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Issue Specific Housing
2 3 D . 2 3 E . 2 3 C . 2 F Inclusive Housing What is Inclusivity? Historical Overview Today‟s Exclusive City The Case for a More Inclusive City Inclusivity at the local level Inclusive Complexes 01 | Inclusive Housing 2.1 .2. 2 3 A .1 3 . 2 3 B .
including (almost) everything within its scope 2. 6. What we term super-inclusivity. ex·clud·ing. 3. expensive: exclusive shops. 2 3 E . Numbers 1 to 10 inclusive inclusiveness (uncountable) 1. Not accompanied by others. etc. The physical proximity between different groups 2. In the western context inclusivity has generally come to mean inclusion of the aged and the disabled. 3. incompatible: mutually exclusive conditions. An inclusive list of Wiki formats 3. ex·clu·sive 1. a jar sealed to exclude outside air. 5. • Including future residents in the entire design process • Including different groups of people: 1. 23 and 24. expel. while in most of the developing world it implies economic. Not allowing something else. or accepted. but not necessarily economically 2. The court excluded the improperly obtained evidence. religious or ethnic differences . 7. 21. To put out. Not including specified extremes or limits. reject: 4. an immigration policy that excludes undesirables. The property of being inclusive. religious and cultural integration. To prevent from being included. Excluding or tending to exclude: exclusive barriers. Excluding some or most. To prevent from entering. but only area between them: 20-25.1 A What is inclusivity? ex-clude tr. 2 3 C . 2 3 D . single or sole: your exclusive function. 2 3 B .3 . 4. There are different interpretations of inclusivity. Not divided or shared with others: exclusive publishing rights. class. Including all social groups: socially inclusive. 2 F 2.v. sexuality. that is. considered. Household structure Education Sexual orientation Disability Age Inclusiveness can be better defined by first defining exclusiveness. 5. 22.1 Economic status and occupation Caste syste m Cultural. disability. 02 | Inclusive Housing 2. keep out. ex·clud·ed. but not necessarily socially 3. as from membership or participation: an exclusive club. The level of social interaction between the different social or economic groups inclusive 1. bar: 2. 8. undivided: gained their exclusive attention. race. Complete. ex·cludes 1. Catering to a wealthy clientele. the fact or policy of not excluding members or participants on the grounds of gender. exclusive. including the extremes as well as the area between 4. Including all economic groups: economically inclusive. 2. 2 3 A . Politics & Diplomacy) 1. inclusivity (Social Welfare) (Sociology) (Government. or including different social and economic groups The level of inclusivity can be measured by: 1.
whether of different economic strata. a community can be either socially inclusive or economically inclusive. Unitech (bottom left) has a range of ‘luxury’ homes to choose from.1 . but rather accepts and respects their differences. though there are many cases of housing being exclusive to a particular class or religion. 2 F Most current housing is geared towards exclusivity. or even sexual preference. generally. Human communities centre on the existence of a shared interest that enables trust. sex. Another interpretation of inclusive housing is to integrate the surrounding site conditions and residents with the designed housing. Inclusive housing can also mean involving the future residents in the entire design process. In today’s scenario the criteria is generally the spending power. Leading from the different interpretations of inclusivity. there are also different interpretations of inclusive housing: Socially inclusive or economically? The super-inclusivity discussed earlier is not feasible. familial and household structure. 03 | Inclusive Housing 2. There have also rare instances of extraordinarily exclusive housing. The level of Social Interaction There is debate regarding the extent of social interaction required. 2 3 B . Thus. It thus excludes everyone else not belonging to these groups. One might claim that spatial proximity would automatically result in social interaction. 3 . such as vegetarian-only in Soami Ngar. Amrapali SkyBungalows (bottom right) offer private lifts and separate staff lifts. 2 3 D . Jain only buildings in Mumbai. This report shall discuss economic inclusivity. while others say that just spatial proximity is sufficient. but present examples of apartment buildings leave this open to argument. 2 3 A . Inclusive Housing is thus housing which is not exclusive to any particular social or economic group. In the western context inclusivity has generally come to mean inclusion of the aged and the disabled. age. For the purpose of this study we shall consider the opportunity social inclusiveness important.Exclusive Housing is housing which is inclusive to only one (or some) particular social or economic groups. religious beliefs. 2 3 C . jobs or professions. Super-inclusive housing would include all groups of people. disabilities. The level of Spatial Integration The proximity between different economic groups can range from adjacent apartments on the same floor or adjacent plots to nearby sectors or zones exclusive to one income level. 2 3 E . Some sources consider the existence of a ‘community’ paramount (and so only living next door is not inclusive). for example. religious and cultural integration. Inclusive housing does not try to equalize everyone and bring them to the same socio-economic level. New Delhi. while in most of the developing world it implies economic.
