"Al-Taḥannuth": An Inquiry into the Meaning of a Term Author(s): M. J.
Kister Reviewed work(s): Source: Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 31, No. 2 (1968), pp. 223-236 Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of School of Oriental and African Studies Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/610681 . Accessed: 13/03/2012 10:03
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I. Guillaume (tr.. With him was his family.AL-TAHANNUTH AN INQUIRY INTO THE MEANING OF A TERM
By M. H. Berlin. After the conclusion of that month of sojourn. Then he would go back to his home.). 190. Cairo. 2 See of Ibn Hajar. 1956. Das Leben Muhammeds. Several meanings have been attached to it by modern scholars. That was the tahannuth which Quraysh used to practise in the period of the Jahiliyya (wa-kdna dhdlika mimmi tahannathabihi Qurayshunfi 'l-Jdhiliyyati). ed. 280-1. feeding 5 the poor who called on him. 126 or 129). Cairo. Qatada al-Laythi• and reported by Wahb b. as A. 24. The date of his death given by F. Hiriin. 272 (the discussion as to whether it happened in Ramadan.. n. 71 (died A. al-Sfra al-nabawiyya. Kaysan. A re-examination of the material seems to give us a clue for elucidation of the meaning of and the ideas connected with it. I The word al-tahannuthoccurs in the famous tradition recorded in the Sira of Ibn Ishaq concerning the 'Beginning of the Prophethood '. he would go to the Ka'ba and circumambulate it seven times or as many times as it pleased God. 1955.H. 74) . Sifat al-safwa. XXXI. Schaeder. 1936. al-Asbagh. London.H. Buhl. 6 See al-Halabi. Shifd' al-ghardm. ed. idem. VOL. Heidelberg. 'Umayr related the tradition in the presence of 'AbdullAhb. second ed. When the month came in which God wished to grant him His grace (karama).annuth 'Call to Prophecy ' of Muhammad. PART 2. 'Umayr b.. Hira' 4 for a month every year.. zweite Auflage..98 seems to be an error.H. 4 For the location of the place see Muhammad Hamidullih. The life of Muhammad. 'The Prophet--says the tradition-used to sojourn (yujaiwiru)on Mt. 3 See Ibn Hajar. the apostle would pray in seclusion and give food to the poor.'. eI8'dfalmubatta. 6 In the translation of Guillaume : '. 1368/1948-9. 105.. 1869. I. Le Prophete de l'Islam. among them was Wahb b.H.' HI. (Nawadir al-makhkt. 50 (records that he died A. al-Islim. he was the QdA? the people of Mecca) . n. Tadhkirat I.d.. 67. see A. Das Lebenund die Lehre des Mohammad. And see Ibn al-Jauzi. e 1959. see A. al-SaqqA. The tradition is quoted on the authority of 'Ubayd b. Cairo. 1955. 'Abd al-Salim Mount Nur presente. al-Suyfiti. The Prophet used to sojourn during that month every year. al-Zubayr and other people. 419). Insdn al-'uyiin. before entering his house. 64: ' situ6 un kilometre a peine de l'emplacement de la maison de Muhammad le and see 'Arrim b. I.H. I. Tahdhib al-tahdhib. 134. 339. I. Sprenger. p. J. III. Cairo. xI. al-Dhahabi. in the year when God sent him and it was the month of Ramadan 6 the Prophet went out to as was his custom for his sojourn (li-jiwdrihi)..tt. KISTER The expression tahannuth mentioned in some traditions in connexion with the first revelation of the Prophet was variously interpreted by Muslim philologists and commentators of hadith. 127). transl. Ta'rikh al-buffz. al-Abydri. Tahdhfb al-tahdhib. al-Fisi. Asmd' jibdl Tihdma. Shalabi.vII. H. This may also be helpful towards understanding the circumstances of the tah.3 'Ubayd b. 251.'. 16
1 Ibn Hishim.. 166 (died A. or in the month of Rabi' al-awwal or in the month of Rajab). 41 (gives the date of his death as A. Paris. 1956. Cairo.. Kaysan.
and he assured the Prophet that the sent down upon Moses. al-Ansdb. al-Khasd'is al-kubrd. 111. Hyderabad. al-Zurq~ni..Cairo. viii.Sah•i. 'Uqba and Sulaymin al-Taymi (al-Suyiiti. al-Zurqani. al-Dhahabi. al-anwdr. 97 (Rabi' al-awwal or Rajab). 84. 1357/1938-9. 1380/1960-1. al-BajdwI. III. 1. his heart fluttering. I. Ibn Sayyid al-Nis. Hyderabad. Tadhkirat al-4uffd. Tahdhfb. I. 13. 423. I. Shar4 al-mawdhibal-ladunniya. 1354/1935-6. Berlin.alabi. angel-guardian According to a version recorded by al-Balddhuri. 369.d. Tahdhfb. Tahdhib. al-Zuhri)-'Urwa b. 56.... 1963. 237. xvIII. 8 In fact YahyA b. 1355/1936-7. Cairo. 16. Ansdb. but Zubayr-'A'isha. 1962.quddfis. 213 . 63. n. the sojourn). 'Umdat al-qdri'. 47]. vii. II. her cousin. Documenta Islamica inedita. told her about the revelation. xvIII. Muhammad Hamidulldh. 189 inf. and he used to take provisions for it (i. 'Abd al-Mu'allami. I. ed. I. 1.I. Cairo. J.b4ib) to go with the Prophet to Waraqa. Cairo. 6. Naufal. It is H. He is the of Miisi and 'Isa. I. 1. 1. . 1. Shurahbil al-Hamddni al-Kifi--see Ibn Hajar. He asked her : ' O. 'Uyin al-athar. alThe tradition 1 contains the expression tahannatha. 'Ali Muh.) This tradition is reported also by: al-Suhayli. 'Uyf~n al-athar. The passage we are concerned with runs in the Sahih as follows : '. 1950. 282. I. al-Ra.4. Ta'rfkh Baghdid. Likewise. 31. a servant (ghuldm) of Bihar 'Utba b. etc. 'Abdullih b. Khadija asked Abii Bakr (. xI. 'Mohammed's Call'. 228) Khadija went with the Prophet to 'Addis. Mzfzn al-i'tiddl. According revelation had been a true one and that it had been the Nmimus to a tradition reported on the authority of Mifsd b. KISTER
