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ASSIGNMENT

Module Code Module Name Course Department

MMD 501

ADVANCED MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

#470-P Peenya Industrial Area, 4th Phase, Peenya, Bengaluru-560 058 Tel; 080 4906 5555, website: www.msrsas.org

Declaration Sheet Student Name Reg. No Course Batch Module Code Module Title Module Date Module Leader P.PRABHAKAR BAB0911001 MACHINERY DESIGN FT11 MMD501 ADVANCED MECHANICS OF MATERIALS to 05 11 2011 17 11 2011 Mr.SUMAN.M.L.J Batch Full-Time 2011.

Extension requests:

Extensions can only be granted by the Head of the Department in consultation with the module leader. Extensions granted by any other person will not be accepted and hence the assignment will incur a penalty. Extensions MUST be requested by using the Extension Request Form, which is available with the ARO. A copy of the extension approval must be attached to the assignment submitted.

Unless you have submitted proof of mitigating circumstances or have been granted an extension, the penalties for a late submission of an assignment shall be as follows: Up to one week late: Penalty of 5 marks One-Two weeks late: Penalty of 10 marks More than Two weeks late: Fail - 0% recorded (F) All late assignments: must be submitted to Academic Records Office (ARO). It is your responsibility to ensure that the receipt of a late assignment is recorded in the ARO. If an extension was agreed, the authorization should be submitted to ARO during the submission of assignment. To ensure assignment reports are written concisely, the length should be restricted to a limit indicated in the assignment problem statement. Assignment reports greater than this length may incur a penalty of one grade (5 marks). Each delegate is required to retain a copy of the assignment report.

Declaration

The assignment submitted herewith is a result of my own investigations and that I have conformed to the guidelines against plagiarism as laid out in the PEMP Student Handbook. All sections of the text and results, which have been obtained from other sources, are fully referenced. I understand that cheating and plagiarism constitute a breach of University regulations and will be dealt with accordingly.

(by ARO)

Date

ii

Abstract

____________________________________________________________________________ In the real world all the structures are subjected to various stresses and strain, The module mechanics of materials gives an idea about traditional method of analyzing the stress and strain were it is the base of for various recent developed software like ANSIS. The factors to be considered like concepts of plasticity, strain energy, various 2D approximations, the concepts of theories of failures and thermal stresses are briefly under gone in this module. The Part-A assignment is about the debate on 2D approximation. As in the real world all structures are built up in 3D structures, to determine the various stresses and strains on these structures the easy and possible way is by converting from 3D into 2D geometry. where 2D approximation plays a vital role, Based on the various conditions the object is brought under any one of the following conditions like plane stress condition, plane strain condition or axis symmetric condition and then the results are calculated. The debate is about whether the result we get by 2D approximation is reliable or only by analyzing the 3D geometry gives the reliable result, the result we get from the 2D approximation is a compromise. The Part-B assignment is based on the pressure vessel where for the given material AISI 1040 cold drawn steel. The ultimate strength and yield strength has to be found initially then the thickness is to be determined. Based on the result it should be categorized under thick or thin cylinder. The hoop stress and circumferential stress is to be found out and by considering minimum values among stress allowable yield and ultimate strength. Then Mohrs circle has to be drawn, were by using AUTO CAD2010 software it is constructed and finally stress transformation has to be determined. The Part- B assignment also includes the usage of MATLAB software. It is required to generate code for obtaining the thickness, stress and its

transformations.