2 F 2. homogeneous and extremely close-knit for safety from wild animals. However. communities were small. not farming or other physical strains.e. unhygienic housing. Division of neighborhoods was on the basis of lineage. [700AD onwards] In the middle-east. had an established social order. with the necropolis being central. located in occupationally divided sectors. Similar strategies were used in Roman cities too. the stability led to larger communities. the medieval city was just cleaned and beautified further with gardens and avenues.3 . an apartment house having an area of 73sqm. apart from the nobility and peasantry – the clergy. 2 3 A . i. which developed their own typology for housing – the Roman insula. This is when social stratification started. church in the center surrounded by the market. eventually. There was a segregation of the aristocracy and the peasant. Tribals were highly honoured.1B(a) Historical Overview: Inclusivity in Housing Global [Before 3500BC] During the Palaeolithic times. These people were involved in mentally/intellectually demanding tasks. This also reflected in architecture and housing. reflecting in the arrangement of dwellings. These neighborhoods were cul-de-sacs with houses on both sides. Eventually. Mesopotamia and Egypt. Some examples are Vienna and Berlin. with common walls and equality in society. which was the main place for interaction. the castle or palace was located at one end. Islamic cities took form. and yet exclusive. with the richer people inside the walled city and poor squatters outside. leading to disputes and distinctions as well. However. 2 3 D . which had more time to interact with each other. surrounded by a ring of richer settlements. Hippodamian planning was based on occupational sectors but provided community spaces for ample exchange of ideas and to promote the feeling of community. . Important examples include Damascus and Jeruselam. who were the noblemen and then the artisans and agriculturalists. they were inclusive in a sense. 2 3 E . and only one gated entry. for example. the an intellectual and artistic revolution took place because of which a new type of class arose. (Top) 3D of a Roman Insula (Bottom) A typical medieval city 04 | Inclusive Housing 2. no major planning changes were made. which is where the basic neighborhood concept started. with the presence of a leader and his followers. further skirted by the poor. 2 3 C . there was more prosperity and stability. the city exploded out of the walls. as soon as agriculture became the way of life. [3500BC to 200AD] The Greeks were the first to plan consciously on the basis of unity despite segregation. The common man lived in densely packed. by the 7th century AD. settlements like Catalhuyuk were extremely compact. Especially pre-classical civilizations .1 [1500AD to 1700AD] With the renaissance. Though initially. [1100AD to 1500AD] In the medieval city. followed by the Saiyids. 2 3 B . Hence.
2 3 E . not least by concentrating workers in the new industrial towns and suburbs linked and supplied by railways. the printing press and industrialization. Early Housing Living conditions during the Industrial Revolution varied from the splendour of the homes of the owners to the squalor of the lives of the workers. which has directly affected housing as well. 2 3 C . • Lack of personal interaction: Communication through internet and phone calls has reduced personal faceto-face communication. especially in cities. The Revolution had many important social and economic consequences. Other workers lived in sheds. housing was provided to workers by their employers. industry. people were being induced to move out of the industrialized towns and cities in order to decongest them. socially inclusive because they were shared by people from different social backgrounds (but similar economic ones). 2. have open sewers and would be at risk of damp. 05 | Inclusive Housing 2. but they were certainly economically exclusive.Socially Inclusive These tenements were. 2 F Technology and Communication Technological advancements have had a great impact on social structure. and which contained proportionate areas of residences. However. 3 . 2 3 D . built according to his ideas. On the other hand. Settlements grew around the factories.Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was a period from mid-18th century to early 19th century when major changes in modes of production and technology occurred. inclusive. in a way. computers and the internet becoming commonplace. socially. By the 19th century people were moving to cities in unprecedented numbers. Some impacts are as follows: • Awareness and Globalization: People today are more informed and there is a dilution of strict traditional prejudices with a more universal attitude. The founding of new communities had been pioneered in Britain by town planner Sir Ebenezer Howard. These homes would share toilet facilities. today.1 . 4. 3. Garden Cities The building of new towns was encouraged. This means people by nature have become a little more accommodating and thus. The “garden city” settlements of Letchworth (1903) and Welwyn (1920). The Post-industrialized Society The post-industrialized new towns were socially inclusive to an extent. In some cases. Also. and factory cellars. 2 3 A . have reduced the need for people to pas time by spending it with others – All in all. or farmland areas. communal facilities provided by some housing provided opportunity for greater social interaction within the core (not necessarily inclusive) group of residents. as a response to the overcrowded and polluted conditions evident. without even sanitation facilities or water supply. a less dependant society. This synergetic relationship can be seen from the discovery of fire to the advent of agriculture and more recently. had been designed as self-contained cities that were protected from urban encroachment by greenbelts. 1. Decongesting Industrial Towns and Cities By the early twentieth century. these advancements are happening at an exponential rate with mobile phones. 2 3 B . gadgets such as televisions etc. railway yards. and agriculture. The Revolution reshaped the urban environment. Migration While industrial workers were paid higher wages than farm labourers and there was thus an economic incentive for individuals to find industrial jobs and move into industrial towns. Poor people lived in very small houses in cramped streets.
