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15.

Suppose that f ′′(x ) exists on the interval ( a, b )


1. If f ′′( x ) > 0 in ( a, b ) , then f is concave upward in ( a, b ) .
2. If f ′′( x ) < 0 in ( a, b ) , then f is concave downward in ( a, b ) .
To locate the points of inflection of y = f (x) , find the points where f ′′( x ) = 0 or where
f ′′(x ) fails to exist. These are the only candidates where f (x) may have a point of inflection.
Then test these points to make sure that f ′′( x) < 0 on one side and f ′′( x ) > 0 on the other.
16a. If a function is differentiable at point x = a , it is continuous at that point. The converse is false,
in other words, continuity does not imply differentiability.

16b. Linear Approximations


The linear approximation to f (x ) near x = x 0 is given by y = f ( x 0 ) + f ′( x0 )( x − x0 ) for
x sufficiently close to x0 .
17. L’Hôpital’s Rule
f ( x) 0 ∞ f ′( x)
If lim is of the form or , and if lim exists, then
x → a g ( x) 0 ∞ x → a g ′( x )
f ( x) f ′( x)
lim = lim .
x → a g ( x ) x → a g ′( x )
18. Inverse function
1. If f and g are two functions such that f ( g ( x )) = x for every x in the domain of
g and g ( f ( x)) = x for every x in the domain of f , then f and g are inverse
functions of each other.
2. A function f has an inverse if and only if no horizontal line intersects its graph more
than once.
3. If f is either increasing or decreasing in an interval, then f has an inverse.
4. If f is differentiable at every point on an interval I , and f ′( x) ≠ 0 on I , then
g = f −1 ( x) is differentiable at every point of the interior of the interval f (I ) and
1
g ′( f ( x )) = .
f ′( x)
19. Properties of y = e x

1. The exponential function y = e x is the inverse function of y = ln x .


2. The domain is the set of all real numbers, − ∞ < x < ∞ .
3. The range is the set of all positive numbers, y > 0 .
d x
4. (e ) = e x
dx
5. x x x + x2
e 1 ⋅e 2 = e 1
6. y = e x is continuous, increasing, and concave up for all x .

7. lim e x = +∞ and lim e x = 0 .


x → +∞ x → −∞
x
8. e ln x = x , for x > 0; ln(e ) = x for all x .
20. Properties of y = ln x
1. The domain of y = ln x is the set of all positive numbers, x > 0 .
2. The range of y = ln x is the set of all real numbers, − ∞ < y < ∞ .
3. y = ln x is continuous and increasing everywhere on its domain.
4. ln( ab ) = ln a + ln b .
a
5. ln  = ln a − ln b .
b
6. ln a r = r ln a .
7. y = ln x < 0 if 0 < x < 1 .
lim ln x = +∞ and lim ln x = −∞
8. .
x → +∞ x → 0+
ln x
9. log x =
a ln a
21a. Trapezoidal Rule
If a function f is continuous on the closed interval [ a, b] where [ a, b] has been partitioned into

n subintervals [x0 , x1 ], [x1, x2 ], ...[xn − 1, xn ] , each length


b−a
n
, then

[ ]
b
b−a
∫ f ( x) dx ≈
a 2n
f ( x ) + 2 f ( x ) + 2 f ( x ) + ... + 2 f ( x
0 1 2 n −1
) + f (x ) .
n

21b. Simpson’s Rule


Let f be continuous on [ a, b] .
Then

[ ]
b
b−a
∫ f ( x) dx ≈
a 3n
f ( x ) + 4 f ( x ) + 2 f ( x ) + 4 f ( x ) + ... + 4 f ( x
0 1 2 3 n −1
) + f (x ) ,
n
Where n is an even number of subintervals of equal length on [ a, b] .