The Part-C assignment is to construct the yield locus as per the theories of failuresMaximum principal stress criteria by considering the given two principal stresses by substituting these stresses in formula yield surface and yield locus can be determined and also criteria for failure is determined. By using AUTO CAD2010 software yield locus is

constructed and comparing it with the yield strength of material to cross check whether the object is subjected to safe working load or not.

iii

____________________________________________________________________________

Contents

Declaration Sheet ......................................................................................................................... ii Abstract ....................................................................................................................................... iii List of Figures ..............................................................................................................................vi List of Symbols .......................................................................................................................... vii PART-A......................................................................................................................................... 1 CHAPTER 1 .................................................................................................................................. 1 1.0 Introduction: ........................................................................................................................ 1 1.1 The results of 2D approximation is reliable due to following reasons: ............................... 1 1.2 Advantages of 2D approximation........................................................................................ 1 1.3.3 Material property considerations. ..................................................................................... 2 1.3.4 Nature of failure. .............................................................................................................. 3 1.4 Case study: .......................................................................................................................... 3 1.5 Conclusion: .......................................................................................................................... 3 PART-B ......................................................................................................................................... 4 CHAPTER 2 .................................................................................................................................. 4 2.4 Finding out the values of allowable yield strength (Sy): ..................................................... 5 2.5 Finding out the values for yield criteria limit: ..................................................................... 6 2.6 Determination of thick or thin cylinder: .............................................................................. 6 2.7 Finding out the values for principal stresses: ...................................................................... 7 2.8 Constructing the Mohrs circle using 1 &2 ..................................................................... 7 2.9 Steps involved in constructing the Mohrs circle using 1 &2 ......................................... 8 2.10 Introduction to MATLAB (Matrix laboratory): ................................................................ 9 2.11 MATLAB codes to find thickness & transformation: ....................................................... 9 PART-C ....................................................................................................................................... 10 CHAPTER 3 ................................................................................................................................ 10 3.0 Introduction: ...................................................................................................................... 10 3.1 Theories of failure ............................................................................................................. 10 3.2 Yield locus:........................................................................................................................ 10 3.3 Solution: ............................................................................................................................ 11 3.4 Creating yield locus by Maximum principal stress criteria. ........................................... 11 3.5 Steps involved in yield locus creation. .............................................................................. 11 3.6 Comments on the yield locus obtained: ............................................................................ 13 4.0 Comments on learning outcome: ........................................................................................... 13 5.0 References ............................................................................................................................. 14

iv

List of Tables

____________________________________________________________________________

Pg.No. 3

List of Figures

____________________________________________________________________________ Figure No. Figure 1.1 Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 Figure 2.5 Figure 3.1 Title of the figure Investigated 2D and 3D RVE type models. Pressure vessel of Part-B. Showing pressure vessel.. Showing Yield surface and Yield locus... construction of Mohrs circle MATLAB coding Showing Yield surface and Yield locus Pg.No. 3 4 4 7 8 9 12

vi

List of Symbols

____________________________________________________________________________ Symbol De Do Ys Us Su Sy N P t 1 & 2 Description stress External diameter Internal diameter Angle Yield strength Ultimate strength Allowable ultimate strength Allowable yield strength Factor of safety Pressure Thickness Principal stresses Units mpa mm mm Degrees mpa mpa mpa mpa ----mpa mm mpa

vii

PART-A CHAPTER 1

1.0 Introduction:

In Part A the debate topic given is 2-D approximations made in the prediction of structural behavior is a compromise to debate on 2D approximation understanding the concepts of when thickness is very less when compared to length and width in which we consider stresses along thickness is zero (z = 0). Similarly in Plane strain condition is suitable only when breadth and height dimension is lesser than length in which the both sides of the length should be constrained we considered (z=0). And in Axis symmetric condition is suitable only when the object is symmetrical about its axis.

Calculating the stress and strains in 3D structural components are time consumable and it is complicated to calculate unless the geometry has standard shapes. But when we consider any structures of machinery will not be of standard geometry and will be of complex when it tried to derive solution in 3D it will consume time indirectly consumes the cost. Even for 3d structures also there is some assumption made we will not be considering the exact material property and exact loading conditions for easy calculation of result similar to 2D approximation.

For analyzing and designing of structure we required mathematical model by considering the various factors like actual loading conditions, material properties and nature of failure. The mathematical model will be of fewer complexes when we consider 2D approximation. Helps to obtain the results in short lead time due to considering it as simple geometry. 2D approximation provides the value which is of very less deviation from 3D analysis. The cost of the analysis is reduced due to reduced analysis time. This type of analysis is suitable for all types of geometry all 3D structural geometry can be considered under any one of the 2D approximation.