though a sense of community was still missing. the settlement was a low rise.) These houses were inclusive within themselves. economic disparity existed within these mohallas. •They consisted of four distinct quarters. Obviously. with Indians in neighboring „black towns‟. Servant’s quarter 06 | Inclusive Housing 2.3 . This was characterized by a single story house. the colonial bungalow was the most common „housing‟. • The streets were meant only for pedestrians or animals. based on the caste system. • A similar situation is found even today. one of the earliest on Indian soil. though in varying degrees. Vedic •These settlements. egalitarianism. This gives the impression of a society with relatively low wealth concentration.1 Main House British colonial rule • During the Raj. with a servants quarter at the back and a boundary wall all around. •However. due to the absence of any other cultural group. This setup promoted the nurturing of a symbiotic personal relationship between the owners and the servants (such as gardener. except that there were a variety of cultural pockets. • The British lived in separatist colonies. which were exclusive to a particular religious group. the marketplace with the traders and merchants.. if relative. • Despite these differences. • However. 2 3 E . as they taxed them for not being Muslim. Indus Civilization cities were remarkable for their apparent. cook etc. inclusivity was not the order of the day. making it the main artery for trade and interaction. All the houses had access to water and drainage facilities. the upper class (kshatriya and brahmin) quarter and the citadel. This clearly stratified society into distinctly different built identities.1B(a) Historical Overview – Inclusivity in Housing Indian Indus Valley Civilization Although some houses were larger than others. say Hindus or Muslims. called Mohallas. the middle class (vaishya) quarter. especially in New Delhi. Even newer cities like New Delhi were planned majorly for the aristocracy and the car. Citadel Kshatriya/ Brahmin Market place Vaishya Mughal • Delhi‟s old city furthered the idea of the Vedic village. Garden . 2 3 A . (Top) Plan of a Vedic village – division based on caste and occupation (Bottom) Colonial Bungalow of Delhi Tuglaqs The Muslim invaders since the 12th century AD. in the „Pols‟ of Gujarat. separated by the main thoroughfares. economic and vocational exclusivity is apparent from the basic planning of such villages. which was evident in the difference of dwelling sizes. 2 3 C . often referred to as „white towns‟. 2 3 D . This vocational planning was the basis of most cities that came up later. 2 3 B . were automatically socially inclusive. These societies tended to alienate the local Hindu population. had settled in and around Delhi and parts of North India. 2 F 2. though clear social levelling is seen in personal adornments. excluding the lower classes. high density one.
certain parts of the city would be specifically reserved for a certain kind of housing. came as the answer to new age planning. • However. which resulted in the ouster of the poorer masses to the city periphery. Modernism. which resulted in the rise of the „middle class‟. for the rich Post-independence Era With the end of British rule. which means more poor people are migrating from villages to cities. Liberalization  Post-Independence. which had been catching on in the west for the first part of the 20th century. Also urbanization has increased. which was certainly not inclusive. were: • Gentrification As seggregation of land use took place. as discussed earlier. preventing smaller businesses from coming up. • The houses were primarily for the rich and the „poor‟ were left behind in Shahjahanabad. This not only killed diversity but slowly led to inflated land prices. by many more cities. (Below) Plan of Lutyens Delhi. the city has to become more inclusive than it ever was 3 . 2 3 A . 2 3 E . Thus. 2 F Residentia l Commerci al Official (above) Mixed land-use pattern (above) Seggregated land-use pattern 07 | Inclusive Housing 2. Informal construction was looked down upon and often removed or shifted outside the city to „beautify‟ it. which was naturally reflected in housing as well. which basically led to widespread corruption. between the owner and the servants. • Largely administrative and residential. the desire to start on a tabula rasa became widespread. within a bunglow. This led to a great divide between the rich and the poor. • Intolerance towards the informal Modern planning often advocated elevational control and repetition of elements. 2 3 C . Today there is more homogeneity in society. with some modifications. The major breakthrough came with liberalization in 1991. what existed was a „License Raj‟ with stringent rules and regulations. The experiment started with Le Corbusier‟s Chandigarh and was replicated. 2 3 D .1 . there was some amount of inclusivity. Some of the major impacts of modern planning on the inclusivity of a city. designed by the rich. 2 3 B . than there was pre-liberalization.Pre-independence Planning The only significant colonial planning concept was the one that Lutyens adopted for the design of New Delhi. the new city had wide avenues and a very low density land use.
