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Metals are grouped inio two classes . (a) Ferrous Mclals those containing iron as principal constituent.

the cart-cm oxidised awayr This variety, of malleable iron being called 'white hearl'. A similar kind of treatment, but without the surrounding oxide, leaves all the carbon embedded, in ihe iron collected into graphite Islands' or reporters. This is vailed black heart malleable. The removal of the hard compounds allows the malleability of rron itself to become manifest.
Steel. Pig iron is converted lo sled by mefting and eliminating impurities by oxidation. To flid refining and for economy, at least 53 percent sleel scrap is included in the melt. Refining is done in open-hearth furnaces of Bessemer converters using iicid or basit; refractory linings. Melting in crucibles, in high frequency induction furnaces and electric arc furnaces, produces the highest grade steels in smdller quiintity especially the highly alloyed materials, e.g. tungsten high speed steels* stainless steels permanent magnet alloys-Pure iron is soft and ductile^ increasing content ol carbon provides dead mild steels then mild steels then medium carbon steels, dicn high carbon and very high carbon steels.

(6) Non-ferrous IVfclals those which do noi contain iron as principal .;onstilucnt, Ferrous metals are further classified us: (i) cast iruns*
(n) steels and

(Hi) wrought irons.


iron. When iron ore is smc(iedh pig-iron js produced a crude iron of no immediate use to Ihe Engineer bul valuable as the starting point for making irorta and steels, Remeltmg thii material provides cast iron a very much cleaner material metallurgjcally but still containing Ihe impurity elements present in Ihe pig. Renielting gives the opportunity .of blending different grades ,rt pig-iron to obtain a desired balance (if elements, also of adding steel scrap to reduce lotal carbon and to diiute the impurities. Carbon content may also range from 4- percent down to 1 i percent but Ihe higher content gives better behaviour in the (bundary. Uptu 0.9 percent nf the carbon can be used up in th formation of complex pearlite groins, as in steels, and these gram? may be accompanied in ihe softer jrtms by grains of fertile (free iron). The remaining carbon'may be present wholly as graphite giving grey machinable iron ; wholly as cemcrttite (iron carbide compound), giving hard while irons, almost unma^hjnabte or partly as each in molded iron. Contra) over carbi'n forrn is secured by chemical composition and cooling rate. Silicon may be present in cast iron upto 49k and il has Ihe effect ol decomposing the iron caitide to liberate graphite : therefore the grryness increases wilh die silicon eunlent. Phosphorous aids fusibility and fluidity hut induces bnltleriesb It ii rarely allowed to exceed 1 percent. Phosphoric irons are useful however, fur castings of intricate design and for many lighl engineering castings when cheapness is essential. Sulphur lends to make the casl iron hard and brittle and is generally regarded as deterimenlal. it should be kept well below 3.1 perctnl for most foundry purposes. Manganese also tends in a different way to whiten and harden a casl iron and is therefore often kepi below G/75 percent But it helps to exrrl a controlling influence over the harmful effect of sulphur, and for any particular purpose these two impurities should be considered in conjunction. Castings of hard white>.iron may be converted into malleable castings by annealing them in powdered hamaetile for several days or by 'short-cycle' annealing. By Ihis process most of the iron carbide is decomposed and * large pan of

Classification of sleel D ead m ild steeJ Mild steel Medmm carbon steel High carbon steel | Very high carbon sleel 0,15 percentage Carbonto 0.30 0.30100.60% 0.90 lo

Steel has melting point of 1300'Cu> 1400CC specific gravity 7-8, compnessive strength from 50 lo 250 kN/sq. cm and tensile strength from 55 to f 10 kN/sq-cm, Wrought iron is very nearly pure iron, which has a small amount of entrapped slag forged out into fibres. This slag, characteristic of wrought iron, is useful in black smithing operations and give* the material its peculiar fibrous fracture The good weather associated with the purity of ironr The cai"bon and silicon of the pig which is used must be such Ihatthc process of pudding just eliminates, ihem without too mi^ch burning of the iron itself. The excellence of wrought'iron depends on its easy and reliable weldabilily; ils goiid toughness and ductility. Wrought iron should pull <mi or extend if il 15 over loaded and thus-givc warning before failure occurs. IE is the best material for chains and fiociks for carbide diagram. Under conditions of the knowledge of steel and its structure is best summarized in iron-iron carbide diagram Tf a piece of 0.2% carbon steel is slowly and uniformly heated lo a temperature around KJOOT. Above thi^ temperature this steel is a solid solution of carbon in gamma iron called ausienitc. The iron atoms lie in a facecentred cubic structure and art non-magne|i<;. Upon cooling Ihis steel, (he iron atoms start forming a bidy control cubic lattice This new structure is called lerrice. Further cooling results in remaining auslenite getting transformed into a new structure called peariitc.