22a. Definition of Definite Integral as the Limit of a Sum


Suppose that a function f (x ) is continuous on the closed interval [ a, b] . Divide the interval into
b−a
n equal subintervals, of length ∆x = . Choose one number in each subinterval, in other
n
words, x1 in the first, x 2 in the second, …, x k in the k th ,…, and x n in the n th . Then

n b
lim ∑ f ( x )∆x = ∫ f ( x ) dx = F (b) − F (a ) .
n → ∞k =1 k
a
22b. Properties of the Definite Integral
Let f (x ) and g (x) be continuous on [ a, b] .
b b
i).
∫a c ⋅ f ( x) dx = ca∫ f ( x) dx for any constant c .
a
ii). ∫a f ( x) dx = 0
a a
iii).
∫ f ( x ) dx = − ∫ f ( x) dx
b b
b c b
iv).
a
∫ f ( x) dx = a∫ f ( x) dx + c∫ f ( x) dx , where f is continuous on an interval
containing the numbers a, b, and c .
a
v). If f (x ) is an odd function, then ∫ f ( x ) dx = 0
−a
a a
vi). If f (x) is an even function, then ∫ f ( x) dx = 2 ∫ f ( x) dx
−a 0
b
vii). If f ( x) ≥ 0 on [ a, b] , then
∫ f ( x) dx ≥ 0
a
b b
viii). If g ( x ) ≥ f ( x ) on [ a, b ] , then g ( x) dx ≥ f ( x ) dx
a
∫ ∫
a
b b
d
23.

a
f ( x ) dx = F ( b ) − F ( a ), where F ′( x ) = f ( x ), or
dx a∫
f ( x) dx = f ( x) .

24. 1. If a particle moving along a straight line has a positive function x(t ) , then its instantaneous
velocity v (t ) = x ′(t ) and its acceleration a (t ) = v ′(t ) .
3. v(t ) = ∫ a (t ) dt and x(t ) = ∫ v(t ) dt
b
1
The average value of f (x) on [ a, b ] is
b − a a∫
25. f ( x) dx .

26. If f and g are continuous functions such that f ( x ) ≥ g ( x ) on [ a, b ] , then area between the
b
curves is [ f ( x ) − g ( x) ] dx .

a
27. Integration By “Parts”
If u = f (x) and v = g (x) and if f ′(x ) and g ′(x) are continuous, then
∫ u dx = uv − ∫ v du .
Note: The goal of the procedure is to choose u and dv so that ∫ v du is easier to solve
than the original problem.
Suggestion:
When “choosing” u , remember L.I.A.T.E, where L is the logarithmic function, I is an
inverse trigonometric function, A is an algebraic function, T is a trigonometric function, and E is
the exponential function. Just choose u as the first expression in L.I.A.T.E (and dv will be the
remaining part of the integrand). For example, when integrating ∫ x ln x dx , choose u = ln x
x
since L comes first in L.I.A.T.E, and dv = x dx . When integrating ∫ xe dx , choose u = x ,
since x is an algebraic function, and A comes before E in L.I.A.T.E, and dv = e x dx . One
more example, when integrating ∫ x Arc tan( x) dx , let u = Arc tan(x) , since I comes before
A in L.I.A.T.E, and dv = x dx .
28. Volume of Solids of Revolution
Let f be nonnegative and continuous on [ a, b] , and let R be the region bounded above by
y = f (x) , below the x-axis and the sides by the lines x = a and x = b .
1. When this region R is revolved about the x-axis, it generates a solid (hving circular cross
b
2
sections) whose volume V = x[ f ( x) ] dx .
∫a
2. When R is revolved about the y-axis, it generates a solid whose volume

V = ∫ 2π xf ( x ) dx .

28b. Volume of Solids with Known Cross Sections


b
1. For cross sections of area A(x ) , taken perpendicular to the x-axis, volume = ∫ A( x) dx .
a
b
2. For cross sections of area A( y ) , taken perpendicular to the y-axis, volume = ∫a A( y) dy .
30. Trigonometric Substitution
1. For integrals involving a 2 − u 2 , let u = a sin θ . Then a 2 − u 2 = a cosθ where
π π
− ≤θ ≤ .
2 2
2. For integrals involving a 2 + u 2 , let u = a tan θ . Then a 2 + u 2 = a secθ where
π π
− ≤θ ≤ .
2 2
3. For integrals involving u 2 − a 2 , let u = a secθ . Then u 2 − a 2 = ± a tan θ
π π
where 0 ≤θ < or < θ ≤ π . Use the positive value if u > a ; negative if u < −a .
2 2