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World's 4th Most Accident-Prone Country

According to the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the Philippines was the fourth most accident prone country in the world. The two institutions arrived at this conclusion after finding out that some 5,809,986 Filipinos were killed or injured as a result of disasters or man-made calamities over a ten-year period (1992-2001).


The ACTIVE Phase




An event that occur when significant number of people are exposed to hazards to which they are vulnerable, with resulting injury and loss of life often combined with damage to property. 1/Types-of-Disasters


Risk is a measure of the expected losses due to a hazardous event of a particular magnitude occurring in a given area over a specific time period. Risk is a function of the probability of particular occurrences and the losses each would cause.
The level of risk depends on: 1. Nature of the Hazard 2. Vulnerability of the elements which are affected 3. Economic value of those elements






Risk Assessment




The ACTIVE Phase


Prevention Can you??



If not, then Mitigation

Then prepare through planning, training, exercising & reviewing.



Characteristics Occurs with no warning Sudden onset Major effects arise mainly from land movement, fracture or slippage
Volcanic arcs and oceanic trenches partly encircling the Pacific Basin form the so-called Ring of Fire, a zone of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

Worst Earthquakes
On August 2, 1968, an earthquake caused the collapse of Ruby Tower buildings, leaving hundreds of people trapped underneath the rubble. On August 17, 1976, an earthquake caused a tidal wave or tsunami that killed about 8,000 people in Mindanao, On July 16, 1990, an earthquake that registered 7.7 on the Richter scale killed 1,700 people, injured 3,000 individuals and displaced 148,000 more in Luzon. Among the cities that sustained the worst damages were Baguio, Dagupan and Cabanatuan.

Problems Areas of Management:

1. Severe and extensive damage 2. Difficulty of access movement 3. Widespread loss of damage to infrastructure, essential services, 4. And life support system 5. Recovery requirements restoration, rebuilding (extensive and costly)


Volcanic Eruptions

Volcanic Eruptions
Characteristics 1. Major eruptions can be predicted 2. Destroy infrastructure and environment 3. Land surface cracking, resulting from volcanic explosion 4. Lava flow bury buildings and crops It may cause fires and render land usable 5. Ash in its airborne form can affect aircraft by ingestion into engines 6. Ground deposit of ash may destroy crops and affect land use and water supplies 7. Ash may cause respiratory problems 8. Mud flows may arise from associated heavy rain

There are 37 volcanoes in the Philippines, of which 18 are still active volcanoes.

Worst Volcanic Eruptions

In June, 1991, Mount Pinatubo in Zambales province had the century's second largest volcanic eruption, as it unleashed some 15 million tons of sulfur dioxide into the earth's atmosphere that resulted in slight cooling of the earth's temperature. Thousands of people were believed killed as a result of the eruption and the subsequent lahar flow, which buried several villages in the provinces of Pampanga, Tarlac and Zambales. The eruption also forced American troops out of their bases in Clark, Pampanga and Subic, Zambales.

Counter Measures:
1. Lava-use regulations 2. Lava control system 3. Development of monitoring and warning system 4. Evacuation plans and arrangement 5. Relocation and population 6. Public awareness and education program


Problem areas for management 1. Access problem during eruption 2. Timely and accurate evacuation decisions 3. Public apathy 4. Control incoming sightseers during implementation of evacuation plans

Characteristics 1. Velocity of the waves depends on the depth of water where the seismic disturbance occurs; maybe as high as 900kph 2. Warning signs depends on distance from point of origin 3. Speed of onset varies 4. Impact of shoreline is preceded by marked recession of normal water level 5. Wave heights can be as high as 30 meters 6. Impact can cause: -flood salt water contamination of crops, soil and water supplies; destruction or damage to buildings, structures and shoreline vegetation

General Counter Measures:

1. Optimum arrangements for receipt and dissemination of warning 2. Evacuation of threatened communities from sea level, low level to high grounds 3. Land use regulations 4. Public awareness and education program 5. Program areas for management 6. Evacuation time scale 7. Search and rescue 8. Recovery problem may be extensive and costly due to severe destruction and damage 9. Timely dissemination and warning

Characteristics 1. Usually long warning, derived from systematic international meteorological observation 2. Speed of onset gradual 3. Tends to conform to seasonal pattern 4. Major effects: came from destructive forceful winds, storm surge (producing inundation) and flooding from intense rainfall 5. Destruction and or severe damage to building and other structures, roads, essential services, crops and the environment 6. Major loss of life and livestock occur


The Philippines suffers from an average of 20 major storms every year.

Typhoon Ketsana (International designation: 0916, JTWC designation: 17W, PAGASA name: Ondoy) was the most devastating typhoon in the 2009 Pacific typhoon season with a damage of $1.09 billion and 747 fatalities. The storm was the twenty-seventh tropical storm, eighth typhoon and the second major typhoon in the season. It was the most devastating typhoon to hit Manila,[1] surpassing the Typhoon Patsy in 1970.

