15.

16a. 16b.

f ′′(x ) exists on the interval ( a, b ) 1. If f ′′( x ) > 0 in ( a, b ) , then f is concave upward in ( a, b ) . 2. If f ′′( x ) < 0 in ( a, b ) , then f is concave downward in ( a, b ) . To locate the points of inflection of y = f (x) , find the points where f ′′( x ) = 0 or where f ′′(x ) fails to exist. These are the only candidates where f (x) may have a point of inflection. Then test these points to make sure that f ′′( x) < 0 on one side and f ′′( x ) > 0 on the other. If a function is differentiable at point x = a , it is continuous at that point. The converse is false,
Suppose that in other words, continuity does not imply differentiability. Linear Approximations The linear approximation to

f (x ) near x = x 0 is given by y = f ( x 0 ) + f ′( x0 )( x − x0 ) for

x sufficiently close to x0 .
17. L’Hôpital’s Rule If

f ( x) f ′( x) 0 ∞ lim is of the form or , and if lim exists, then 0 ∞ x → a g ( x) x → a g ′( x ) f ( x) f ′( x) lim = lim . x → a g ( x ) x → a g ′( x ) g are two functions such that f ( g ( x )) = x for every x in the domain of g and g ( f ( x)) = x for every x in the domain of f , then f and g are inverse

18.

Inverse function 1. If f and

2. 3. 4.

functions of each other. A function f has an inverse if and only if no horizontal line intersects its graph more than once. If f is either increasing or decreasing in an interval, then f has an inverse. If

19.

f is differentiable at every point on an interval I , and f ′( x) ≠ 0 on I , then g = f −1 ( x) is differentiable at every point of the interior of the interval f (I ) and 1 g ′( f ( x )) = . f ′( x) Properties of y = e x
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

y = e x is the inverse function of y = ln x . The domain is the set of all real numbers, − ∞ < x < ∞ . The range is the set of all positive numbers, y > 0 . d x (e ) = e x dx x x x + x2 e 1 ⋅e 2 = e 1 y = e x is continuous, increasing, and concave up for all x .
The exponential function

lim e x = +∞ and lim e x = 0 . x → +∞ x → −∞ x e ln x = x , for x > 0; ln(e ) = x for all x .

20.

Properties of 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

y = ln x

y = ln x is the set of all positive numbers, x > 0 . The range of y = ln x is the set of all real numbers, − ∞ < y < ∞ . y = ln x is continuous and increasing everywhere on its domain. ln( ab ) = ln a + ln b . a ln  = ln a − ln b . b ln a r = r ln a .
The domain of

y = ln x < 0 if 0 < x < 1 . lim ln x = +∞ and lim ln x = −∞ . x → +∞ x → 0+

ln x log x = a ln a

21a.

Trapezoidal Rule If a function f is continuous on the closed interval

n subintervals b

[x0 , x1 ], [x1, x2 ], ...[xn − 1, xn ] [ [

[ a, b]

where

[ a, b]

has been partitioned into

, each length

b−a , then n

∫ f ( x) dx ≈ a

b−a f ( x ) + 2 f ( x ) + 2 f ( x ) + ... + 2 f ( x ) + f (x ) . 0 1 2 n −1 n 2n

]

21b.

Simpson’s Rule Let f be continuous on Then

[ a, b] .

b

∫ f ( x) dx ≈ a

Where 22a.

n is an even number of subintervals of equal length on [ a, b] .

b−a f ( x ) + 4 f ( x ) + 2 f ( x ) + 4 f ( x ) + ... + 4 f ( x ) + f (x ) , 0 1 2 3 n −1 n 3n

]

Definition of Definite Integral as the Limit of a Sum Suppose that a function f (x ) is continuous on the closed interval

b−a . Choose one number in each subinterval, in other n words, x1 in the first, x 2 in the second, …, x k in the k th ,…, and x n in the n th . Then b n lim ∑ f ( x )∆x = ∫ f ( x ) dx = F (b) − F (a ) . k n → ∞k =1 a n equal subintervals, of length ∆x =

[ a, b] .