In the early1980s the DDA appropriated most of the marshy land which was the site of the historical Hauz to construct the Saket Sports Complex. Saket residents and the Hauz Rani villagers moved freely throughthe area and the DDA constructed a paved pedestrian path and bridge which Saket with Hauz Rani. MIG.3 . most LIG and EWS residents would find work in HIG and MIG areas in the service and informal sectors: for example as household help or daily service providers. They would also help develop and be employed in local markets and other commercial areas serving HIG and MIG groups.is also more convenient for all. Infrastructure and development for all In most modern cities the trend has been the displacement and shift of the underprivileged either towards the periphery of the cities or into areas which are “environmentally degraded” and thus do not provide viable living conditions for the rest of the masses.1 E Inclusivity at the local level Inclusivity needs to be achieved on the local level amongst HIG. the camaraderie was lost and the two neighbourhoods almost became hostile to each other for a time. 2 3 E . LIG and EWS neighbourhoods. (Bottom) open space as buffer. roads and paths Hauz Rani and Saket The importance of buffer spaces can be understood by considering the case of Hauz Rani in South Delhi. integrating neighbourhood types on the local level –which automatically results in a more inclusive development. Examples are: • Parks and green spaces. hospitals. At some point the DDA ‘sports complex’ was at a stage of development when it constituted three large fields without any barriers distinguishing the open spaces. • Transport nodes like metro stations. Since only Saket residents could afford the complex. In 1990 the interim sports complex was razed and supplanted by a more elaborate version. and thus become even worse places to live. Children from Saket played football every evening with their peers from Hauz Rani. 2 3 D . etc. 2 3 A . Bus depot market Press Enclave Rd. The richer groups also benefit by having closer market areas.1 . Buffer Spaces When different economic groups live close together. On the other hand. both ‘no –man’s land’ and so ‘everyone’s land’ should be areas where all economic groups can interact. fruit and grocery vendors. 2 3 B . These areas do not receive adequate infrastructure and development funding and focus as compared to more affluent areas. (Right) Malviya Nagar. Thus. having neighbourhoods comprising of different economic backgrounds next to each other ensures that development benefits are equally distributed and shared by all communities and not accrued to only one. most times without even the most basic of services. which also directly offer employment to LIG and EWS groups • Shared facilities like places of worship. or as vegetable. Hauz Rani Saket Shivalik Jal Board open Police station Metro Malviya Nagar 10 | Inclusive Housing 2. Afluent Saket neighbours Hauz Rani -a predominantly Muslim urban village. Hauz Rani and Saket separated by different buffer spaces. which offer equal recreational opportunities for all economic groups • Markets and commercial areas. Having these different residential areas close-by reduces commuting time. that is. again reducing commuting time. Achieving inclusivity on the local level. the characteristic and design of the buffer space or neutral zone separating them become of paramount importance. These spaces. 2 3 C . expense and effort.and the two are separated by the Press Enclave Road. Employment and Commute Most residents of HIG and MIG groups and some of the LIG group would travel to the commercial/ office centres for work. 2 F 2.
