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DAL MILL The Pulse Milling Process: In India most of the pulses are consumed in dehusked and split

form. Thus processing of pulses assumes a lot of importance. Pulses processing industry helps in processing the raw grain legumes/ pulses into edible form. Processing activity is undertaken at 3 different levels. They are: i. Primary processing: Primary processing activities consist of production of cleaned, graded, packaged pulses. ii. Secondary processing: Under secondary processing activities such as dehusking, splitting, polishing, tumeric/ spices/ salt coating and powdered besan and packaged dal are done. iii. Tertiary processing: These activities mostly consist of preparation of roasted, fried dal and other associated dal products. Pulses are usually converted into Dal by dehusking/ decutilating and splitting. Both dry and wet milling processes are employed. Mostly carborundum emery rollers are used for dehusking and burr grinders for splitting the pulses. Decutilating is seldom complete in single pass thereby requiring multiple passes. Each pass produces around 1.5 to 2% fines thereby reducing the overall recovery of dal during the milling operation. Basic processes in dal milling are cleaning, grading, conditioning, dehusking, splitting, separation, polishing and bagging. Major variation is involved with dehusking process only. Dals like Arahar, Urad, Moong and Lentil are difficult to dehusk as a result repeated operations by dehusking rollers are required. Repeated soaking, drying, tempering is done to loosen portions of husk sticking after rolling operations. Sometimes Linseed oil is also used during dry milling operation to impart shine or better appeal to the milled dal. The removal of the outer layer of husk and splitting the grain into two equal halves is known as milling of pulses. To facilitate dehusking and splitting of pulses alternate wetting and drying method is used. In India traditional milling methods produce dehusked split pulses. Loosening of husk by conditioning is insufficient in traditional methods. To obtain complete dehusking of the grains a large number of abrasive force is applied resulting in high losses in the form of brokens and powder. Yield of split & dehusked pulses in traditional mills are only 65 to 75% due to the above losses compared to 88 to 89% potential yield. Procedure for pulse milling: Basically two types of conventional pulses milling methods is commonly used in India. They are :

Wet milling operations

Dry milling operations

Flow diagram of wet milling of pulses: Pulses | Cleaning chaffs, dirts, etc. | Soaking | Mixing with red soil | Conditioning | Dehusking and splitting -- mixture of husk, small broken and powder | Separation and Grading | Dehusked and split pulses | Bagging Flow diagram for dry milling of pulses: Pulses | Cleaning chaffs, dirts, etc.

| Pitting | Pretreatment with Linseed Oil | Conditioning | Dehusking and splitting mixture of husk, small broken and powder | Grading | Polishing | Grade I Pulses Description of various Unit Operations:

Cleaning and Grading Cleaning helps in removal of dust, chaff, dirt, grits, etc. from the pulses. Grading is done to segregate the grain legumes of desired shape and size . The same is done using a reel or rotative screen type cleaner.

Pitting An emery roller machine is used for cracking the husk layer and for scratching of clean pulses passing through it. This is done for loosening the husk from sticking to the cotyledons in order to facilitate subsequent oil penetration in the following unit operations. Gradually the clearance between the emery roller and cage (housing) is narrowed from inlet to outlet. Cracking and scratching of husk takes place mainly by friction between pulses and emery as the material is passed through the narrowing clearance. During the operation some of the pulses are dehusked and split which are separated by sieving.

Pretreatment with Oil The scratched or pitted material passes through a screw conveyer and mixing of some edible oil like linseed oil is done in it. The linseed oil is used at the rate of 1.5 to 2.5 kg/tonne of pulses. Pulses coming out of the screw conveyer are kept on floors for about 12 hours to diffuse the oil.

Conditioning Pulses are conditioned by alternate soaking/ wetting , drying and tempering. Moisture (3.5%) is added to the pulses after sun drying for a certain period and tempering is done for about eight hours. The grain is dried in the sun again. Until all pulses are sufficiently conditioned the whole process of alternate wetting and drying is continued for two to four days. Pulses are finally dried to about 10 to 12% moisture content prior to dehusking and splitting.

Dehusking and Splitting For dehusking of conditioned pulses carborundum coated emery rollers are used. In one pass about 50% of pulses are dehusked. Dehusked pulses are split into two parts. Dehusked split pulses are separated by sieving and the husk is aspirated off. Unsplit dehusked pulses and tail pulses are again dehusked and milled in a similar way. For complete dehusking and splitting the whole process is repeated two to three times.

Polishing Polishing is completed by treating dehusked and split pulses with a small quantity of oil and/or water. Modern Machinery for Pulses Processing

i. Roller machine: Abrasive, carborundum roller cylindrical mill of 100kg per hour capacity, run by 1.5kW electric motor is readily available in the market. It has been developed for dehusking and splitting of food legumes viz.pigeon pea gram and black gram. It consisted mainly of a 300mm diameter cylindrical emery coated roller to give 13.5 to 14m/s speed at 850-900rpm and dal (splits) recovery rate of 74 to 75%. Though the unit is similar to traditional miller machine and gives more or less the same dal recovery, it is useful for small scale production (8 to 10q per day) of dal in villages & towns. ii. Cylinder concave dehuller: This machine has been developed by GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnager. It consists of a 380mm long and 220mm diameter cylinder with trunketed surface, and a concave. The kernels are fed to the unit along the full length of the cylinder. A similar machine