Worst Typhoons & Flash Flood

As a typhoon codenamed Thelma was passing the Philippines on November 5, 1991, a flash flood hit Ormoc City in Leyte province, killing at least 3,000 people and destroying the homes of 50,000 others. In September 1984, a typhoon codenamed Ike killed 1,300 persons while in 1995 typhoon Angela killed 700 people.

General Counter Measures Effective Warning Arrangements

1. Precautionary measures during warning period (boarding-up buildings, closing public facilities) 2. Moving people to safe shelters 3. General readiness and clean up measures prior to expected cyclone season (especially to reduce risk of flying objects) 4. Building regulations 5. Public education and awareness


6. Assessment of affects and needs may be difficult 7. Widespread destruction or loss of counterdisaster resources 8. Difficulty of access and movement for relief operations and medical assistance program 9. Search and rescue 10.Evacuation 11.Widespread destruction/disruption of essential services 12.Rehabilitation of agriculture (especially the crops)

1. Long, short or no warning depending on type of flood 2. Speed of onset may be gradual or sudden 3. There may be seasonal patterns to flooding 4. Major affects arise mainly from inundation and erosion

On August 3, 1999, heavy torrential rains caused a landslide that killed 58 people and buried over 100 houses at Cherry Hills Subsivision in Antipolo City. On November 9, 2001, a typhoon locally named "Nanang" caused a flashflood that buried 350 residents of Mahinog in the island-province of Camiguin. The highest death toll during a weather disturbance was reported in Bangladesh when a strong cyclone (typhoon) killed nearly 300,000 people in November 1970.

General Counter measures

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Flood control (walls, gates, dams. Dikes, levees) Land use regulations Building regulations Forecasting, monitoring and warning systems Relocation of population Evacuation plans and arrangements Emergency equipment, facilities and materials, such as special flood boats, sandbag, supplies of sand 8. Public awareness and education programs


Problem Areas for Management

1. Difficulties of access ad movement 2. Rescue 3. Medical health difficulties arising from sanitation problem 4. Large scale relief may be required until next crop harvest 5. Evacuation 6. Loss of supplies

Disaster-related epidemic arises from disrupted living conditions following disasters Epidemic may arise from: 1. Food sources 2. Malnutrition 3. Water sources 4. Vector-bornes diseases 5. Inadequate medical and health facilities and standards

General Counter Measures

1. Close post-disaster monitoring of medical and health aspects 2. Reinforcement of medical and health aspects 3. An effective medical and health sub-plan 4. Reinforcement of medical resources and supplies 5. Public awareness and education

Problem Areas for Management

1. Loss of medical and health resources 2. In country shortage of special equipment 3. Integration of outside (international) medical and health assistance with local systems 4. Containment and control of common diseases


1. Warning period may vary 2. Speed of onset is mostly rapid 3. Damage to structures and systems can be severe (buildings may be varied or villages swept away) 4. Rivers may be locked causing flooding 5. Crops may be affected 6. Landslides combined with very heavy rain and heavy rain and flooding may cause high levels of damage and destruction

General Counter Measures

1. Land-use and building regulations 2. Monitoring systems 3. Evacuation and or relocation of communities. Relocation has proved successful where crop growing land areas have been lost. 4. Public awareness programs

Problem Areas for Management

1. Difficulties of access and movement in affected areas 2. Search and rescue 3. Risk of follow-up landslides may hamper response operations 4. Relocation may be restricted by indigenous 5. Relocation may be resisted by indigenous communities 6. Rehabilitation recovery may be complex and costly 7. In severe cases,, it may not be possible and / or cost effective to rehabilitate the area for organized human settlement

plane crash

Festival Tragedy
sea mishap




Worst Fires
On March 18, 1996 a fire at Ozone disco along Timog Avenue in Quezon City left 150 people dead and 90 others seriously injured. Around 350 young Filipinos were inside the bar when the fire struck. It was considered the worst nightclub fire since a blaze killed 164 people in Southgate, Kentucky in 1977. On August 18, 2001, a fire gutted Manor Hotel in Quezon City, killing 75 guests and wounding 52 others. The victims, mostly local members of the Dawn Flowers Ministry, a Texas-based Christian evangelical group, were asleep when the fire struck. They were trapped inside their rooms because the hotel's fire exit was blocked.

The annual observance of fire prevention month is pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 115-A signed by then President Ferdinand Marcos in 1967.

Fire Prevention Month

News on TV alone proves that fire accidents are always devastating. Whatever is the cause of fire (i.e., faulty wiring system, gas leak, accidental burning, bombing, etc.), means to prevent fire will always come in handy especially in homes and business establishments. Who can ever forget the incidence in Glorietta Mall?

