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1. If f ′′( x ) > 0 in ( a, b ) , then f is concave upward in ( a, b ) .

2. If f ′′( x ) < 0 in ( a, b ) , then f is concave downward in ( a, b ) .

To locate the points of inflection of y = f (x) , find the points where f ′′( x ) = 0 or where

f ′′(x ) fails to exist. These are the only candidates where f (x) may have a point of inflection.

Then test these points to make sure that f ′′( x) < 0 on one side and f ′′( x ) > 0 on the other.

16a. If a function is differentiable at point x = a , it is continuous at that point. The converse is false,

in other words, continuity does not imply differentiability.

The linear approximation to f (x ) near x = x 0 is given by y = f ( x 0 ) + f ′( x0 )( x − x0 ) for

x sufficiently close to x0 .

17. L’Hôpital’s Rule

f ( x) 0 ∞ f ′( x)

If lim is of the form or , and if lim exists, then

x → a g ( x) 0 ∞ x → a g ′( x )

f ( x) f ′( x)

lim = lim .

x → a g ( x ) x → a g ′( x )

18. Inverse function

1. If f and g are two functions such that f ( g ( x )) = x for every x in the domain of

g and g ( f ( x)) = x for every x in the domain of f , then f and g are inverse

functions of each other.

2. A function f has an inverse if and only if no horizontal line intersects its graph more

than once.

3. If f is either increasing or decreasing in an interval, then f has an inverse.

4. If f is differentiable at every point on an interval I , and f ′( x) ≠ 0 on I , then

g = f −1 ( x) is differentiable at every point of the interior of the interval f (I ) and

1

g ′( f ( x )) = .

f ′( x)

19. Properties of y = e x

2. The domain is the set of all real numbers, − ∞ < x < ∞ .

3. The range is the set of all positive numbers, y > 0 .

d x

4. (e ) = e x

dx

5. x x x + x2

e 1 ⋅e 2 = e 1

6. y = e x is continuous, increasing, and concave up for all x .

x → +∞ x → −∞

x

8. e ln x = x , for x > 0; ln(e ) = x for all x .

20. Properties of y = ln x

1. The domain of y = ln x is the set of all positive numbers, x > 0 .

2. The range of y = ln x is the set of all real numbers, − ∞ < y < ∞ .

3. y = ln x is continuous and increasing everywhere on its domain.

4. ln( ab ) = ln a + ln b .

a

5. ln = ln a − ln b .

b

6. ln a r = r ln a .

7. y = ln x < 0 if 0 < x < 1 .

lim ln x = +∞ and lim ln x = −∞

8. .

x → +∞ x → 0+

ln x

9. log x =

a ln a

21a. Trapezoidal Rule

If a function f is continuous on the closed interval [ a, b] where [ a, b] has been partitioned into

b−a

n

, then

[ ]

b

b−a

∫ f ( x) dx ≈

a 2n

f ( x ) + 2 f ( x ) + 2 f ( x ) + ... + 2 f ( x

0 1 2 n −1

) + f (x ) .

n

Let f be continuous on [ a, b] .

Then

[ ]

b

b−a

∫ f ( x) dx ≈

a 3n

f ( x ) + 4 f ( x ) + 2 f ( x ) + 4 f ( x ) + ... + 4 f ( x

0 1 2 3 n −1

) + f (x ) ,

n

Where n is an even number of subintervals of equal length on [ a, b] .

Suppose that a function f (x ) is continuous on the closed interval [ a, b] . Divide the interval into

b−a

n equal subintervals, of length ∆x = . Choose one number in each subinterval, in other

n

words, x1 in the first, x 2 in the second, …, x k in the k th ,…, and x n in the n th . Then

n b

lim ∑ f ( x )∆x = ∫ f ( x ) dx = F (b) − F (a ) .

n → ∞k =1 k

a

22b. Properties of the Definite Integral

Let f (x ) and g (x) be continuous on [ a, b] .

b b

i).