The tradition giving an account of the same events in al-Bukhari's 7 is told on the authority of 'A'isha. ed. Beirut. al-'Ayni. 157 (on the authority of Yiinus b.4 from bottom. 194. Cairo. 420 . (The tradition is reported on the authority of Ibn IshaqAbil Maysara ['Amr b. cit.e. I. 1308/1890-1. Tahdhfb. al-Suyiiti. 6. 1. and found comfort in her words.annantuh&faj'ata 'l-jinni. 1. Ibn HIajar. 6 from bottom.. al-Raud al-unuf. See Abil Nu'aym. 459. op.). So things went on till the Truth came upon him (ja'ahu 'l-haqqu)12 when he was in the cave of Hira' '. xIII. Bukayr: see Ibn Hajar. 1319/1901-2. She took him to Waraqa b. Cairo. 'Sechs Erginzungen zu Sachaus Ausgabe von al-Birfinis " Chronologie " orientalischer V1olker '. 227. alInsin al-'uy?2n. 5. al-'Ayni. al-Khausd'is al-kubrS.. Sah. 6998. al-'Ayni. 83. n. (stating that it happened in Rajab) . 1. Tehran. al-Baladhuri. al-Durr al-manthiir. 13 According to the tradition of al-Bukh~ri the Prophet returned to his wife Khadija. Ibn al-Athir. 1356/1937-8. I. p. 1. Rabi'a. Then he was made to cherish solitude and he sojourned alone in the cave of Hira' and practised tahannutha number of nights before he returned to his family . xvIII. Then he would go back to Khadija and take provisions for a similar (period of sojourn). 12 In the tradition of Ibn Sa'd. 105-6. Cairo. 1952. Cairo. 6. The chain of the isnid includes Yahya b. AnsWb al-ashrdf. Ibn Sayyid al-Nds.hmin Ibn Hajar. xxIv. and al-Majlisi. 1960.e. I. differs in many respects from the tradition of Ibn Ishaq. 3-14. Bukayr-Ibn Ishiq). He was a Christian from the people of Niniveh and she asked him about Jibril. I. Fiick (ed. 10 See al-Sam'dni. asked her to wrap him up. 275. I. 96. I. al-Kdmil. no. Tabaqdt. 171. Bihar. I. 27. in J. Ta'rikh al-Khamis. 255. ed. Ansdb. 105. 11 See the rendering of the tradition in Richard Bell. I. And cf. 4 from bottom. al-Majlisi. Bihdr al-anwdr. al-Majlisi. I. I. 7 Al-Bukhiri. artt& faji'ahu 'l-haqqu 'till Truth came upon him suddenly'. Lady of the women of Quraysh. Shar4. Dald'il al-nubuwwa. He shouted Quddfzs. J. 211. vIII. idem. 1314/1896-7. how is Jibril mentioned in this country of the worshippers of idols ? ' She urged him to tell her about Jibril and he stated that Jibril was the trustee (amen) of Alldh over the Prophets. Cairo. and cf.h Bukayr 8-al-Layth 9-'Uqayl 10-Ibn Shihab (i. al-Dhahabi. 1959. 5--Bb kayfa kdna bad'u 'l-wahyi il5 rasuli 'llihi. 410. al-BalddhurI.
.evident that this tradition is of importance : it states that the first believer was Abil Bakr. cit. The importance of this expression may be stressed as it is opposed by the expression fa-. al-Diydrbakri. Hyderabad.quddfs. op. II.13
Hyderabad. Moslem World. Fick.224
M. 1914. 9 See al-Khatib al-Baghdadi. 56. 1934. vI. I. 93 .
267.. ed. 1956. ' (ibid. 12. 'Ali passed by the Prophet-and he was nine years old-and the Prophet summoned him : " O.g. Muhammad Muhyi al-Din 'Abd al-Hiamid. nor did he see anybody do it whom he could imitate. I. 16 On these periods see e. IHira' was in accordance with the custom of Quraysh to practise tahannuth for a month every year. a tendency towards harmonization: the first man who embraced Islam was Abfi Bakr .I. 1952. 1964. The tradition of al-Jdhiz that Abfi Bakr was the first to embrace Islam (al-Jdhiz. 1941. 604. But see the discussion of the contradictory traditions in al-Halabl's Ins8n al-'uyin. MS Murid Molla. cit. 271. n. see al-Nasi'i. xrn. 1962.. 274. al-Zurq~ni. according to the tradition of al-Bukhari the Prophet was made to like solitude. cit. mentioned) is fiercely denied by al-Iskifi (ibid. 1964. Mahm-id Muhammad Shikir. 95. ' I was the first of people who embraced Islam : the Prophet received his call on Monday and I prayed with him on Tuesday. Muhammad Abu 'l-Fadl Ibrihim. 1934.Iazm. 'All is not . Abi Tdlib ' (al-Majlisi.. and see Ibn al-Athir. no. lithograph. cit. 1..' states 'Ali. and see al-Suyiiti. Cairo. Ibn Shahrgshfib. 117-28. the traditions that 'Ali was the first who embraced Islam are opposed by the tradition of al-Zuhri that the first was Zayd b.d. A. 18-19. it was merely Alldh who wanted him to do it and he remained there (i. 15 See the combined tradition in al-Maqrizi. ed. I prayed with the Prophet seven years' (al-Majlisi. 177.. 1308/1890-1. who was his companion-al-Suyditi. 288-303. 1322/1904-5. He even believed in the mission of the Prophet in the time of Bahird. Khasd'is Amir al-Mu'minfna. f. op. 322-4). 265. I. I. the monk. al-Shaykh al-Tilsi. authority of Maymiin b. Khadija--the tradition of al-Bukhari maintains that the Prophet went out alone and used to come back at certain intervals 16 in order to get provisions. Najaf. Cairo. 209-cf.AL-TAHANNUTH:
AN INQUIRY INTO THE MEANING OF A TERM
The differences between the two traditions are crucial: according to the tradition of Ibn Ishiaqthe sojourn of Muhammadon Mt.1
(There is even a tradition stating that the Prophet reported his apprehensions in connexion with the summons he heard to Abfi Bakr.e. Cairo. Ibn Abi 'l-Hadid. n. M. come to me (aqbil) " . Mihrin: 'Abii Bakr believed in the Prophet in the time of Bahird.. 211. Ta'rfkh. the monk (ibid. 207).e. Najaf. Abfi Bakr was the match-maker who arranged the Prophet's marriage with Khadija. 1952. Cairo. ed.. 202. op. Cairo. ' The first who prayed with the Prophet was 'Ali b. 1955.Hritha. and 'Abd al-Razzlq. 6412 ..).. 2-3.ih. 'Ali. Khabbib b. 321. There is. and see Mutahhar b. 3. that nobody did order him to do it. is explained by Ibn Jawdmi' al-Sira. on the Md. 203-the chapter '. And see the chapter ' Awwalu 'l-ndsi imanan bi-'llahi warasilihi ' in Ibn Sayyid al-Nds. al-Khasa'is al-kubrd. 67b inf. Cairo. al-Maktaba al-Tij riyya. auham al-jam' wa 'l-tafrfq. al-Ya'qfibi. Imtd' al-asm&'. 