He said that the Tuguegarao and Navotas fire incidents that claimed a number of lives and damaged millions of pesos of properties should serve as a wake-up call for all of us to always be on guard and to fireproof our surroundings. Citing a report from the BFPs Intelligence and Investigation Division, Robredo said that for January 2011 alone, a total of 686 fire incidents occurred nationwide with a total of 68 casualties and damages of around P240-million of properties. The same report noted that of the 686 fire incidents in January, majority or 512 were accidental fires, 17 were intentional, 150 are still under investigation, while seven are still undetermined, he said.



A series of activities has also been lined up during the month which include the following: Refresher Training Course for Volunteer Fire and Disaster Control Brigades; drawing, essay writing, photo and poster making contest on fire prevention in different schools; Barangay Fire Olympics on March 14 and BFP-NCR Fire Olympics on March 25. Fire safety inspection, hydrant testing, fire drills, caravans and Barangay Ugnayan shall also be held in the different regions of the country.

Prevention is an important
component of Disaster Risk Reduction. Action within this phase is designed to prevent damaging consequences.

Fire prevention tips

The following fire prevention measures are generally recommended: 1. Proper installation and maintenance of electrical connections 2. Avoiding the use of metal items like staples or nails to fasten electric cords 3. Proper maintenance of electric cords 4. Proper use, storage, and maintenance of all electrical appliances 5. Unplugging of electrical appliances after use 6. Proper connection and maintenance of gas stoves and LPG tanks

7. Keeping flammable liquids, matches, and lighters out of childrens reach 8. Avoiding smoking indoors and making sure that cigarette butts are fully extinguished when discarding them 9. Making sure that lighted candles and mosquito coils are never left unattended 10.Obeying of no smoking signs 11.Installation and maintenance of fire detection and prevention devices 12.Securing an appropriate and effective fire extinguisher for your home, which should be Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) certified 13.Proper storage of flammable items 14.Keeping flammable objects away from stoves and other heating devices 15.Observing vigilance when cooking



Worst Sea Accidents

In December 1987, some 4,341 people died when Dona Paz, an inter-island passenger ferry owned by Sulpicio Lines collided with an oil tanker off Mindoro Island. Sadly it was not to be the last sea tragedy in the Philippines, an archipelago of 7,107 islands. In 1988, around 250 people died when Dona Marilyn, another passenger ferry owned by Sulpicio Lines, sank. On April 11, 2002, at least 30 people were killed when MV Maria Carmella, which was bound from the island-province of Masbate for Lucena City in Quezon province, caught fire.

Among the most frequently mentioned causes of the sea accidents were overloading of the ship, ageing facilities, badly trained crewmembers, and poor compliance by the vessels with safety precautions and measures. While the Philippines has over 7,100 islands and 10,000 ships or boats, the Philippine Coastguard has only 4,000 men.

Worst Air Accidents

On April 19, 2000, some 131 people were killed when a commercial airplane from Manila crashed in Samal Island, Davao del Norte province (southern Mindanao). All the passengers and crew, including four infants, of Air Philippines Boeing 737-200 (Flight 541 from Manila) died in what is now considered the worst air tragedy in the Philippines. A local commercial flight bound for northern Luzon crashed into Manila Bay seven minutes after takeoff in the morning of November 11, 2002, leaving 19 people including six foreign tourists dead. Ten people survived.

The ill-fated airplane - an ageing Fokker 27 - was bound from Manila for Laoag City in northern Luzon, with 29 passengers and crewmembers on board, when it encountered an engine trouble and crashed one kilometer off the Manila Bay shoreline in Paranaque City. The dead victims include five Australian tourists and a British national. Among the 10 survivors was an Australian tourist. The two Filipino captains of the airplane also survived, along with a flight stewardess and a plane mechanic. On July 2, 2000, an Air Force Nomad plane crashed somewhere in Sulu Sea, killing its 13 crewmembers and passengers, including the late Palawan Governor Salvador Socrates and Western Command chief Maj. Gen. Santiago Madrid.



Worst Festival Tragedy On July 2, 1993, a pagoda carrying hundreds of Catholic devotees during the annual pagoda festival in Bocaue, Bulacan sank into the muddy Bocaue River. About 279 people, including children, drowned in the incident. One victim, Sajid Bulig, died a hero after saving four children out of the river.

too much extraction of groundwater

armed conflicts

deportation or relocation incidents


Coastal Areas Sinking According to the University of the Philippines' National Institute of Geological Sciences, low coastal areas at the Manila Bay, such as Caloocan, Malabon, Navotas, Valenzuela and several towns in Bulacan, Pampanga and Bataan have sunk one meter in the past 30 years or ten times than the rate of the global sea level rise in the last century. In their paper "Flooding in Pampanga, Bataan, Bulacan and Camanava: Causes, Trends and Possible Solutions", geologists blamed the fast rise of water level at the Manila Bay to too much extraction of groundwater by a growing population and economic activities. There are about 23 million people living around the Manila Bay, who experience flood during the rainy season.