but also in terms of the amount of money one wants to spend. Both groups are usually not dependant on each other in any other way. This is one of the most common typologies of housing complexes. housing will only be inclusive if the poor see it as a long term investment. not only in terms of tastes. potentially caused by inadequate finances. The factors which are imperative for inclusivity to be achieved within a housing scheme are: 1. . a one bedroom studio apartment may be designed such that on the birth of a child. or even houses. Incremental Development Affordability on the face of it is one thing. Here. This means that even plot sizes and house typologies are decided unanimously within the group of people. the possibility of dividing a space into larger number of usable units is extremely advantageous. land prices are constantly increasing. This can also be done by following a set of guidelines or ideas for adding to one‟s unit. is the desire for social engagement and shared community spaces. Social Interaction or Employment Consider a scenario where people from slightly different economic backgrounds (say MIG and HIG. consider a scenario where the complex houses people with very large background differences in (say EWS and HIG or MIG). the same apartment can be divided into two bedrooms. if adequate space is left. 2. Dehradun. • Credit/Loan assistance: These are small loans (microfinance) which are given to low income families so that they can get a house without any delay. Incremental housing with variation in plot size 11 | Inclusive Housing 2. the EWS housing is reserved for servants who work for the people from the MIGs and HIGs. The house itself is upto the inhabitant to build. Housing complex with reserved EWS units. Affordability A housing complex can only be considered inclusive if atleast some of its units are affordable by a range of economic groups. there is a scope of adding to one‟s dwelling. The unit should be affordable in the long term as well. when need be. 3 . Affordability within a housing complex can be achieved in the following ways: • Cross Subsidy: This is done by charging the rich with market rates (or auctioning). (Right) Artist’s colony.)are provided. They usually.1F Inclusive Complexes Talking of housing complexes. and families from weaker sections of society tend to increase in size. owing to a law which makes it mandatory for a builder to provide a certain percentage of EWS or LIG housing. 2 3 C . inclusivity is not only something that they ought to achieve with their surroundings. which is then left free to be inhabited by people. This is because. 2 F • Low rise High Density development: High rises tend to have higher building and maintenance costs (Left) Doon Trafalgar. electricity etc. without inconveniencing either party. 2 3 E . • Flexible spaces: In case of apartments. is if the poor work for the rich. This leads to problems of overcrowding and unsanitary conditions. Belapur. Now. These flexibilities allow personalization. For instance. The crux of the idea is that traditional settlements were also unplanned and hence more sustainable. 3. In short. except with proper services.1 • ‘Site + Services’ model: In this model. The only possible reason for these groups of people to want to live in such close proximity. the only way the housing can be inclusive. which makes for a socially and economically sustainable system. but also within themselves. More often than not.2. 2 3 D . 2 3 A . or MIG and LIG) are „neighbors‟. cannot afford to buy another bigger space/plot. In this method the builder still makes a net profit as all subsidy negotiations are within the same set of units. whereas the poor are given a small subsidy on their smaller units. It is possible to have people from different economic backgrounds residing in the same housing complex. when building for MIG or HIG groups. the varied plot sizes as well as service cores (stairs. • Variation in unit size: This automatically brings in a range of plot or apartment sizes. which translates to a variety of ranges. This is an application of that. • ‘Self help’ model: This is a development strategy in which basic services such as plumbing and electricity are provided in an otherwise empty site. water. Such a mix of housing is possible with variation in plot or apartment size. 2 3 B . The only way a housing complex can maintain inclusivity is by making sure that the poor do not feel the urge to sell their flat/plot and move out. This can be achieved in the following ways: • Additive Housing: Incase of plotted housing.
which becomes a place for social interaction and enlivens the street. 2 3 A . for more flexibility in terms of budgets and materials. • Cross subsidy has been provided for EWS and LIG groups by selling HIG plots on market value and auctioning the land for commercial purposes. LIG-11%. 2 3 B .Aranya (above) Plots with basic services only (above) Street view in Aranya . 2 3 D .1 (Above) Site plan .5 HA) Ground Coverage: 58% Residential 6. 2 F Case Study Social engagement and dependency Incremental development Project: Aranya Community Housing. which binds the colony together. • Most houses have the „otta’ (outdoor platform) in front. 2 3 E . The actual building is left upto the buyer. for vendors etc. which are 5 storeys high.5% Road space 8.3 . clusters tend to provide middle spaces which are a great for community activities. Doshi. 2 3 C . The possibility of vertical expansion and peripheral additions was kept in mind. 80 prototype houses were built by Doshi just as guidelines which may or may not be followed for future development. MIG-14%.32 sqm for EWS to 613. Also. Indore Architect: Vaastu Shilpa Foundation (B. of Dwellings: 6500 plots (6 sectors) Population: 60.73% Commercial 23. • A variety of plot sizes have been provided. • Low rise high density development model has been adopted with tallest buildings being commercial centers at the ends of the spine.94 sqm for HIG The architect designed a large number of combinations for the dwellings so that maximum diversity could be achieved. HIG-9%) Type: Site + Services • ‘Spine and cluster’ settlement: There is a main arterial road which is a very important economic stimulus. Ahmedabad) Client: Indore Development Authority Year of Completion: 1989 Site Area: 85 sq km (8. 12 | Inclusive Housing 2.15% Open spaces No.000 (EWS-65%. from 35. Affordability • Only services (connections + core) have been provided on site.V.
•HIG groups have been placed near the highway •MIG is near the arterial road •EWS and LIG are in the middle 13 | Inclusive Housing 2.1 . 2 3 D . 2 3 E . 2 3 A .3 . 2 F Economic zoning This „Zoning‟ has been done to achieve a greater variety of plots and prices. 2 3 B . 2 3 C .
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