10 : wa-4ubbibailayhi 'l-khald'u fa-kcanayakhliz bi-ghlri Hird'a kam kicna yaf'alu dhdlika muta'abbidi dhdlilca'l-zamani fa-yuqfmu fthi 'l-laydliya dhawati 'l-'adad thumma yarji'u ild ahlihi fa-yatazawwadu li-mithliha yatahannathu bi-Hird'a wa-ma'ahu Khadijatu. Sharh al-mawdhib. Irshld.. op. Iv. Ix. Cairo. Ta'rIkh al-khulafd'. ' When the revelation was sent down on the Prophet he came to the masjid and stood up praying. and see there other versions about the first who embraced Islam : Zayd b. II. that he believed before Abji Bakr and embraced Islam before Abii Bakr did (al-Mufid. HIritha.. Of interest is the tradition recorded by al-Khatib al-Baghdddi. 'whoever says it after me is merely a liar or forger. I. al-La'alf al-marsni'a. Hyderabad. Abi Tdlib. 14 The expression hubbiba ilayhi al-khald' etc. Sharh nahj al-balkgha. in fact. Ibn Sayyid al-Nds.) . 92. 116 et seq. 11. 204). 34). in the cave) for days and nights. xxxvIII. Cairo. Kanz al-fawd'id.15 i. 1960. 201-88. Najaf. al-Musannaf.14 Whereas the tradition of Ibn Ishaq states that he went out with his family. cit. . and all that before 'All was born'. pp. the first boy was 'All (ibid. Ndgir al-Din al-Asad. Jimi' al-usfil min aibduth al-rasul.d. 1959. I.. xxxvIII. IhsAn 'Abbis. 'All states plainly on the minbar of al-Bagra that he is al-Siddiq al-akbar. ed. 'Uyiin al-athar. I remained with him praying for seven years till a group embraced Islam'. I. see the discussion about the first to embrace Islam in al-Tirmidhi's Sah•i. I. 'Abd al-Saldm Hdriin. Cairo. op. 33). 91 et seq. I.ed. I.. 286 et seq.).
. al-Amdlf. annahu sabaqa 'l-ndsa fi 'l-isldmi wa 'l-imdni '. T~hir 17 On the kinds of provisions see al-Halabi..) This tradition stands in opposition to the Shi'i version that the first believer was 'Ali b. The tradition in favour of Abji Bakr maintains that he was the first one to embrace Islam (al-Suyfiti. 'I am al-Siddfq al-akbar. al-'Uthmaniyya. al-Karijaki. 21). 440. Shdkir.. says 'Ali (ibid. Aratt . Mandqib dl Abi Tdlib.. Najaf. 44.
fa-yatahannathu fihi wa-yamkuthu al-layaliya qabla an . 1959. A version recorded by 'Abd al-RazzAq deserves mention: the Prophet started to practise tabannuth and he was made to like solitude after some of his daughters were born (wa-tafiqa rasiflu 'llahi salli 'llahu 'alayhi wa-sallama ba'da mi wulidat lahu ba'du banmtihi yatahannathu wa-hubbibailayhi 'l-khald'u-op. Consequently other differencesoccur stemming from the fundamental divergences between the two traditions: according to the tradition of Ibn Khadija sent messengers to look for the Prophet: they went out and Ish. Ibn Kathir. 67a. 75. Fath al-bri?. i. have (like al-Bukhdri) dhawat al-'adad. In the tradition of Ibn Ish•q it is glossed by tabarrur. 18. 74: wa-kana yakhruju ild Hird'a ft kulli 'amin shahran min al-sanati yansuku fhi. Br6nnle. performing the actions of a Hanif."' There are other traditions in which the expression tanassaka is mentioned instead of tahannatha. kIna rasilu 'lldhi salli 'lldhu 'alayhi wa-sallama yakhruju ild Hird'afi kulli '&minshahran min al-sanati yatanassaku fthi . (but feeding the poor is not mentioned here). Cairo. According to the tradition recorded by al-Bukhari. 1). cit. I. gloss the term tabannuth. in the Sah•hi of Muslim.22
al-Maqdisi. wa-kIna min nusuk Qurayshinfi 'l-jdhiliyyati. the upper part of Mecca in their search for the Prophet..q. yut'imu man ja'ahu min al-masakin.226
M. al-Khags'is al-kubrd. 97. 94. however. 1964.
.. the Prophet sojourned in solitude in the cave and went to Khadija at Mecca after receiving the Call.20 Al-Baladhuri in his report about the revelation. 1334/1915-16. I. Monograph No. according to the tradition of al-Bukhdrl. . 604. This expression is used as well in the MS of the Sfra in the Qarawlyfin library at Fez. 6 from bottom). 21 Ansab al-ashraf.. MS Murdd Molla. and it is said that members of Quraysh who practised such devotions in the pagan era used to feed any of the poor who came to them'. Iv. . Beirut. 18 According to Ibn Hajar.18 Ibn Hishdm replaces it by tahannuf. Muhammad IHamidullih.e.. went to Waraqa. 19 Abai Dharr considers this explanation as unnecessary. and told him the story of the Call to Prophecy. I. no. f. no. is not mentioned in the tradition recorded by Ibn Ishaq. 105. recorded on the authority of 'A'isha. 22 Ibn Sa'd. The information about the feeding of the poor is missing in the tradition of alBukhArI. . al-Bad' wa'l-ta'rikh. They were. the cave where he retired for solitude. Mustafa 'Abd al-W Cairo. and she went with him to Waraqa. And see al-Suyditi. 1911. 1348/1929-30. See his commentary. p.. After the talk of Khadija with the Prophet she descended from the mountain. I. f. J. Tabaqdt. xxx. ed. 11. 1..Janifiyya. New light on the life of Muhammad (Journal of Semitic Studies.. 20 Al-Dhahabi. professing the H. 390: wa-klna yakhruju ild Hird'a ft kulli 'dmin shahran min al-sanati yatanassaku fthi. ed. Guillaume. I. sent by Khadija from the mountain of HIira' where they both sojourned. 727. Cairo. ed. 1329/1911. 1960. al-laydliya ulat al-'adad . records a tradition on the authority of 'A'isha. and the Musannaf of 'Abd al-Razz~q. in the tradition of al-Bukhari it is glossed by ta'abbud. I. the Tafsir of al-Tabari.21 glosses tahannuth as al-ta'abbudwa 'ltabarrur. 29. Bfil~q. KISTER
Furthermore. It is evident that al-Balddhuri referred to the glosses of the two different traditions. inf. II The explanation of the word tahannuth is differently given in the two traditions. Huart. Ta'r'kh al-Isldm. Cairo. I. al-Sira al-nabawiyya.hid.5-7: 'The word used of Muhammad's devotions. Cairo. 141 : he sojourned at Hird' with provisions of dates and milk feeding people. but does not. the word tahannuth was glossed ta'abbudby al-Zuhri. 161. reached of course. 191 : .... 67a. is nasak. 194. as mentioned by A..
