ITEC 1 – Intro to Computer Concepts Spreadsheet  derived from a large piece of paper that accountants used for business

finances  The accountant would spread information like costs, payments, taxes, income, etc out on a single, big, oversized sheet of paper to get a complete financial overview  a document that contains rows and columns of text and numbers Ledger  a book of spreadsheets containing accounts to which debits and credits are posted from books of original entry Spreadsheet program  is an application that helps the user to create spreadsheets commonly used for budgets, forecasting, and other finance-related tasks Electronic spreadsheet  electronic equivalent of an accounting worksheet, comprised of rows and columns to allow you to do many tasks in the organization of numbers in a clear, easy to understand format  used in almost every profession to calculate, graph, analyze and store information  used for What-if calculations. Change one number in a spreadsheet and all the calculations in a large spreadsheet will re-calculate, will automatically change.  Examples of Spreadsheet usage : - tracking personal investments budgeting Invoices inventory tracking statistical analysis numerical modeling address books telephone books printing labels, etc Advantages of an Electronic Spreadsheet  Support good design and accurate results  Program can quickly edit and format data  Perform calculations and create graphs  Perform “what-if” analysis by changing independent values in the spreadsheet  Support simultaneous use of multiple sheet Worksheet  A page organized into rows and columns appearing onscreen and used for constructing a single Workbook  A file containing a number of related worksheets Brief History of Spreadsheets  1978 – The world’s first electronic spreadsheet program, VisiCalc, was invented.  Daniel Bricklin is considered to be the father of electronic spreadsheet. He had some help from Bob Frankston  Daniel Fylstra, founding Associate Editor of Byte Magazine, joined Bricklin and Frankston in developing VisiCalc  1979 – VisiCalc was released to the public by Fylstra’s company, Personal Software (later renamed VisiCorp). It became the first computer spreadsheet program and the first killer application for PCs. (killer means, strikingly impressive or effective)

 1987 – Up to Present. the first spreadsheet program to use a mouse. in a spreadsheet and then manipulate this data to produce certain results. Excel can run on both PC and Mac. the spreadsheet program that has the combined features of 1-2-3 and Excel and runs in a graphical environment. graphs. was released by Microsoft. was released by Borland. was invented and released by Context Management Systems. ) Block/Range .ITEC 1 – Intro to Computer Concepts  1980 – SuperCalc.  Context MBA. the first spreadsheet to handle multiple spreadsheets simultaneously. word processing. Newer versions of Quattro Pro are now being developed by Corel Corp.intersection of row and column (designated by an address comprised of the column letter and row number e. usually numerical data.hori ontal a is (designated by numbers) Column .g.a rectangular group of one or more cells (identified by block coordinates (e. You can enter data. Spreadsheet terminology Row . the first spreadsheet program that handled five tasks (spreadsheets.  “I’m not rich because I invented VisiCalc.vertical a is (designated by letters) Cell . but I feel that I’ve made a change in the world.  1985 – Excel. new spreadsheet programs and updated versions of the old ones have flooded the market. and databases). The DIF (data interchange format) was developed. Lisa Calc.” Dan Bricklin What is Calc? Calc is the spreadsheet component of OpenOffice. the spreadsheet program that can handle three tasks (spreadsheets. the first spreadsheet that ran on computers using the CP/M (Control Program/Monitor) operating system. the spreadsheet program that can handle three tasks (spreadsheets. and databases) in a graphical environment. was released by Lotus Development. A1:G4) Parts of the main Calc window .g.  1981 – Multiplan. This format allowed spreadsheet data to be shared and imported into other programs. That’s a satisfaction money can’t buy.  1983 – 1-2-3. Inc. databases. and telecommunications). was introduced. was released by Apple Computer. graphs.  1987 – Quattro Pro. (OOo). was released by Microsoft Corp.