While analyzing the structure using the 2D approximation we will not consider the entire structure and analyze the loading, only a small elemental area is taken into consideration and for which all the loads acting on the structure is transformed and the results are obtained on Structural 1

Advanced mechanics of materials

loads with high accuracy is required to design and limit the loads while the structure is subjected. Generally two or more loads combined together and acting is to be considered. These loads may be subjected during the function or ideal condition. In 2D approximation we are considering a plane which has 2 axes the entire loads in the cross section is transferred to the elemental area. While considering plane stress condition we consider the plane which has length and width which is greater than thickness. In case of plane strain condition we consider only cross section and loading condition is analyzed since the length is constrained the effect of loading is negligible. In case of axis symmetric condition we consider loading in cross section separately and longitudinal separately. Since the loading conditions are framed with the logic which can be understandable we can able to judge 2D approximation gives reliable solution.

The uniaxial state of stress can be defined as a state of stress at which two out of the three principal stresses are equal to zero. In case of biaxial states of stress were one of the three principal stresses is equal to zero. And in tri axial state of stress the structure is subjected to principal stresses acting at three perpendicular directions. When the various state of stresses are considered in 2D approximation the reliable results are obtained by as in plane stress condition we obtain only uni axial and bi axial state of stress, we consider only the stresses in the thickness as zero, Which means the dimension along the thickness is less the stress along the thickness is not going to give only negligible values in stresses. In plane strain condition since it is constrained in only in length we assume that strain along length is equal to zero but it is possible to obtain the results of tri axial state of stress. In case of axis symmetrical we can able to determine the tri axial state of stress by spilling the geometry into cross section (Hoop stress) and length (longitudinal stress) with this we can know that 2D approximation gives results of reliable state of stress.

When we consider material property generally it is classified into ductile material and brittle materials. And categorizing the material under isotropic materials, anisotropic materials and orthotropic materials generally all the calculations either by considering the 2D approximation or considering the 3D geometry we assume it as isotropic materials which means the material is having the uniform material property throughout the structure but in real practical uniform material property is not possible since these assumptions are made in the both the calculations of by considering the 2D approximation and by considering the 3D structure the results obtained by the 2D will not be differed by material property consideration.

When we compare the results we get by considering as 2D approximation and results by the considering as 3D structures. The result we get is almost equal with that results when we convert into principal stresses and generate the yield locus based on the different theories of failures the yield surface will be almost remains same for both the cases. Which indirectly shows that the elastic region, remains as unchanged for both the conditions. The failure criteria for the both the cases will be similar due to the mathematical model gives variation of result is very less and consideration for determining the failure criteria is same for the both the cases so for the nature of failure also we can depend on the results of 2D approximation.

The case study is about The comparative analysis of 2D and 3D microstructure models stresses of porous polymer materials Porous structure materials like polymers (plastics, elastomer) metals(aluminum, copper) are generally used due to its properties like cheap, light weight and strength etc. In order to obtain the desired property the microscopic structure can be varied and possible to obtain representative volume element (RVE).

Fig 1.1[1]Investigated 2D and 3D RVE type models Table1.2[1]Comparison of stresses in 2D& 3D From the above case they have analysed the stresssby taking 2D model and also taking 3D model the results of both the cases are similar and the variations are within the allowable limit.

1.5 Conclusion:

In the debate the various factors related to 2D approximation is discussed by which we can understand 2-D approximations made in the prediction of structural behavior is not a compromise it provides us the reliable results with that results many of the traditional structures/components are buildup which is universally accepted. Since in recent days there is advancement of technologies and development of software makes simplicity of calculating the 3D structure we prefer it, but because of that we cannot say the values we get by 2d approximation is a compromise.