Divide the interval into

22b.

Properties of the Definite Integral Let f (x ) and g (x) be continuous on

[ a, b] .

b
i).

∫ c ⋅ f ( x) dx = ca f ( x) dx for any constant c . ∫ a
a

b

ii).

∫ f ( x) dx = 0 a
a

a f ( x) dx = − ∫ f ( x) dx ∫ b b b c b iv). ∫ f ( x) dx = a f ( x) dx + c f ( x) dx , where f is continuous on an interval ∫ ∫ a containing the numbers a, b, and c . a f (x) is an odd function, then ∫ f ( x ) dx = 0 v). If −a a a vi). If f (x) is an even function, then ∫ f ( x) dx = 2 ∫ f ( x) dx −a 0 b vii). If f ( x) ≥ 0 on [ a, b] , then ∫ f ( x) dx ≥ 0 a b b viii). If g ( x ) ≥ f ( x ) on [ a, b ] , then g ( x) dx ≥ f ( x ) dx ∫ ∫ a a b b d 23. f ( x) dx = F (b) − F (a ), where F ′( x) = f ( x), or ∫ ∫ f ( x) dx = f ( x) . dx a a
iii). 24. 1. If a particle moving along a straight line has a positive function velocity 3. 25. 26.

x(t ) , then its instantaneous

v (t ) = x ′(t ) and its acceleration a (t ) = v ′(t ) . v(t ) = ∫ a (t ) dt and x(t ) = ∫ v(t ) dt

b 1 ∫ f ( x) dx . b−a a If f and g are continuous functions such that f ( x ) ≥ g ( x ) on [ a, b ] , then area between the b curves is [ f ( x ) − g ( x) ] dx . ∫ a
The average value of f (x) on [ a, b ] is

27.

Integration By “Parts” If u = f (x) and v =

g (x) and if f ′(x ) and g ′(x) are continuous, then u and dv so that

∫ u dx = uv − ∫ v du .
Note: The goal of the procedure is to choose

than the original problem. Suggestion: When “choosing” u , remember L.I.A.T.E, where L is the logarithmic function, I is an inverse trigonometric function, A is an algebraic function, T is a trigonometric function, and E is the exponential function. Just choose u as the first expression in L.I.A.T.E (and dv will be the remaining part of the integrand). For example, when integrating since L comes first in L.I.A.T.E, and since

∫ v du is easier to solve

x is an algebraic function, and A comes before E in L.I.A.T.E, and dv = e x dx . One more example, when integrating ∫ x Arc tan( x) dx , let u = Arc tan(x) , since I comes before
28. A in L.I.A.T.E, and dv = x dx . Volume of Solids of Revolution Let f be nonnegative and continuous on

∫ x ln x dx , choose u = ln x x dv = x dx . When integrating ∫ xe dx , choose u = x ,

y = f (x) , below the x-axis and the sides by the lines x = a and x = b . 1. When this region R is revolved about the x-axis, it generates a solid (hving circular cross b 2 sections) whose volume V = x[ f ( x) ] dx . ∫ a 2. When R is revolved about the y-axis, it generates a solid whose volume V = ∫ 2π xf ( x ) dx .
28b. Volume of Solids with Known Cross Sections 1. For cross sections of area

[ a, b] , and let R

be the region bounded above by

A(x ) , taken perpendicular to the x-axis, volume = A( y ) , taken perpendicular to the y-axis, volume = a 2 − u 2 , let u = a sin θ . Then

b

a b

∫ A( x) dx . ∫ A( y) dy . a

2. 30.

For cross sections of area

Trigonometric Substitution 1. For integrals involving


2.

π π ≤θ ≤ . 2 2 π π ≤θ ≤ . 2 2
0 ≤θ <

a 2 − u 2 = a cosθ where

For integrals involving

a 2 + u 2 , let u = a tan θ . Then

a 2 + u 2 = a secθ where


3.

For integrals involving where

π π or < θ ≤ π . Use the positive value if u > a ; negative if u < −a . 2 2

u 2 − a 2 , let u = a secθ . Then u 2 − a 2 = ± a tan θ