .RLC Transparent Mode In TM Mode.
RLC Unacknowledged Mode A small header containing information about segmentation. concatenation and sequence number is added Segmentation and reassembly Sequence number check Used during reassembly to detect corrupted SDUs 22 Slide 22 .
RLC Acknowledged Mode AM Mode provides reliable service based on ACKs and NACKs Segmentation and reassembly Error correction PDUs received in error are retransmitted In-sequence delivery PDUs are delivered to upper layers in the same order as they were submitted to the transmitted RLC Flow control Configurable transmit and receive window sizes Ciphering of logical channels is performed by RLC 23 Slide 23 .
U-Plane Protocol Stack (System Simulator) 24 Slide 24 .
108.3. v5.0 25 Slide 25 .Example: Parameters for DL 384 kbps / PS RAB RLC SDU Size Table taken from 3GPP TS 34.
321) Medium Access Control (MAC) Functions Logical and transport channel mapping Identification of UEs on common transport channels Prioritizing logical channels Multiplexing/de-multiplexing of logical channels Transport format combination selection (Scheduling) Ciphering (for RLC TM only) (Segmentation) (Reordering) (HARQ) 26 Slide 26 . TS 36.MAC Overview – Functions (TS 25.321.
UTRAN MAC Overview – Architecture I/III The MAC in R99 consists of three parts MAC-c/sh: controls access to the common transport channels MAC-b: controls access to the broadcast channel MAC-d: controls access to the dedicated channels 27 Slide 27 .
It is also responsible for scheduling of the HS-DSCH 28 Slide 28 .UTRAN MAC Overview – Architecture II/III The MAC in R5 was extended to support HSDPA MAC-hs: This part of the MAC resides in the Node B to allow fast Hybrid ARQ.
UTRAN MAC Overview – Architecture III/III The MAC in R6 was extended to support HSUPA MAC-e: provides fast retransmissions by HARQ MAC-es: provides reordering functionalities On the UTRAN the MAC is split between the Node B (MAC-e) and the RNC (MAC-es) 29 Slide 29 .
MAC Entity and HARQ Entity in 3GPP Common definitions in LTE and HSDPA There is one MAC entity per cell There is one HARQ entity per supported UE The HARQ entity handles the hybrid ARQ functionality for one user A number of parallel HARQ processes are used to support the HARQ entity The HARQ processes are of stop and wait type The HARQ process can be re-used if the associated ACK/NACK is received again Definitions in HSDPA There is one HARQ process per TTI for single stream transmission There two HARQ processes per TTI for dual stream transmission This definition applies for MAC-ehs only Definitions in LTE A HARQ process is associated with one or two MAC PDUs 30 Slide 30 .
the TSN and the MAC-d PDU sizes. Rel6) M AC-d flow s MA C-hs Scheduling/Priority handling Priority Queue distribution Priority Queue distribution The queues store MAC-d PDUs which are also called MAC-hs SDUs In the MAC-hs only entire MAC-d PDUs from one priority queue can be mapped into one MAC-hs PDU Multiplexing and segmentation of MAC-d PDUs is not offered in the MAC-hs Priority Q ueue Priority Q ueue Priority Q ueue Priority Q ueue M – Control AC H Qentity AR TFR selection C The MAC-hs header indicates the queue ID.MAC-hs Entity in the UTRAN (Rel5. The smallest size 21 bits Associated Uplink Signalling HS-DSCH Associated Dow nlink Signalling 31 Slide 31 .
segmentation and SDU sizes. the TSN. a MAC-ehs PDU consists of one or several reordering PDUs from up to three priority queues The MAC-ehs offers multiplexing and segmentation The MAC-ehs header indicates the logical channel ID.MAC-ehs Entity in the UTRAN (Rel7) M AC-d flow s MA C-ehs Scheduling/Priority handling LCH MU -ID X LCH M X -ID U The queues store MAC-d PDUs which are also called MAC-ehs SDUs A reordering SDU is a complete or a segment of a MAC-ehs SDU MAC– Control Priority Queue Priority Queue A reordering PDU consists of several reordering SDUs of the same priority queue Finally. The smallest size is 24 bits Segment ation Segment ation HARQentity TFRC selection Associated U plink Signalling H S-DSCH Associated Downlink Signalling 32 Slide 32 .