PART-B CHAPTER 2

________________________________________________________________________________

Problem: A tank is to be made by rolling flat sheet of AISI 1040 cold-drawn steel into the spiral

shape as shown, where the spiral makes an angle of with the horizontal axis of the tank. Tank is subjected to a maximum internal load of P MPa, whose diameter is to be D mm. (a) Determine the proper wall thickness, t according to the theories of failures, provided N=4 based on Sy or N=6 based on Su (b) Determine the stress condition on an element aligned with the weld and depict the same using Mohr circle. (c) Write a MAT LAB code for obtaining the thickness, stress and its transformations.

Pressure vessels are closed containers used to hold various gasses or liquids at high pressures, Based on the application the shape, size, allowable pressure and material varies. The applications of pressure vessels are to store compressed air, domestic purpose hot water storage tank and in petro chemicals etc. A material with good good tensile properties and chemically stable is chosen for manufacturing however design codes and application standards are ASME BPVC Section II, EN 13445-2 etc.

P = 1.5mpa = 40 De = 110mm Factor of safety for yield strength N(Sy) = 4 Factor of safety for yield strength N(Su) = 6 Material = AISI 1040

Finding out the values of allowable yield stress and allowable ultimate stresses. Comparing the two values considering the minimum value as yield criteria limit. By applying the value to Hoop stress determining the thickness of pressure vessel. With the obtained thickness deciding whether it is thick or thin cylinder. Finding out the values for principal stresses. With the values of principal stresses constructing the Mohrs circle. Determining the stress transformation angle.

The yield strength and ultimate strength for AISI 1040 material are: The yield strength of AISI 1040 material (Ys) = 353.4mpa The ultimate strength of AISI 1040 material (Us) = 518.76mpa

Finding the allowable ultimate strength (Su) u u= u= Su = 86.46mpa

Finding the allowable yield strength (Sy) =

= =

By comparing (Su) & (Sy) considering the minimum value as = = ro t t) t)

Determining thick or thin cylinder by applying following criteria i) Criteria for thin cylinder 0 is thin c lin er ii) Criteria for thick cylinder 0 is thic c lin er = 0 0 =

By comparing the values of and r. We get: 1 = 86.46 & 2 = 42.23mpa According to the theories of failure- maximum principal stress theory The conditions for failure is 1=>y& 2=>y But 1 = 86.46 & 2 = 42.23mpa which is less than y =88.35mpa as shown below fig() the pressure vessel is subjected to pressure which is within the yield locus we conclude that the pressure vessel is subjected to safe pressure.

We know that 1 = 86.46 & 2 = 42.23mpa The maximum shear stress () can be calculated by the formula =

An element rotated through an angle = (90-40)=50, =50 so that its sides are parallel and perpendicular to the weld. Mohrs circle can be used to obtain the normal and shear stresses acting on the side faces of the element. Mohrs construction shows that point A represents the stress 2 on the abscissa (x axis) were ( =0) and point B represents the stress 1 on the ordinates (y axis) were ( =90). A counter clockwise angle 2 = 100 on the circle locates point D which corresponds to the stress on the x1 face ( =40). The fig() shows construction of Mohrs circle.

cos 00

x = 60.30mpa = = cos

cos 00

y = 69.37mpa = sin

xy = -26.11sin100 xy =-25.71mpa

MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is the work bench created for mathematical calculation. MATLAB allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, implementation of algorithms.

PART-C CHAPTER 3

____________________________________________________________________________ Problem: The state of stress at a point on the aircraft wing was found to be The 0 =[0 0 0 0 0 0 0] 0

Let us assume that this (uni-axial) stress state is almost enough to cause the material to plastically deform, or yield. The yield stress was chosen as y= 54mpa, = 0.3, E= 210 GPa (a) Check for the yielding of the above state of stress using the failure criteria. (b) Draw the failure locus for the failure criteria and comment on the same.

3.0 Introduction:

The state of stress at a point is defined as all the stress vectors with all planes that pass through that point. In this matrix since all the shear components remains zero it is to be considered that principal stress are given, Since the value of z is mentioned as 0 it is to be under stood that 2D graph has to be plotted.