s.v. Cairo. al-Mufradat. 1921. Further. al-Qastallani remarks that 'A'isha assigned the idea of ta'abbud ) exclusively (bi-mujarradiha to seclusion because withdrawal from people. 32. the ta'abbudof the Prophet. anna ras&ila 'llhi nadhara an ya'takifa shahran huwa wa-Khadijatu bi-Hird'a.. al-Nihdya. 26 Abii Nu'aym. I. See Ibn al-Dahhin al-Nahwi. and the watching of the Ka'ba (al-nazar ila 'l-Ka'ba). the cause or means of ta'abbud. 132. 5. I.a&ih al-Bukhrif. Al-Qastalldni states that the Prophet performed three devotional practices ('ibaddt): seclusion (khalwa). vI. tahawwaba). 171.and lastly ta'abbudis stated to be contemplation. Ibn al-Athir. Anth. s. 1. Cairo. Sharh al-mawdhib. Muhammad Hlasan Al Yfsin. al-Durr al-manthifr. Cairo. tahannuth. 27 Al-Suyfiti. L'A. 'Umdat al-qdri'. 'Umdat al-qdri'. and especially people living in falsehood (man kdna 'ald bdtilin). Fath al-bcri. I. The identification of ta'abbud with tahannuth raised consequently the question of the religious basis of this devotion. which was. al-Jemi' al-atiff fadli Makkata wa-ahlihi wa-bind'i 'l-bayti 'l-sharif.25 The discussion of the term in al-Qastallani's Irshad does not add much to our understanding of the meaning of the expression. ed. 1945. 1964. 'al-Addid'. 96.AL-TAHANNUTH:
AN INQUIRY INTO THE MEANING OF A TERM
The obscure expression tahannuthcaused some difficulties to the philologists. keeping away from sin' there is also a definition ' acting so (yaf'alu ft'lan) as to cause sin to be removed' (al-Nihdya. Tahannuth is identified with ta'abbud. 1324/1906-7. op.). al-Zarkashi. Cairo. al-Fd'iq. Ibn Hajar. 1. al-Kirmini. I. some other examples of similar verbs having the form tafa"ala with a cognate are quoted (ta'aththama. ya'takifu shahra Ramaddna.24 In the tradition of al-Bukhari tahannuth is glossed by ta'abbud.23 The explanation commonly given was that tahannuth means 'to remove sin (hinth) from oneself' . I. 172. and commentators of hadith. Shar4 Sa hi al-Bukhri. with the expression of the tradition of 'A'isha. Ta'abbud has a wide range of meanings and commentators are at pains to define the ta'abbud of the Prophet. And see al-'Ayni. 1932. I. 20. 18 . It is noteworthy that beside the definition ' removing sin from oneself. hnth. 24 R&ghib al-Ihfah5ni. in Nafd'is al-makhtiitt.) . is a kind of 'ibdda.27 stating that the Prophet vowed to sojourn with Khadija for a month at Hjird'. 1326/1908-9. Finally al-Qastallani quotes an anonymous opinion that the ta'abbud of the Prophet was meditation (tafakkur). AbRi 'Amr read the word yatabannafu (ibid. Irsh8d al-s8ri. 32 . I.v. I. however. by itself. T'A. It is noteworthy that the expression i'takafa is used for tahannatha in the traditions recorded by Abdi Nu'aym 26 and al-Suyfiti. and see Ibn Zahira.) 25 Al-Qastallni.v. 6 . 4nth. etc. I.
A1-Kirmini. 342. 58. ed. Shar. 3. 210. Dald'il al-nubuwwa. 250. 58. in which there is no clear definition of the kind of ta'abbud.taharraja. 369.
. al-Zamakhshari. cit. (Tabannatha means as well 'to commit a sin' and belongs to the alddd. The famous scholars Ibn alA'rdbi and Ibn 'Amr al-Shaybdni stated that they did not know the expression tahannuth. Cairo. lend more definition to the obscure expression tahannuth. tahannuthis stated to be one of the three 'ibdddt. S. The mention of the word i'takafa in connexion with tahannuthdoes not. ta'abbud is identified with khalwa. L'A and T'A. al-Bajdwi and Abu 'l-Fadl Ibrihim. al-'Ayni. and see al-Zurqdni. Baghdad. s. 1. Comparingthe expression in the tradition of Ibn Ish1q. lexicographers.
32 N6ldeke rendered tahannuth by 'living a solitary life '. " andAchtig war" '
. 7. Shark al-mawdhib. 330-49. al-'Uthmdniyya. Leipzig.28 On the form of his ta'abbudat Hira'. Schwally. 173-4. of course. and have reached a number of divergent conclusions. I. al-'Ayni. zweite Auflage. 1935. 271. KISTER
Opinions varied about whether the ta'abbudwas according to the shari'a of Ibrahim or Misas or 'Isa or NOihor kdam or according to the shari'a of some of his predecessors.
ibid. dem Sinne nach auch so verschiedenen Versionen einer und derselben Erzihlung festgehalten: die Kraftausdriicke. J. al-MAwardi. 1909. on al-Sirij al-Bulqayni see al-Sam'Ani. Ein solcher unverdaulicher Ausdruck ist in dieser Tradition
'.29 III Modern scholars have been divided in their opinions as to the origin of the term tahannuth and its meaning. Brocken um sich werfen zu kbnnen. I. ' Ein unverdaulicherAusdruck ' sums up Sprenger's view of the word.. Cairo. Ins8n al-'uyf~n. 210. One may imagine-continues Sprenger-that he might have pitched a tent in front of the cave . H. 295-6. und auch weil sie sich darauf etwas einbildeten. ' yatahannathu. Quoting the gloss ta'abbud
28 See al-ZurqAni. (al-Iskifi). Muhammeds Lehre von der Offenbarung. Noldeke. 30 A. 'Umdat al-qdri'. Muhammad dwelt in the hot month of Ramadin in a cave at Hira'.31 He based his opinion about the character of the sojourn of on a passage of Bal'ami's translation of al-Tabari. Ans8b. ult. 29 Al-Halabi. p.q iibungen '. explaining it by 'sich fiir siindig halten' and follows it by a question mark. I. 84: ' ..34 Grimme renders the gloss of Ibn Ishaq. 16. 4 O0. 72.by 'fromm sein'.A'Eim al-nubuwwa. ii.irt' refutes the possibility of devotional practices of the Meccans at Hira' Sprenger as incompatible with the spirit of the Jahiliyya and supposes that Hira' served as a summer resort for these Meccans who could not afford to spend the summer in al-Ta'if or Wadi 'l-Qura.Leipzig. Pautz... n. He considered tahannuthas a ' Kraftausdruck ' repeated by the men of hadith in almost all versions of this tradition. I. I. als er noch in den Bergen ein einsames Leben fiihrte (tabannatha)'.33 Pautz-quoting with the gloss tabarrur-renders it by 'Andachtsthe tradition of Ibn Ish. Sprenger. *3 Th. 317.228
M. Siraj al-Bulqayni could plainly state that the manner of the ta'abbudwas not specified in the traditions which he had perused. 1898. or whether he did or did not follow before his Call any other shari'a. weil sie den Ueberlieferern gefielen. weil sie sie nicht verdauen konnten und darunter etwas mit solchen gelehrten mysteri6ses suchten. 305. Sprenger collected a good deal of material about the beginning of the revelation 30 and took great pains to analyse the various traditions. die obsoleten. and see ibid. al-Jihiz.. s1 ibid. Das Leben und die Lehre des Mohammad. unverstaindlichen Worte. tahannuf. He also records the gloss of Ibn Hishim. al-tabarrur. und diese werden gewohnlich in allen. he could not find there a place for his wife and children: the cave was too small. the Prophet on Mt. 17. bearbeitetvon F. Geschichte des Qorans. 330 : 'In Traditionen kommen nicht selten Kraftausdriicke und obsolete Worte vor.
