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Cover design: Jim Manis; art: “Dante astray in the Dusky wood” - Gustave Doré (French artist and illustrator, 1832 - 1883
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The Divine Comedy of Dante - Paradise
Forth from his limbs unsheath’d. O power divine! If thou to me of shine impart so much,
His glory, by whose might all things are mov’d, Pierces the universe, and in one part Sheds more resplendence, elsewhere less. In heav’n, That largeliest of his light partakes, was I, Witness of things, which to relate again Surpasseth power of him who comes from thence; For that, so near approaching its desire Our intellect is to such depth absorb’d, That memory cannot follow. Nathless all, That in my thoughts I of that sacred realm Could store, shall now be matter of my song. Benign Apollo! this last labour aid, And make me such a vessel of thy worth, As thy own laurel claims of me belov’d. Thus far hath one of steep Parnassus’ brows Suffic’d me; henceforth there is need of both For my remaining enterprise do thou Enter into my bosom, and there breathe So, as when Marsyas by thy hand was dragg’d
That of that happy realm the shadow’d form Trac’d in my thoughts I may set forth to view, Thou shalt behold me of thy favour’d tree Come to the foot, and crown myself with leaves; For to that honour thou, and my high theme Will fit me. If but seldom, mighty Sire! To grace his triumph gathers thence a wreath Caesar or bard (more shame for human wills Deprav’d) joy to the Delphic god must spring From the Pierian foliage, when one breast Is with such thirst inspir’d. From a small spark Great flame hath risen: after me perchance Others with better voice may pray, and gain From the Cirrhaean city answer kind. Through diver passages, the world’s bright lamp Rises to mortals, but through that which joins Four circles with the threefold cross, in best Course, and in happiest constellation set He comes, and to the worldly wax best gives Its temper and impression. Morning there, Here eve was by almost such passage made; And whiteness had o’erspread that hemisphere, Blackness the other part; when to the left
that through the eyesight pass’d Into my fancy. Then seem’d to me so much of heav’n to blaze With the sun’s flame. So of her act. Keener than e’er was felt. And suddenly upon the day appear’d A day new-ris’n.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Whenas the wheel which thou dost ever guide. Then newly. Much is allowed us there. inflam’d me with desire. Words may not tell of that transhuman change: And therefore let the example serve. and I with ken Fix’d upon her. accompanied with smiles. and on the sun Gazing. Beatrice stood unmov’d. had that been shaken off. Love! by whom the heav’n is rul’d. as thou hast hither now return’d. I fix’d mine eyes Upon the sun. As from the first a second beam is wont To issue. as never eagle fix’d his ken. That here exceeds our pow’r.Paradise I saw Beatrice turn’d. though weak. Had with another sun bedeck’d the sky. Which thou hadst seen. And that great light. I rest 4 . To calm my troubled mind. That made him peer among the ocean gods. As iron that comes boiling from the fire. who by thy light didst bear me up. who hath the power. Her eyes fast fix’d on the eternal wheels. thanks to the place Made for the dwelling of the human kind I suffer’d it not long. Yet in new doubt was I entangled more. E’en as a pilgrim bent on his return. and reflected upwards rise. mine was form’d. Beyond our mortal wont. and yet so long That I beheld it bick’ring sparks around. charm’d mine ear. to know their cause. By those brief words. and straight. Open’d her lips. Thou art not on the earth as thou believ’st. Whence she who saw me. Desired Spirit! with its harmony Temper’d of thee and measur’d. such inwardly became As Glaucus. clearly as myself. and gracious thus began: “With false imagination thou thyself Mak’st dull. For those whom grace hath better proof in store If I were only what thou didst create. For light’ning scap’d from its own proper place Ne’er ran. Thou know’st.” Although divested of my first-rais’d doubt. And said: “Already satisfied. that rain or flood ne’er made A lake so broad. so that thou seest not the thing. from upward gaze remov’d At her aspect. as he. before I ask’d. The newness of the sound. when he tasted of the herb.
as to our seat Predestin’d. like fire unmoving on the earth. Are aim’d at by this bow. (if I rightly deem. that never looses dart. Then thus began: “Among themselves all things Have order. In which the substance. to bend elsewhere. which makes The universe resemble God. on the advent’rous track Of my proud keel.” Whence. with such a look. In this The higher creatures see the printed steps Of that eternal worth.) than lapse Of torrent downwards from a mountain’s height. and from hence the form. thou hadst fix’d thyself Below. that singing cuts its way. She tow’rds me bent her eyes.” So said. From its original impulse warp’d. who so well orders all. But at fair aim and glad.The Divine Comedy of Dante . That have intelligence and love. are pierc’d. but now admire How I above those lighter bodies rise. hut even those. Eager to listen. By vicious fondness. so this course Is sometimes quitted by the creature. we are carried by the force Of that strong cord. This prompts the hearts of mortal animals. through sluggishness Of unreplying matter. Thus they to different havens are mov’d on Through the vast sea of being. who Hath power. free of hind’rance. to earth. All natures lean. that hath greatest speed. Backward return with speed. That Providence. In this their order. With her own light makes ever calm the heaven. As from a cloud the fire is seen to fall. This the brute earth together knits. directed thus. That as ofttimes but ill accords the form To the design of art. some more. and binds. diversely.Paradise From admiration deep. and your own shores 5 . There would in thee for wonder be more cause. Some less approaching to their primal source. which is the end Whither the line is drawn. This to the lunar sphere directs the fire. As on her frenzied child a mother casts. she turn’d toward the heav’n her face. that bears it in its course. CANTO II All ye. Thou no more admire Thy soaring. If. and each one With instinct giv’n. Yet is it true. Nor only creatures. who in small bark have following sail’d. after utt’rance of a piteous sigh. Is turn’d: and thither now. void of intellect.