the PDU sizes are multiples of one byte Re-ordering queue distribution HARQ HS-DSCH Associated Downlink Signalling Associated Uplink Signalling To M AC -d M AC-e hs LC H -ID D em ux R easse mb ly R eo rdering LC H -ID D em ux R easse m b ly R eo rdering M A C – C o ntro l The reordering queue distribution routes the received MAC-hs PDUs or the reordering PDUs to the correct reordering queues based on the queue ID or received logical channel identifier R e-o rde ring q ue ue distri b utio n D isasse m b ly HARQ The reordering entity reorders received MAC-hs PDUs/reordering PDUs according to the received TSN The reassembly entity reassembles segmented MAC-ehs SDUs Slide 33 HS-DSC H Associate d Downlin k Signa llin g Associate d Up link Sign alling 33 .MAC-hs and MAC-ehs Entities in the UE To M AC-d M AC-hs Disassem bly Reordering Disassem bly Reordering MAC – Control The disassembly unit removes the MAChs/MAC-ehs header and potential padding bits Padding is introduced since a finite set of MAC-hs/MAC-ehs PDUs is allowed New ‘octed-aligned’ PDU sizes have been introduced together with MAC-ehs. i.e.
Some UEs only support a window size of 2047 PDUs In the RLC protocol the maximal throughput T is limited to T≤ W ⋅ PDU Size [bits] TRLC RTT + TTimer Status Prohibit The RLC round trip time is typically in the order of 80ms – 120ms in real world The timer status prohibit should be set to similar values as the RLC RTT Therefore it is very difficult to achieve 14. 5 – 6 the RLC PDU sizes was either fixed to 336 bits or 656 bits The RLC protocol applies a window based ARQ mechanism with a window size W of up to 4095 PDUs The RLC protocol can send at most 4095 PDUs before a status report is received from the UE. 7 together with MAC-ehs segmentation overcomes this bottleneck 34 Slide 34 .4 Mbps in HSDPA with realistic parameter settings and window sizes of 2047 PDUs The flexible RLC PDU size (up to 1500 bytes) introduced in Rel.Why MAC-ehs Segmentation in HSDPA In Rel.
no re-ordering is supported in the LTE MAC Reordering to higher layers is done in the RLC 35 Slide 35 . Segmentation is done in the RLC Additionally.Differences of MAC-hs/ehs and LTE MAC MAC-hs does not support segmentation MAC-ehs segmentation needed in HSDPA The RLC protocol resides in the RNC The RLC does not have fast information about required MAC-ehs SDU sizes in the Node B In LTE both RLC and MAC reside in the Node B The MAC can inform the RLC about required MAC SDU sizes per TTI.
MAC PDU Formats VF Queue ID TSN SID1 N1 F1 SID2 N2 F2 SIDk Nk Fk MAC-hs PDU MAC-hs header MAC-hs SDU MAC-hs SDU Mac-hs payload Padding (opt) LCH-ID1 L1 TSN1 SI1 F1 LCH-IDk Lk TSNk SIk Fk MAC-ehs PDU MAC-ehs header Reordering PDU Reordering PDU Mac-ehs payload Padding (opt) LTE MAC PDU (DL-SCH) 36 Slide 36 .
HARQ process #1 HARQ process #2 HARQ process #3 HARQ process #4 . DL reception at UE DL processing at UE .... The round trip time delay is typically 6 TTI = 12 ms in HSDPA In LTE the round trip time is 8 TTI = 8 ms 37 Slide 37 ..Stop and Wait HARQ Protocol in HSDPA and LTE 2 ms DL transmission at NodeB ... HARQ process #1 HARQ process #2 A HARQ process is in charge of the transmission (and possible subsequent re-transmission) of one MAC PDUs Once the MAC PDU is sent the HARQ process waits for the ACK/NACK from the UE to decide whether to schedule a re-transmission or a new MAC-hs PDU transmission. HARQ process #1 HARQ process #2 HARQ process #3 HARQ process #4 HARQ process #5 HARQ process #6 K eB AC No d /N o C K ck t A a b ed fe HARQ process #1 HARQ process #2 ...
the protocols are separated in control and user plane All (E)-UTRAN related issues are visible only in the Radio Network Layer The Transport Network Layer applies standard transport technology that is selected for (E)-UTRAN without any (E)-UTRAN specific requirements Application protocols (AP) are control plane protocols in the Radio Network Layer of entities They control the signaling to other entities Examples of Applications Protocols in UTRAN NBAP: Node B – RNC RANAP: RNC – SGSN/MSC RNSAP: RNC – RNC Examples for Applications Protocols in E-UTRAN X2AP: eNB – eNB S1AP: eNB – MME 38 Slide 38 .Horizontal Layers – Vertical Planes The protocol structure consists of two main layers. Radio Network Layer and Transport Network Layer Vertically.