however. n. ? 208.. Mohammed. 1932. 1892. 44 : this opinion of Watt's is reminiscent of the proposition of Sprenger mentioned above. London. p. Annali dell Islam. 10. 44. Buhl. Hirschfeld.' 39 Lyall accepts Hirschfeld's suggestion about the Hebrew origin of the word tahannuth. Grimme. a word very common among the Jews to express voluntary devotions apart from official liturgy.'.AL-TAIANNUTH:
AN INQUIRY INTO THE MEANING OF A TERM
of the tradition of al-Bukhar! he asks whether it did not mean a kind of service at the temple (' eine Art Tempeldienst ') like the later Mujdiwir. I. 'There is little doubt'. although it cannot be excluded that the word was known in the time of Muhammad in Mecca and might denote retirement into solitude and prayer. doing that by which a sin is expelled. that it comes from the Hebrew tehinnot or tehinnoth. London. continues Watt. Hirschfeld. 40 Ch.36 Buhl does not differ from Andrae in his rendering of the expression. p. 'that Muhammadheard this word often in Medina before he framed his report of the affair and employed it readily on account of its strange and sacred character. 68. 19. 780. 1953. 37 F. appears to be unnecessary '... The best suggestion is perhaps that of H. J. 1905. he remarks. Tor Andrae. 167. more precisely: 'eine asketische Observanz.35 Tor Andrae renders tahannuth(like Pautz). M. which is not. 134: 'urnum see ibid. says Hirschfeld.41 W. 1. rejects the connexion between tahannuf and tahannuth. Introduzione'. though it is evidently some sort of devotional practice. 88. 42 W. 'The words Hanif and Muslim '. says Watt. however. n. There seems to be some connexion between the proposition of Tor Andrae and the opinion of Watt. sich Andachtsiibungen hinzugeben. however.. 'is uncertain. 39 H. 38 ibid. p. Hinth is properly the
35 H. such as the example of monks. Tor Andrae is not mentioned. G6ttingen. Caetani. 2. Muhammad at Mecca. Mohammed. M. 1902. 244. JRAS. 34-5. that it may be a more modern expression used in the legendary story about the Call to Prophecy in the second part of the first century of the Hijra. Miinster. Watt gives a compound version of the views quoted.40 Caetani is inclined to accept Hirschfeld's suggestion . Milano. 222.. The meaning may have been influenced by the Arabic root.meaning prayers for God's favour.
. 1903. 43 op. n. cit. Lyall.38 Hirschfeld suggests that tahannuth is nothing but the Hebrew tehinnoth 'prayers '. by' einsame Andachtsiibungen ' and finds similarity between these practices and the practices of Syrian Christianity. die die Mekkaner im Monat Ramadan auf dem Berge HIiri' vollzogen haben und die im Fasten und sexueller Enthaltsamkeit bestand '. Das Leben Muhammed8. however. New researches into the composition and exege8i8 of the Qoran. He suggests that Muhammad's going to Hira' 'might be a method of escaping from the heat of Mecca in an unpleasant season for those who could not afford to go to alTa'if' 42: ' Judaeo-Christian influence. sein Leben und Glaube. and thinks that 'the proposal to take tahannuth as a private formation. 'would show the need and desira' bility of solitude '.43 The precise meaning and derivation of tahannuth'. or a little personal experience'. referred to by Watt.37 He defines it. Watt. n. I. ' 41 L.
' 44 In his article ' Hanif' Watt repeats the assertion that tahannuth is almost certainly from Hebrew and means devotional exercises.49 The opinion of N5ldeke about Muhammad'slife of solitude in the mountains fits the tradition of al-Bukhari and correspondsto the idea of khald'.45 Bell remarks that tahannuthis explained as meaning 'worship'. 16. but is probably something like 'bewailing of sin '. seclusion.46 Bell. Fasting was not introduced until the Medinan period. Neither does it agree with the tradition of Ibn where it is explicitly stated that the Prophet went out to with hisIsh. s. 'Mohammed's Call'. 46 EI. compares it with hnth. the ascetic note in such a practice was entirely alien to Mohammed's nature. op.. because of the character of the Meccans as depicted in the Koran. doubting the truth of the story. Moslem World. remarking that it is probable that hnth is derived from hnf. be rendered by tahannuth.xxIv. and then as an imitation of Jewish practice. cit. cit. stressing the ambivalence of the root hnf.
.v. 1.50 Further: the tradition of al-Bukhari on which Buhl relied states explicitly that the Prophet used to come back in order to take provisions for his sojourn. art. p4 Caetani. Chelhod..230
M. ? 208. is uncertain.ira' Fasting-as assumed by Buhl-cannot be accepted. n. H. . and see idem. and so more generally sin. the absence of any record of such a practice in pre-Islamic Arabia. According to the tradition of Ibn Ishaq the Prophet went out to Hira' with Khadija and thus the idea of sexual abstention seems to be excluded. ' Introduzione '. as predisposing the future prophet to seeing visions at this stage.q. 46 R. J. KISTER
violation of or failure to perform an oath.. cit. Introduction to the Qur'an. Introduction d la sociologie de l'Islam. 50 See Bell. The use of the word tahannuthhere is probably a mark that the material is old and in this respect genuine. khald' cannot. Edinburgh. 13. and the accompanying fasts. and the fact that the Koran makes no reference to any such practice.. 16 (quoted in n. says Bell. so often imaginatively decked out even by Western scholars. second ed. It is founded probably on Christianascetic practice '. 4s J. Bell. The meaning of hinth is perjury.48 None of the opinions about the meaning of tahannuth quoted above seems entirely satisfactory. 1953. The real meaning of the word. ianff. tahannuthmeans refusal (' rejet ') of paganism. who considered the whole story of little historical value. n.. The whole story is the invention of a later age. Watt quotes in a note the contrasting opinion of Caetani. however.. 1.
