1General Introduction: It has been recognized that conditions during cutting such as feed rate, cutting speed and depth of cut should be selected to optimize the economics of machining operations as assessed by the productivity and total manufacturing cost per component or some other criteria. The selection of efficient machining parameters such as machining speed, feed rate and depth of cut has a direct impact and production economies in the metal cutting processes. Dimensional accuracy is significantly affected by tool wear. Therefore to improve dimensional accuracy one or more tool adjustments may be desirable before a tool is replaced. Taylor showed that an optimum or economic cutting speed exists which will increase the maximum material removal rate. Manufacturing industries have long depended on the skill and the experience of the shop floor machine tool operators for optimum selection of cutting conditions and tools, considerable efforts are still in progress on the use of handbook based conservative cutting conditions and tool selection at the process planning level. The need for selecting and implementing optimal machining conditions and the most suitable cutting tool has been felt over the last few decades. Despite Taylor’s early work on establishing optimum cutting speeds in single pass turning s process has been slow so all the process has to be optimized. Further more for realistic solutions the many constraints met in practice such as low power temperature, force limits and component surface roughness must be overcome. The non availability of the required technological performance equation is a major obstacle to implement the optimal cutting conditions in practice. Extensive testing is required to establish empirical performance equations for each tool coating and work material combination for a given machining operation. This can be quite expensive when wide spectrums of machining operations are considered. Machining parameters selection has been investigated extensively for a single pass turning operation. However if a large amount of material has been removed it may not be feasible to remove the material in a single pass owing to force and power restrictions and surface finish requirements. Such cases multi pass cutting is more economical than single pass

This gives rise to the multi pass problem which involves not only for selection of machining parameters but also for economical number of passes.). Furthermore.). In a lathe it is the peripheral speed of the work part in m/min. Various multi-objective optimization approaches have been proposed in recent years for optimizing machining parameters. 2. 1. the lot size of manufactured items is usually small and product mix is usually diverse.turning. Parameters of cutting tools (material. The diversity of product mix and the uncertainty of market value make interactive approaches to machining process planning inefficient owing to the extensive and frequent interactions with manufacturers for planning machining process. Characteristics of work pieces (material. 3. geometry. feed rate.). 1. Among these factors cutting parameters (speed. horsepower. facing.). etc. Lack of an efficient optimization tool early work in this direction was limited to small problems with mostly two or three passes and a few variables and constraints. and depth of cut) are evidently dominating ones in a machining operation. feed rate . These factors can be classified as 1.). Parameters of machine tools (rigidity. CUTTING SPEED: The cutting speed of a tool is the speed at which the metal is removed by the tool from the work material.2 Machining parameters in turning process: In metal cutting. Type of machining operations (turning. the time-varying market value makes labour and material costs fluctuate. . milling. etc. etc. there are many factors related to process planning for machining operations. In an open job-shop production system. etc. depth of cut. geometry. Parameters of cutting conditions (cutting speed. 5. The major efforts of earlier works were concentrated on optimization of a single objective function. etc. 4. One major drawback of interactive approaches to machining process optimization is that interactions with manufacturers are necessary for almost every different part. in the dynamic global economy.

to determine optimal machine parameters such as s (spindle speed). 3. The machining process optimization is to determine the most advantageous cutting condition.2. . but this results in excessive tool wear. DEPTH OF CUT: The depth of cut is the perpendicular distance measured from the machined surface to the uncut surface of work piece in mm. feed rate and depth of cut which balances these conflicts. the tool advances for each revolution of the work piece in mm/rev. By increasing the feed rate or spindle speed. f (feed rate). FEED: The feed of the cutting tool in lathe work is the distance. frequent tool changes and increased production costs. That is. determination of the optimum cutting conditions involves a conflict between maximizing the metal removal rate and minimizing the tool wear. For a given machining operation. the metal removal rate and hence the production rate can be increased. and d (depth) to optimize specified objectives such as cutting quality and material removal rate. there is an optimum set of spindle speed. Therefore.

Material Removal Rate is expressed in terms of feed rate. Then this is used in the genetic algorithm and the network functions like an equation. 2. The economic criteria are the objectives of machining operations in terms of quality and material removal rate. the depth of cut and tool diameter. MRR = F×d×D .1Objective Function: The full development of machining process planning is based on optimization of the economic criteria subject to technical and managerial constraints. 2. Single objective. Surface Roughness Ra is measured using a portable Mitutoyo Surftest Profilometer with a roughness cut-off of 0.CHAPTER 3 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION To find the optimum machining parameters in order to get the minimum surface roughness and maximum material removal rate. We have taken 15 samples of milling operation in finishing cut and 15 samples of milling operation in roughing cut and the values of the speed. In the response surface methodology the linear and second order polynomials were fitted to the experimental data for obtaining regression equatioins. 1. Surface Roughness: Surface Roughness is termed as the cutting quality. We put these values into a neural network and trained with a network and it is exported to the work space of matlab. multi objective Genetic algorithm and response surface methodology are used to do this and the results are compared. The objectives considered in this paper are surface roughness to be minimized and material removal rate to be maximized for both roughing case and finishing case. Material Removal Rate: Material Removal Rate is defined as the amount of material to be removed per each operation.8mm. feed and depth of cut and their respective surface roughness and material removal rate.

Where F. d and D are respectively the feed rate. the depth of cut and tool diameter. .

the fittest survived and the unfit died out. 3.CHAPTER 3 GENETIC ALGORITHM 3. the individual that has better survival traits will survive for a longer period of time. In GAs.3 Simulated Evolution To simulate the process of natural selection in a computer. after a long period of time. Therefore. 3. 1 is usually used. They are described in detail in the following subsection. Like a chromosome." Each individual is a data structure representing the "genetic structure" of a possible solution or hypothesis. This force of nature is called natural selection. Genetic algorithms are often viewed as function optimizer. An implementation of genetic algorithm begins with a population of (typically random) chromosomes. the genetic structure of an individual is described using a fixed. although the range of problems to which genetic algorithms have been applied are quite broad. One then evaluates these structures and allocated reproductive opportunities in such a way that these chromosomes which represent a better solution to the target problem are given more chances to `reproduce' than those chromosomes which are poorer solutions.4 Basic Principle The major steps involved are the generation of a population of solutions. This in turn provides it a better chance to produce offspring with its genetic material. The 'goodness' of a solution is typically defined with respect to the current population. .1 Introduction Genetic Algorithms are a family of computational models inspired by evolution. At each point during the search process we maintain a "generation" of "individuals. the entire population will consist of lots of genes from the superior individuals and less from the inferior individuals. the alphabet 0.2 Natural Selection In nature. finite alphabet. These algorithms encode a potential solution to a specific problem on a simple chromosome-like data structure and apply recombination operators to these structures as to preserve critical information. In a sense. we need to define the following: A representation of an individual. 3. finding the objective function and fitness function and the application of Genetic operators.

/*Algorithm GA */ Formulate initial population Randomly initialize population Repeat Evaluate objective function Find fitness function Apply genetic operators Reproduction Crossover Mutation Until stopping criteria .

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