∫a c ⋅ f ( x) dx = ca∫ f ( x) dx for any constant c .

a

ii). ∫a f ( x) dx = 0

a a

iii).

∫ f ( x ) dx = − ∫ f ( x) dx

b b

b c b

iv).

a

∫ f ( x) dx = a∫ f ( x) dx + c∫ f ( x) dx , where f is continuous on an interval

containing the numbers a, b, and c .

a

v). If f (x ) is an odd function, then ∫ f ( x ) dx = 0

−a

a a

vi). If f (x) is an even function, then ∫ f ( x) dx = 2 ∫ f ( x) dx

−a 0

b

vii). If f ( x) ≥ 0 on [ a, b] , then

∫ f ( x) dx ≥ 0

a

b b

viii). If g ( x ) ≥ f ( x ) on [ a, b ] , then g ( x) dx ≥ f ( x ) dx

a

∫ ∫

a

b b

d

23.

∫

a

f ( x ) dx = F ( b ) − F ( a ), where F ′( x ) = f ( x ), or

dx a∫

f ( x) dx = f ( x) .

24. 1. If a particle moving along a straight line has a positive function x(t ) , then its instantaneous

velocity v (t ) = x ′(t ) and its acceleration a (t ) = v ′(t ) .

3. v(t ) = ∫ a (t ) dt and x(t ) = ∫ v(t ) dt

b

1

The average value of f (x) on [ a, b ] is

b − a a∫

25. f ( x) dx .

26. If f and g are continuous functions such that f ( x ) ≥ g ( x ) on [ a, b ] , then area between the

b

curves is [ f ( x ) − g ( x) ] dx .

∫

a

27. Integration By “Parts”

If u = f (x) and v = g (x) and if f ′(x ) and g ′(x) are continuous, then

∫ u dx = uv − ∫ v du .

Note: The goal of the procedure is to choose u and dv so that ∫ v du is easier to solve

than the original problem.

Suggestion:

When “choosing” u , remember L.I.A.T.E, where L is the logarithmic function, I is an

inverse trigonometric function, A is an algebraic function, T is a trigonometric function, and E is

the exponential function. Just choose u as the first expression in L.I.A.T.E (and dv will be the

remaining part of the integrand). For example, when integrating ∫ x ln x dx , choose u = ln x

x

since L comes first in L.I.A.T.E, and dv = x dx . When integrating ∫ xe dx , choose u = x ,

since x is an algebraic function, and A comes before E in L.I.A.T.E, and dv = e x dx . One

more example, when integrating ∫ x Arc tan( x) dx , let u = Arc tan(x) , since I comes before

A in L.I.A.T.E, and dv = x dx .

28. Volume of Solids of Revolution

Let f be nonnegative and continuous on [ a, b] , and let R be the region bounded above by

y = f (x) , below the x-axis and the sides by the lines x = a and x = b .

1. When this region R is revolved about the x-axis, it generates a solid (hving circular cross

b

2

sections) whose volume V = x[ f ( x) ] dx .

∫a

2. When R is revolved about the y-axis, it generates a solid whose volume

V = ∫ 2π xf ( x ) dx .

b

1. For cross sections of area A(x ) , taken perpendicular to the x-axis, volume = ∫ A( x) dx .

a

b

2. For cross sections of area A( y ) , taken perpendicular to the y-axis, volume = ∫a A( y) dy .

30. Trigonometric Substitution

1. For integrals involving a 2 − u 2 , let u = a sin θ . Then a 2 − u 2 = a cosθ where

π π

− ≤θ ≤ .

2 2

2. For integrals involving a 2 + u 2 , let u = a tan θ . Then a 2 + u 2 = a secθ where

π π

− ≤θ ≤ .

2 2

3. For integrals involving u 2 − a 2 , let u = a secθ . Then u 2 − a 2 = ± a tan θ

π π

where 0 ≤θ < or < θ ≤ π . Use the positive value if u > a ; negative if u < −a .

2 2

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