44 op. 104-5: 'it was apparently some sort of pious exercise expressing repentance or doing penance for sin'. argues as follows: 'That tahannuthwas a Quraish practice may well be doubted. 137. family. Paris. 44. sources do not mention fasting by the Prophet at Hira' at all. In fact. 4' ibid. Sprenger's proposition about Hird' as ' summer resort' for the Prophet was rejected by Caetani.. 1. 1958.47 Chelhod. 1934. and tahannuthis accordingly said to mean " doing some work so as to escape from sin or crime ". 46 above). have no support whatever in the early parts of the Koran. p.
as was rendered by Guillaume.
. al-H. BlachBre. Hyderabad. 52 R. MS.AL-TAHIANNUTH:
OF A TERM
Hirschfeld's assumption about the derivation of the word tahannuth from the Hebrew tehinnothwas convincingly refuted by Goitein : this Hebrew word. The question of whether ascetic practices were alien to the Prophet or not may be preceded by a discussion of the question of whether tahannuthis an ascetic practice. Whether the Prophet was influenced by Christian monks as suggested by Andrae or whether his ' crise mystique' was influenced by the hunafa' as assumed by Blachere 52 cannot be discussed here. 2. 48b et seq. 'Amr b. group which entered the federation of the The leader. Habib. 53 See H. 55 ibid. a tribal 56 and a clan of Quraysh.51 Grimme's rendering for tahannuth. 'Abd al-Harith b. Stories in which this expression appears may be quoted here. D. I. al-'Imi. Harvard Theological Review. f. al-Muhabbar. 267. ed. b. There is a significant tradition reported by Muhammad b. Caskel. 959a. He decided to be an ally of the (clan of the) first man whom he would meet. Muhammed at Mecca. Kinina were included in the organization of the Hums). 'Abd Mandt b. al-HIirith b. MS. Jamharat al-nasab. 145. 'Abd Mandt b.. 178 (al-Hirith b. 192 inf. f.55 Bell's assertion about the 'absence of any record of such a practice in pre-Islamic Arabia ' is not accurate : there are some records of such tahannuth. The life of Muhammed. 'sich slindig halten'. Paris. II. W. 4. 154 et seq. He asked for a delay of three days and 'he went out to Hird' and practised ta'abbudthree nights on the top of the mountain and went down'. p. 'Abd Mandt b.irith Mabdhill b. LV. Watt. Khilid did not want to give preference to any one of those clans. 1962. 'Ubayd Al•hbish b. 54 A. 1942. Simt al-nujiim al-'awalf. Taym b. is not based on lexicographical grounds.
The expression tahannuthoccurs not only in the tradition about the Call of the Prophet. His opinion about the character of Quraysh cannot be discussed within the limits of the present article. R. Le problemede Mahomet. Oamharatan-nasab. Ta'abbud here cannot be connected with the later muajwir. Ans8b al-ashrdf. Guillaume (tr. 105. al-HIrith b. Studies in Islamic history and institutions. Goitein. took his hand. Kinana. came to Mecca. The first man was 'Abd 'Auf b. Kilab. Every clan invited him to be its guest or offered to give him one of its daughters in marriage. 1952. was used in that technical sense only in far later times. 56 See Muhammad b. Cairo. He tied his garment with the garments of 'Abd 'Auf. 93.54 or whether tabarrur may be rendered by 'religious devotion '. Zuhra b. Habib about an alliance made between a leader of al-Harith b. Every clan of Quraysh was eager to get him as its ally. denoting ' service at the Temple'. 37. 1380/1960-1. states Goitein. Khilid b. 1966. A. Gibb. Leiden.53 It is doubtful whether yujawiru can be translated ' to pray in seclusion '. 1966. and they continued until they entered the masjid
S. Leiden.. 269-80. n. 'Pre-Islamic monotheism in Arabia'. Ilse Lichtenstaedter. Kindna. Ibn al-Kalbi.). al-Balidhuri.
. Ibn Kathir.) When the moon of H. see Dabldn. and see Ibn Sa'd.ira'. 9. Ansdb. Ansdb al-ashrdf. 'Amr b. 3. A tradition with the isnad al-Waqidi-'Abdullh b. 34. s.. the Ka'ba-K). vI. 1. 1964. Sharh al-mawahib. He withdrew from Quraysh and they named him al-Rdhib. Tahdhib ta'rikh. Khursheed Ahmad Fdriq. 'Amr is not. J.I. 29. 867b.60 This tradition seems to have been recorded with a significant variant : kana yakhruju ii 'l-tahawwub(or ii 'l-tahayyub). story 62 Al-Bal~dhuri. idhd dakhala shahru ramaclna sa'idahu wa-a. 1957. Ibn Kathir.ed. I.59 Ibn HIabibreports about him that he practised tahannuf at Hira'. MS. al-Dhahabi. Beirut. in some of them tahannuth or a similar expression occurs.says the gloss.ra.62 A tradition recorded by al-Baladhuri gives some information about
57 Muhammad b.. Ibn Ishaq reports that Zayd was expelled from Mecca and sojourned at Al-Baladhuri records that Zayd 'pitched a tent at Hira' practising in it H. 246. Sira. I. 162. cit. Nufayl are connected with HIira'. 86. 61 AbRi 'Ubayd. 3 from bottom.5' The expression occurring in this tradition is ta'abbada. Hyderabad. and see Ibn 'Asikir. (on margin of the STraHalabiyya) . al-Suyfiti. Gharibal-adith.58 tahannuth. cit. He was distressed by the iniquity of the people of Mecca and would perform circumambulation of the Ka'ba many times '. and on the authority of Abil 'Ubayd in L'A. recorded. al-Zurqdni. al-Iktifi'. Sal•b al-Din al-Munajjid. where the see the explanation of tahawwub of Zayd b. op.