423) Radio Network Layer Control Plane X2-AP User Plane User Plane PDUs Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane Signaling Transport GTP-U SCTP IP Data link layer Physical layer UDP Data Transport IP Data link layer Physical layer Clear separation between radio network and transport network layers The radio network layers defines interaction between eNBs The transport network layer provides services for user plane and signaling transport 39 Slide 39 .LTE X2 Protocol Structure (TS 36.
9 four additional EPs have been defined Class 1: EPs with response (success or failure) Class 2: EPs without response In LTE Rel. 8/9 limited load management functionality is supported Its functionality is extended in Rel.X2 Application Protocol (X2AP) The X2AP is responsible for providing signaling between eNBs X2AP functions are executed by so called Elementary Procedures Rel. 10 Function Mobility Management Elementary Procedure(s) a) Handover Preparation b) SN Status Transfer c) UE Context Release d) Handover Cancel a) Load Indication b) Resource Status Reporting Initiation c) Resource Status Reporting Error Indication Reset X2 Setup eNB Configuration Update Mobility Settings Change a) Radio Link Failure Indication b) Handover Report Cell Activation Load Management Release 8 Reporting of General Error Situations Resetting the X2 Setting up the X2 eNB Configuration Update Mobility Parameters Management Mobility Robustness Optimisation Energy Saving 40 Release 9 Slide 40 . 8 defines eleven EPs related to different X2AP functions In Rel.
X2 AP Load Management The X2AP load management function is used by the eNBs to indicate resource status. overload and traffic load to each other The load management function consists of the EPs Load Indication (class 2) Purpose: Transfer load and interference coordination information between eNBs An eNB initiates the procedure by sending LOAD INFORMATION message to another eNB eNB1 LOAD INFORMATION eNB2 Resource Status Reporting Initiation (class 1) Purpose: Request the reporting of load measurements to another eNB The procedure is initiated with a RESOURCE STATUS REQUEST message sent from eNB1 to eNB2 and eNB2 answers with RESOURCE STAUS RESPONSE message eNB1 RESOURCE STATUS REQUEST eNB2 RESOURCE STATUS RESPONSE Resource Status Reporting (class 2) Purpose: Report the result of measurements admitted by eNB2 following a successful Resource Status Reporting Initiation procedure The eNB2 reports the results of the measurements in RESOURCE STATUS UPDATE message 41 eNB1 eNB2 RESOURCE STATUS UPDATE Slide 41 .
Low Interference UL High Interference Indication IE: Indicates. per PRB. Tx power not exceeding RNTP threshold Detailed definition of interference. Values: High Interference. the occurrence of high interference sensitivity. interference sensitivity are implementation specific 42 Slide 42 .Information Elements of LOAD INFORMATION UL Interference Overload Indication IE: Indicates the interference level experienced by the indicated cell on all resource blocks. per PRB. Medium Interference. per PRB. whether downlink transmission power is lower than the value indicated by the RNTP Threshold IE Values: Tx power exceeding RNTP threshold. Low Interference Sensitivity Relative Narrowband Tx Power (RNTP) IE: Indicates. as seen from the sending eNB. The receiving eNB should try to avoid scheduling cell edge UEs in its cells for the concerned PRBs Values: High Interference Sensitivity.
Detailed definition of measurements are implementation specific 43 Slide 43 . Overload Hardware Load Indicator IE indicates the status of the Hardware Load experienced by the cell Low Load. the RESOURCE STATUS UPDATE message is used Periodicity is either 1s. High Load.RESOURCE STATUS REQUEST Message The reporting can be periodic or event based In case of periodic reporting request. Medium Load. UL Total PRB usage The report is an integer value ranging from 0 to 100 S1 TNL Load Indicator IE indicates the status of the S1 Transport Network Load experienced by the cell Low Load. DL Total PRB usage. High Load. Medium Load. DL non-GBR PRB usage. UL GBR PRB usage. Overload Composite Available Capacity Group IE indicates the overall available resource level in the cell in Downlink and Uplink. UL non-GBR PRB usage. 2s. 10s Supported measurements Radio Resource Status IE indicates the usage of the PRBs in Downlink and Uplink DL GBR PRB usage. 5s.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.