A cell address is a combination of the column letter and the row number of a cell.the numeric value entered into a cell is too wide to display within a cell. border options and background colors The Formula Toolbar contains the Name Box drop-down menu and a long white box called the Input Line or formula bar.etc. Print. 6. the name of the element appears on your screen. #NAME? – it does not recognize the name entered in a formula. A cell is the fundamental element of a worksheet. font color. The Formatting Toolbar has icons plus drop-down menus that allow you to select a font. misspelled or does not exist. This usually occurs when the name is deleted.ITEC 1 – Intro to Computer Concepts Toolbars for OOo calc   Main Menu toolbar that gives you access to many of the basic commands used in Calc. 4. 5. When you place your mouse cursor over any of the elements of a toolbar. A cell address in a spreadsheet identifies the location of the cell in the spreadsheet. 3. 7. Copy. #NULL! – the formula specifies two areas that do not intersect. ##### . such as A1 or B16. Spreadsheets includes four different types of calculation operators: • Arithmetic • Comparison • Text • Reference . #DIV/0! – the formula is attempting to divide by zero. “a”  Formula . This is where things are added and where things are seen. The formula in the cell produces a result that is too long to fit in the cell. #REF! – the cell reference is not valid. Paste. number formats. 2. etc. Function Toolbar contains icons (pictures) to provide quick access to commands like New. This usually occurs if the formula receives a numeric argument that is unacceptable. This usually occurs when cells referred to by a formula is delete. Using drag and drop Mouse Pointer  Moving  Copying    3 types of cell entry  Constants – 5. Open. #NUM! – the formula has a problem with a number. #N/A – the formula refers to a cell the data of which are not yet available. This usually occurs when the comma is omitted in an argument that contains ranges.A1+A2+A3+A4+A5  Function – SUM(A1:A5) Error Values 1. alignments.

which produces on reference to cells common to the two references (B7:D7!C6:C8) .ITEC 1 – Intro to Computer Concepts Arithmetic Operators Arithmetic operator + (plus sign) – (minus sign) * (asterisk) / (forward slash) % (percent sign) ^ (caret) Meaning (Example) Addition (3+3) Subtraction (3–1) Negation (–1) Multiplication (3*3) Division (3/3) Percent (20%) Exponentiation (3^2) Text operator & (ampersand) Connects. including the two references (B5:B15) Union operator. Reference operator : (colon) Meaning (Example) Range operator. (semi colon) Description Reference operators Negation (as in –1) . (semicolon) !(exclamation point) Order of Precedence Operator : (colon) – (single space) . two values to produce one continuous text value ("North"&"wind") The Comparison Operators The comparison operators that can be used in a logic test are: Equals ( = ) Less than ( < ) Less than or equal to ( < = ) Greater than ( > ) Greater than or equal to ( > = ) Not equal to ( < > ) Reference operators Combine ranges of cells for calculations with the following operators.D5:D15)) Intersection operator. which combines multiple references into one reference (SUM(B5:B15. which produces one reference to all the cells between two references. or concatenates.

=count(first value. =min(first value.value-if-true.) The syntax as follows: =average(first value.second value. The syntax is: =if(condition.second value.second value. (Simplifies adding all of the indicated cells together and dividing by the total number of cells.second value. etc) • Blank cells will return a value of zero to be added to the total • Text cells can not be added to a number and will produce an error The average function finds the average of the specified data.second value.second value.etc) • Text fields and blank entries are not included in the calculations of the Average Functions This min function will return the smallest (min) value in the selected range of cells. it must be in quotes .value-if-false) • Value returned may be either a number or text • If value returned is text.etc) • Blank entries are not included in the calculations of the Min Function • Text entries are not included in the calculations of the Min Function This max function will return the largest (max) value in the selected range of cells.etc) • Blank entries are not counted • Text entries are not counted This counta function will return the number of entries (actually counts each cell that contains number data OR text data) in the selected range of cells.etc) • Blank entries are not included in the calculations of the Max Function • Text entries are not included in the calculations of the Max Function This count function will return the number of entries (actually counts each cell that contains number data) in the selected range of cells.ITEC 1 – Intro to Computer Concepts % ^ * and / + and & = < > <= >= <> Percent Exponentiation Multiplication and division Addition and subtraction Connects two strings of text (concatenation) Comparison Some basic functions for an electronic spreadsheet The sum function takes all the values in each of the specified cells and totals their values. =max(first value.etc) • Blank entries are NOT counted • Text entries ARE counted The IF function will check the logical condition of a statement and return one value if true and a different value if false. =sum(first value. =countA(first value.

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