. iwb. The setting in which ta'abbudtakes place in this tradition deserves to be stressed. Ja'farMakhrama b. Ibn 'Asdkir. op.. 20 sup. It is exactly the expression used for glossing the word tahannuth in some of the traditions of the Call to Prophecy. 1. 84. 71 : . I.. is ta'alluh and tabarrur. KISTER
al-harim (i. Habib. 24. al-Kald'i. f. al-Sfra al-nabawiyya. I.. I. I. 320. Alger-Paris. 1.. 381 : he was buried inside Hire'.v. Hyderabad. they stood at the House and the alliance was accomplished. ed. 1965. 60 AI-Munammaq. 1.t'ama 'l-masakna .ira'. al-Munammaq. 154-5 (but the words fa-nazala Hire'a are omitted) . H.232
M. Tahawwub is glossed by al-ta'abbud 'l-tajannubii 'l-ma'tham(ta'abbud wa and refraining from sin). 288 : fa-kharaja il& Hird'a fa-ta'abbada tilka 'l-thalIthaf ra'sihi thumma nazala. It seems to be quite clear that the expression ta'abbadain this tradition corresponds to the expression tahannatha in the tradition of the Call to Prophecy and in the traditions about the practices of Quraysh mentioned below. ed.61 The first man who practised tahannuth at Hira' is said to have been 'Abd al-Muttalib. II. I. Hira' '. however. 'Abd al-Mu'id Khan. Tabaqet. He died and was buried inside Mt. al-Khasd'is al-kubra. 532.e. Ramadan appeared he used to enter Hira' and did not leave till the end of the month and fed the poor. al-Si. M. In these traditions the tahannuth is followed by a circumambulation of the Ka'ba several times before the mutahannithreturns to his home. III. 21 . vI. Mass6. Ta'abbud is practised before making an important decision and is followed by a solemn ceremony at the Ka'ba. Siyar a'ldm alnubalW'. 58 Ibn Hishim. Naufal-al-Zuhri relates that 'he was the first who practised tahannuthat (Tahannuth. Cairo. Several traditions about the Hanif Zayd b. 1931. ed. 90. 59 Al-Balddhuri. 1956.
op. 198. with a comment ay ataqarrabuila 'llthi ta'Tlh bi-af'&linfi 'l-jdhiliyyati. the Quraysh) asked me to allow him to share with me in his expenditures (scil. hnth. Cairo. ed. aiming by it (scil. Bakkdr. whatever I got of profit I used to spend bihi) it (partly ?) or wholly.
.v. 38. to benefit from) the good luck in (the profit of) my merchandise (I refused-K) and that (was) because of this. separately). practising thus tahannuth (a-ra'ayta umiiran kuntu atahannathu bihd) in the period of the Jahiliyya. 1934.63 It is noteworthy that in both these traditions about tahannuthat HIira'. 645. Muhibb al-Din al-Khatib. no. s. When they saw the moon of Shawwal they (descended and) did not enter their homes until they had performed the circumambulation of the Ka'ba for a week. 362.annathtu in
63 Al-Balddhuri. another version. Cairo. this custom) '. 1362/1943.64
In another tradition recorded on the authority of HIakimb. doing good to my people.
Ansib. These are exactly the elements of tahannuthas related in the tradition of Ibn Ishaq about the Call of Prophecy. Cairo. al-Zubayr-Hakim b. cit. Nihdya. in selling). These deeds in the J&hiliyya are explained as freeing 100 slaves and driving 100 victims for sacrifice at Mecca (scil. shall I be rewardedfor it ? The Prophet answered: You embraced Islam having the credit of the good (deeds of your)
past '. The Prophet used to perform it (i. 72) . p. in a variant of this tradition Hakim. al-Zubayr b. 1379/1959-60. A tradition (with the isnad al-Zuhri--'Urwa b. Hizam asked the Prophet: What is your opinion about things which I used to do. under the heading Bdb man wasala rahimahufi 'l-jahiliyyati thumma aslama (and see the references given by the editor). IIizam. viz. I. 65 Al-Zubayr b. p. Shikir. ibid. Jamharat nasab Quraysh. I. and Ibn al-Athir. promises to do as a Muslim these deeds which he did as a pagan.e. 'Amr-Ibn 'Abbas): 'When the month of Ramadan began people of Quraysh-these intending tahannuth-used to leave for HIira'and stayed there a month and fed the poor who called on them. freeing slaves and giving alms . al-Adab al-mufrad. Musnad.e.AL-TAHANNUTH:
OF A TERM
Qurashites who practised tahannuth at Hira' (the isnid is: Muhammad b. BakkAr. Sa'd-al-Waqidi--Talhya b. 371. 72-3 (tabannuth is glossed by ta'abbud. two elements are emphasized: the feeding of the poor and the ritual practices of the circumambulation of the Ka'ba. assured by the Prophet that he would receive the reward for his tabannuth in the period of the Jahiliyya. concerning the merchandise).: and providing 100 men with camels).. 1381/1961-2. no. I. 105. 637 (see the parallels recorded by the editor). viz. H. to feed the people. Quraysh used to send their merchandise and I used to send my merchandise (scil. T'A.the one about 'Abd al-Muttalib and the one about the people of Quraysh. al-Nabulusi. Dhakhd'ir al-mawdrith. Hyderabad. L'A. no. no. I. intending by that (deed) the increase of wealth and (increase of) friendship (al-mahabba) the clan '. I never bought a thing without gaining profit (scil. It happened sometimes that a man from among them (i.65 (tah. and see Abfi 'Awfna. 1790. Hizam and refers to his deeds in the period before he embraced Islam. 70. I. A group of traditions about tahannuth is connected with the person of Hakim b.Iizam) runs as follows: ' Hakim b. Mahmiid Muh. Hakim says about himself : ' I was a man of good luck in trade. ed.
Al-Bukhdri. a token of the veneration of the House.
367. was not connected with ritual practices. 414.16-20. The sentence inserted in the tradition of IHIakim quoted above. A line is thus drawn between the tahannuthof Ifakim b.. If there were any doubt about the usage of the term tahannuthin the tradition of the talk of HIakimwith the Prophet. The traditions about Hakim b. 1962. wa 'l-taqarruba 'llhi ta'l1d. freeing of slaves. is a Muslim interpretation ila of a Jdhiliyya tradition. 644. Zayd b.66 In this tradition the word tahannathais missing.ird' category of birr.1dn H. J. and the tahannuthof the leader of al-HIIrith b. giving alms to the needy and poor. consisting of good deeds. HIizamdenotes good deeds towards poor kinsmen. The tahannuth of 'Abd al-Muttalib. 'Amr. cit. 'Abd Manit of Kinana. is significant. op. Iv.v. Bakkir. HIizam: the word atahannathuis followed by an explicative phrase: min silatin wa-'atdqatinwa-sadaqatin. wa-nahnu Id na'budu shay'an. :izm are apparently very early ones and the expression tahannuthin these traditions is. the tahannuthof some groups of Quraysh. and the tahannuthof the Prophet according to the tradition of Ibn Ish•q included two elements: ta'abbudand tabarrur.234
M. It indicates that his birr. Here there was no need to put in the word tahannatha. ed. It is evident that the expression tahannathain the traditions of HIakimb. 1. Tahdhib ta'rikh. brr records the tradition as follows : a-ra'ayta umfiran kuntu abrartuhl. IIizam. 11. The identity of tahannuthwith birr is plainly seen in a state66 Al-Zubayr b. 1. That is plainly indicated in the tradition of al-Bukhdri on the authority of HIakimb. This is indeed confirmed by another version of this tradition . It consisted in feeding the poor and in the practice of veneration at the Ka'ba. III. and the tahannuthof the Prophet according to the tradition of the Call as recorded by al-Bukhari in which only the ta'abbudis mentioned. As'ad Talas. and see Ibn 'AsAkir. cit. Tahannuth here is identical with the term birr. The first part of this gloss is accurate . al-Dhahabi. I. L'A s. 67 Sprenger. original. but the second part. no doubt. op. Siyar a'lim al-nubald'. The argument of Sprenger 67 that the tradition is forged (' gewiss unecht') and fairly late (' ziemlich neu ') is unfounded. Cairo. KISTER
In a very similar passage Hakim states: 'I used to make many profits and I used to distribute them among the poor of my people-and we did not worship anything (wa-nahnu 1 na'budu shay'an)-intending the (increase of) wealth and friendship in the clan '. 1-2.