developed at IARI, New Delhi has cylinder concave set consisting of 150mm diameter mild steel pipe of 6mm thickness coated with 36 week emery cloth to form a cylinder. The concave has 1x1mm grooves along the length and spaced at 25mm apart. The unit runs on 1 H.P. electric motor when operated at 1080rpm (8.48m/s) and gives a soybean dal yield of 85% at 8.69% moisture content (d.b) with 94% hulling efficiency. The energy requirement of unit is 2.15 Wh/kg with a milling capacity of 140kg per hour. These units have been proved to be of high utility value due to higher recovery rates of splits and improved dehusking efficiency. iii. Under runner disc (URD) Sheller: The URD sheller (300mm dia, 100mm thick, 900rpm) can be used for milling of bengal gram. It give 83% recovery of splits with 6% brokens. The energy consumption increases with increase in feed rate upto 250kg/h and remains constant (2kW) upto 300kg/h and then decreases. The Central Government is giving a big boost towards the development of this industry. It has dereserved " Pulses Milling Sector" from the category of " Small Scale Industries". Hence no license/ permission is required for setting up of a pulse mill. The mills can obtain their raw material supply from any source and there is no price distribution controls on manufactured products. Considering the above factors, a model project of an improved dal mill has been prepared with an installed processing capacity of 200 kg/hr operating in a single shift of 8 hr/day for 25 days in a month thus totaling 480 MT/ annum. The capacity of the unit can be suitably changed as per locational requirement. It is hoped that establishment of such dal mill at village/ panchayat level can play a major role in development of the sector by providing much needed processing facility to the villagers and contribution to employment generation. Source: NABARD

Process of mini dal mill


Process of de-husking is doing in two major steps. In the first step the cleaned and size graded grain are scarify followed by oil addition and sun / mechanical drying. In the second step, the removal of husk and splitting into two cotyledons is doing by passing the material through versatile dal de-husker. This de-husker gives 2-4% higher yield of good quality Dal, than the traditional Dal mill. This method developed by Techno Agencies is less laborious, requires less time and reduces losses during de-husking. One of these methods developed and ready for commercialization is 'MINI DAL MILL'. The technical up gradation & cost economics of the 'MINI DAL MILL combined with facilities of Grader cum Cleaner can prove to be a boon to the farmers. This unit installed near the farm itself. Process on Dal mill Cleaning and grading: This unit consists of a vibratory inclined sieve, hopper, grain collector, waste collector and motor. The vibratory sieves are providing with different size holes to match the requirements of the type of Dal being process. The vibrations are inducing by a cam-operated link, which is mounts on a motor driven shaft.

Pitting Process For Mini Dal Mill : An emery roller machine is use to obtain cracking and scratching of clean dal passing through it. For loosening, the husk to facilitate the subsequent oil penetration this is required. Gradually the clearance between the emery roller and cage (housing) is narrow from inlet to outlet. Cracking and scratching of husk takes place mainly by friction between dal and emery as the material is passing through the narrowing clearance. During the operation, some of the dal are de-husk and split which are separate by sieving.

Pretreatment with Oil & Water :A screw conveyor allows passing the scratched or spitted material through it and mixing of some edible oil like linseed oil is complete. The linseed oil is use at the rate of 1.5 to 2.5 kg/tones of dal . These are keeping on floors for about 12 hours to diffuse the oil.

Conditioning of dals: dal are condition by alternate wetting and drying. Moisture (3.5%) is adding to the dal after sun drying for a certain period and tempering is doing for about eight hours. The grain is dry in the sun again. By allowing water to drop from an overhead tank on the dal , which are passing through the screw conveyor addition of moisture to the dal , are achieving. Until all dal are sufficiently conditioned the whole process of alternate wetting and drying is continued for two to four days. dal are finally dry to about 10 to 12% moisture content.

De-Husking and splitting of dal: -

For De-husking of conditioned dal emery rollers called as Gota machine are used. In one pass or single operation, about 50% of dal are de-husked. De-husked dal are splitting into two parts. De-husked split dal are separate by sieving and the husk is aspirate off. Unsplit de-husked dal and tail dal are again de-husk and milled in a similar way. Until the running dal are de-husked and split of the whole process is repeated two or three times.

Pre Milling of dal :To obtain best results during de-husking and splitting of dal in the Dal de husking machine in Techno brand mini Dal mills, latest model improved version, pre milling including grading of dal size wise is very essential. The raw dal are first clean of dust, chaff, stones and other extraneous materials. Sieves grade cleaned dal or dal graded and soaked in water in cement's tanks having 6" depth. Height of dal soaked be 5" and the water level should be 1" above the dal . Soak dal are taken out of the water after specific time and put on the sieve. Swollen dal which do not pass through sieve (from which unswollen dal earlier passed through the same) are ready for heaping in shade whereas the dal which pass through the same sieves. Then these dal are ready for heaping in shade. Degree of happing of swollen dal in shade should be 30 to 40. This process should be continuing until the dal are swill to the desired extent. There after the dal are in thin layers in the open sun drying. Duration of sun drying of dal vary according to weather condition prevailing at the time of processing. After sun drying, the dal are again heap in shade so moisture contents in the dal may become uniform as need in them for dehusking. Then the dal are graded again fed in to the dal de husking machine in Techno Mini Dal Mill in graded lots to achieve he best results with minimum brokenness. For the guidance of the entrepreneurs, the process of details of pre-milling of dal after proper cleaning is show here after in a tabulated chart. http://pulverizerindia.com/mini-dal-mill.html