Theories of failure are used to predict the conditions at which the material will fail when subjected to various loads. Based on the material property and behavior it is classified into brittle fracture and ductile fracture. Theories of failures are expressed by various criteria using yield locus and yield surface.

The yield stress y is the stress at which the material is in plastic state within this limit the material is subjected to elastic state. To determine the safe working loads for any material a criteria or limit is generated is known as yield locus. The surface inside the yield locus is called yield surface which is elastic region the yield locus and outer surface of yield locus is plastic region. Yield surface = Elastic region Yield locus = Plastic region Outside of yield locus = Failure

10

Advanced mechanics of materials

Principal stress (1) =50mpa Principal stress (2) =20mpa Yield stress (y) = 54mpa Youngs modulus ( E) =210Gpa Poissons ratio () = 0.3

This theory was developed by Rankine. According to this theory the maximum principal stress determines the failure; it is mostly suitable for brittle materials. Failure will be takes place when the maximum principal stress reaches the yield strength. Yield occurs when the largest principal stress exceeds the uniaxial tensile yield strength. The conditions are: 1=y = Plasticity Failure region. 1<y= Elasticity Material subjected to safe loads. 1>y =Plasticity Failure region.

By comparing the two stresses considering maximum stress as 1and minimum stress as 2. Plotting 1 and 1 in x axis and 2 and 2 in Y axis. Dividing the graph as follows: X axis 1 unit = 1mpa. Y axis 1 unit = 1mpa. Considering the yield stress y = 54mpa plotting it in graph on 1, -1, 2 and 2 in X and Y axis. By considering the y points on X axis and Y axis by drawing the vertical lines on the points which forms a square is called yield locus the inner area of this yield locus is called yield surface.

First quadrant (1,2) = Material subjected to purely tension. Second quadrant (-1,2) = Material subjected to one load in compression and one load in tension.

Fourth quadrant (1,-2) = Material subjected to one load in compression and one load in tension.

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After finding the yield locus by y = 54mpaWhile plotting the principal stresses 1= 50mpa and 2 = 20mpa the load lies within the yield locus and in first quadrant which means both the principal stresses are subjected to tension and since it lies within the yield locus the material is subjected to elastic region so it can be considered as safe loads.

The module Advanced mechanics of materials is has given the brief idea about analyzing the stress and strain in a geometry by discreticing it to a small elemental area and considering various stresses acting on it, The result obtained from the elemental area is then converted to whole geometry. The traditional method of finding the results is carried out for analyzing the stress strain in this module and to have knowledge about principal stress, principal strains and stress invariants. While analyzing the various factors to be considered such as stress strain relationship based on material property like youngs modulus , Poissons ratio and shear modulus concepts of isotropic, orthotropic and anisotropic materials and various 2D approximations is to be made as per the geometry, Understanding the concepts of strain energy, Plasticity and determining theories of failures by various principals when the material is subjected to various loading conditions and creation of yield locus. In the Class assignment session was helpful to solve various problems related to the all topics were it was useful to get an idea of how to approach the problems. In GKVK visit was helpful to analyze the various stresses and various 2D approximation on earth auger.

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5.0 References

1)[1] D Zeleniakiene The comparative analysis of 2D and 3D micro structural models internet.ktu.lt/lt/mokslas/zurnalai/mechanika/mech.../Leisys353.PDF Retrieved on 04 12 2011. 2) [2]Unknown, Plane Stress and Plane Strain engineering.ucsb.edu/~hpscicom/projects/ME271.htm Retrieved on 04 12 2011. 3) Unknown, Mohrs circle for plane stress www.optics.arizona.edu/optomech/references/.../OPTI_222_W21.pd Retrieved on 28 11 2011. 4) Unknown, Introduction to MATLAB www.mathworks.com/moler/intro.pd Retrieved on 10 12 2011. 5) James M.Gere and Stephen P.Timoshenko (2002) Meccanics of materials second edition PWS Publishers USA. 6)L.S.Srinath() Advanced mechanics of materialsThird edition Tata McGraw hills, New Delhi

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