Worst Disaster in History

On July 12, 2000, the Philippines witnessed one of the world's most horrifying images of social tragedy in history. Nearly 500 garbage scavengers who were living literally at the Payatas dumpsite in Quezon City were buried alive under tons of garbage when a 50-foot garbage mountain collapsed on their makeshift houses at the height of torrential rains. It was a tragic commentary on poverty in the Philippines, yet the lesson remains to be learned to this day.



Worst Terrorist Attacks

No one thought that banditry still exists in the modern era. In April 1995, the Muslim extremist Abu Sayyaf (Bearers of the Sword) group raided the Christian town of Ipil in Zamboanga del Norte province and burned all its houses and establishments. The group also shot dead at least 54 residents of the town. The worst terrorist attack in Metro Manila took place on December 30, 2000, which was a holiday (Rizal Day). A series of bombings rocked the metropolis on that day. The worst explosion happened inside a train of the Light Rail Transit (LRT) in Manila where 22 passengers were killed and hundreds more were wounded.

In March, 2002, a group which identified itself as the Indigenous Federal State Army planted at least 10 hoax bombs around Metro Manila purportedly to demand the establishment of separate governments for Muslim and indigenous people. Investigators, however, denied that such a group exists and blamed the bomb scare to existing rebel groups.

On April 21, 2002, 15 innocent civilians were killed while 60 others were injured when a bomb exploded outside a shopping mall in General Santos City (southern Mindanao). The Abu Sayyaf quickly claimed responsibility over the bombing, although the military was convinced that a larger Muslim rebel group could be involved. On October 19, a bomb exploded aboard a public bus, killing three passengers and wounding 19 others in Balintawak, Quezon City. A fragmentation grenade also exploded in Makati City but injured no one on October 17.

On October 17, two of the seven bombs planted around Zamboanga City (western Mindanao) exploded, leaving seven people dead and 144 others injured. On October 10, a bomb, which was allegedly planted by an extortion group, exploded inside a bus terminal in Kidapawan City (central Mindanao), leaving 8 people dead and 25 others injured. On the night of October 2, a bomb, allegedly planted by Muslim extremist Abu Sayyaf group, exploded in front of a karaoke bar in Zamboanga City (western Mindanao), killing an American soldier and two Filipinos and wounding 19 others, including another American soldier.



September 11 Attacks What is considered as the world's terrorist attack was the September 11 airplane assault on the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York in 2001. About 3,000 people were believed killed in the incident that brought all the floors of the two buildings to the ground. Reports said there were at least 500 Filipinos or Filipino-Americans working at the World Trade Center. There were 80,000 Filipinos living in New York City and another 50,000 in Washington D.C.

Sound risk assessment

obtaining accurate information impact it will have on the country and its people identification of opportunities

What to do in case of fire

1. Small fires may be extinguished by covering the flame with a non-flammable item like a pot cover or a dampened towel or blanket. Water should be used only for non-electrical fires. 2. If the fire gets out of hand, the nearest fire department should be called. 3. Escape quickly. Your household should agree on an escape plan and each room should have at least two easily accessible escape routes. 4. Avoid suffocation in a smoke-filled room by crawling as close to the ground as possible on hands and knees to the nearest exit. 5. If your clothes catch on fire, stop, drop and roll to extinguish the flames

On How To Prevent Fire Accident:

Cigarette Smoking is the number one factor of causing fire especially at home, offices, and even in public places. Throwing of Cigarette butts irresponsibly anywhere could possibly ignite some combustible materials and it can create a huge fire. Cooking in the Kitchen Mostly we used electrical stove, charcoal, gas-stove, to start fire and cook our food, however, some people are not aware that using these tools are harmful if not properly use. In some scenario that you need to leave the kitchen do not leave the cooking pan or pots unattended putt-off the fire first before leaving the area.



Candles or Kerosene lamp are usually use as an alternative if power outage are being experience during at night. To avoid fire incident, do not place it near the curtain and other combustible materials. Before going to bed to sleep, make sure that the lights have been put-off. Electrical Appliances are also one of the contributors in causing major fire accident. Never make a wire octopus connection, do not plug-in an electrical appliances for a long period of time especially when not in use. Do not experiment especially if you dont have ideas about electricity. Make sure to turn off the main electrical circuit breaker before leaving the house if no one left. Hazardous Materials we should disposed properly hazardous materials like paints, gas, adhesives and other combustible chemicals since these can cause fire.

Focus on practical steps that you and your family can take to become better prepared.