. This expression is glossed: ay aflubu biha 'l-birrawa 'I-ihsana ila ila 'l-ndsi wa 'l-taqarruba 'llhi ta'ald. 331. no.. 32. or his tahannuth. There is also no reason to entertain doubts about the genuineness of the expression tahannuthin the traditions about the practices of Quraysh at HIird'. the expression tahannuthis evidently genuine in the story of his deeds towards his kinsmen. in the month of The feeding of the poor at belonged to the Rama. But the phrase fa-a'Gidu 'ald fuqard'i qaumi explains the action of tahannuth and the motive of the deed is given in an explanatory phrase: kuntu u'Jliju 'l-birrafi 'l-jgdhiliyyati'I used to perform good deeds towards kinsmen in the Jahiliyya '.
ment of Mutahharb. i'takafa. it would be conclusively proved by the comprehensive definition of birr in the noble verse Siira 2. This assumption is further confirmed by an interesting interpretation recorded by al-IHalabi: 'The Prophet used to sojourn (scil. when the believer at last realizes and responds to the everpresence of God in all his thoughts and conduct '. S.
1962. ta'abbada. TAhirwhere it is also seen that this was the Prophet's only purpose in practising tahannuth: wa-kana Qurayshunyatahannathiinabi-Hird' wa-kdna rasilu 'llhi yaf'alu dhalika li-annahu min al-birri fi ' Quraysh used to practise tahannuth during the month of RamaZdan and the Ramadi. Shaw and W. the angels. 141. Gibb : Studies on the civilization of Islam. these practices were apparently connected with the veneration of the Ka'ba. and perhaps some good deeds) connected with the cult of the Ka'ba. and to the meaning of the tradition of the Call to Prophecy in the SIra of Ibn reinterpretation and revaluation of this simple meaning of the Jdhili term of Ish. R. In the tradition of Ibn IshIq about the Call it denotes thus merely good deeds. charity and giving alms to the poor. loyalty to the plighted word. R. Gibb : ' In its secular use the root (i. the Last Day. Izutsu. al-Harith of the 'Abd Mandt of Kindna indicates various practices (probably austerities. Tafsir ghartb al-Qur'an. Muh."6 The meaning attached to tahannatha here fully corresponds to the meaning of the traditions of Hakim. ed. the test of true belief lay in character and works. steadfastness in prayers. IHir' was a mansik.
. I. 191-2. ed. 210-12. To Muhammad.ammad's birrwere fully explained by H. 204 . 1959. obedience and loyalty.e. as to all other prophetic teachers. The structureof the ethical terms in the Koran. and the significant sentence in all the traditions (except these of HIakim)about the numerous circumambulations of the Ka'ba.69 In the light of this passage we can understand the essential changes in the Muslim interpretation of birr and consequently in the meaning of tahannuth which is identical with birr. This assumption is confirmed by such terms as tanassaka. The word ta'abbadain the tradition of Khalid b. R. birr) indicates the paternal and filial relation. and see T. with its attitudes of affection. and patience under all afflictions-these are the qualities that mark out the truly believing and the truly God-fearing. Tokyo.q. 1958. A. Huart. al-Suyiiti. A. 172: not only belief in God. Hir5'. hardships. A crucial question which remains to be answered is that of the sojourn on Mt. Iv. Birr is thus the crown of true belief. 69 H. on Mt. Polk. and see the significant traditions about a peculiar kind of birr of the JAhiliyya versus tuqi of Islam : Ibn Qutayba. as pointed out above. al-Durr al-manthijr. Why did these groups of Quraysh who practised tahannuthperform it there ? The answer can be gauged from the traditions quoted above including variants of tahannuth. J. a place of ritual practices of some groups of Quraysh. Ahmad Saqr. ed. jswara. If the repeated insistence of the Koran upon good works were not enough. Boston. 76. but charity to all for the love of God.AN INQUIRY INTO THE MEANING OF A TERM AL-TAH. HIir ') feeding the
8" Al-Bad' wa 'l-ta'rikh.na did it because it was a kind of good deed towards his fellow men Prophet (birr) '. the Scripture and the prophets. Cairo.
an expression of a later Muslim attitude with regard to an ancient Jdhili term. Insin al-'uyiin. which consisted.alabi.72 The discussion about what was the shari'a adopted by the Prophet for his ta'abbudbefore he received his revelation is. The Lord A1-H.ird'.236
AN INQUIRY INTO THE MEANING OF A TERM
poor who called on him i.ird' some ritual practices and deeds of charity towards the needy and the poor. I. of the veneration of the Ka'ba and of doing charitable deeds towards that he received-according to Muslim tradione's fellow men on Mt. min nsl. 72 See H.. because it was a ritual practice (nusuk) 70 of Quraysh in the period of the JAhiliyya. Birkeland.e. in this place the man used to feed the poor who came to him.e. Hlira' has thus to be understood according to the quoted traditions: he H. of course. i.H. of Quraysh. That was the tahannuthof the Jihiliyya and the Prophet practised it before he received his Call to Prophecy. In so doing he was following the ancient custom tion-his first revelation. It was while Muhammad was practising tahannuth. 1956.
In text. no Muslim doubted that Muhammad was a pagan before he was called by Allah at the age of 40 '. 272 sup. 271 inf. guideth.71 The tradition of ta'abbudof the Prophet on Mt. Oslo. It has been said that this was the tc'abbudof the Prophet in the cave of .ira' followed an old custom of his predecessors and sojourned at performing H. 40-1 : 'About 100 H. this is an error-read min nusuk. as we have seen.