and rests unbroken. Timely for food of angels. how one dimension thus Another could endure. whence the gloomy spots Upon this body. with aspect glad as fair. Like adamant. on which here They live. firm. The way I pass Ne’er yet was run: Minerva breathes the gale.The Divine Comedy of Dante . But in itself intelligibly plain. that on both sides Equal returns. and it transcend Our weaker thought. But tell. Through the deep brine ye fearless may put out Your vessel. how much more Must the desire inflame us to behold That essence. where wond’rous thing engag’d my sight. and polish’d bright. give thanks to Him. If I then Was of corporeal frame. I pray thee. Beatrice upward gaz’d. then spake: “If mortals err In their opinion. Translucent.” Me seem’d as if a cloud had cover’d us. and another Nine To my rapt sight the arctic beams reveal. wonder’d not as ye will do. yet never know satiety. And in such space as on the notch a dart Is plac’d. Bespake me: “Gratefully direct thy mind To God. Who hath remov’d me from the mortal world. to whom no work of mine was hid. which needs must be If body enter body. nor put out to open sea. Where losing me. Apollo guides me. Whence she. The increate perpetual thirst.Paradise Revisit. glorious. which discovers by what means God and our nature join’d! There will be seen That which we hold through faith. which below on earth Give rise to talk of Cain in fabling quaint?” She somewhat smil’d. Ye other few. who pass’d o’er To Colchos. who have outstretch’d the neck. then loosen’d flies. E’en as the truth that man at first believes. when the key of sense 6 . Such as I best can frame. not shown by proof. Turning to me. through whom to this first star we come. that draws Toward the realm of God’s own form. When they saw Jason following the plough. I saw myself Arriv’d. marking. well the furrow broad Before you in the wave. and I on her. Those. solid. bore us Swift almost as the heaven ye behold. perchance ye may remain Bewilder’d in deep maze. as the wave a ray of light Receives. which the sun’s beam had smit Within itself the ever-during pearl Receiv’d us. I answered: “Lady! I with thoughts devout.
If not from side to side this rarity Pass through. Alike distributed. If rarity were of that dusk the cause. or. The first. And thus reflected come to thee from all. as through aught rare beside effus’d. And hence the beam. By being thence refracted farther back. nor fed With its own matter. yet in brightness thou 7 . there needs must be a limit. either in some part That planet must throughout be void. The eighth sphere displays Numberless lights. Which thou inquirest. the which in kind and size May be remark’d of different aspects. If it were true. One single virtue then would be in all. that from without proceeds.” Then I: “What various here above appears. if well Thou listen to the arguments. and these. through glass Reflected. whence Its contrary no further lets it pass. or more. But this is not.” She then resum’d: “Thou certainly wilt see In falsehood thy belief o’erwhelm’d. But what thy own thought is. the wings Of reason to pursue the senses’ flight Are short. as colour comes. If rare or dense of that were cause alone. as bodies share Their fat and leanness. Must be pour’d back. which I Shall bring to face it. Will by thy reasoning be destroy’d. had through the sun’s eclipse Been manifested. shall meet thine eyes. in like manner this Must in its volume change the leaves. Then turn’d toward them. Three mirrors shalt thou take.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Though that beheld most distant do not stretch A space so ample. Therefore remains to see The other cause: and if the other fall. Different virtues needs must be the fruits Of formal principles. cause behind thy back A light to stand. that on the three shall shine. Beside.Paradise Unlocks not. Erroneous so must prove what seem’d to thee. if thereof thou trial make. which behind it lead conceals. that there of murkier hue Than in the other part the ray is shown. Now wilt thou say. From this perplexity will free thee soon Experience. or less. by transparency Of light. I deem. declare. surely wonder’s weapon keen Ought not to pierce thee. Is caus’d. since thou find’st. Betwixt the former pair. and two remove From thee alike. by bodies dense or rare. The fountain whence your arts derive their streame. and more remote the third. save one.
From its original nature full of joy. yet together form’d. By proof of right. for their own seed and produce apt. so thee. Their influences from above deriving. That hath so many lights. that which from light to light Seems different. e’en so The intellectual efficacy unfolds Its goodness multiplied throughout the stars.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and of the false reproof. From hence proceeds. Thus do these organs of the world proceed. Dismantled in thy mind. “The virtue and motion of the sacred orbs. In different pow’rs resolves itself. that the tremulous beam Shall quiver where it falls. which erst with love my bosom warm’d Had of fair truth unveil’d the sweet aspect. On its own unity revolving still. The other orbs Their separate distinctions variously Dispose. that dwells within your dust. As thou beholdest now. circles round A body. Different virtue compact different Makes with the precious body it enlivens. I will inform With light so lively. untold. The truth thou lov’st. from step to step. remains dismantled of the hue And cold. Where peace divine inhabits. As under snow the ground. Within the heaven. From the deep spirit. Through members different. May’st know to keep the shallows. as life in you is knit. must needs By blessed movers be inspir’d. The virtue mingled through the body shines.” CANTO III That sun. As mallet by the workman’s hand. The following heaven. 8 . This heaven. Its image takes an impress as a seal: And as the soul. that thou henceforth alone. But now. As joy through pupil of the living eye. the dusk or clear. And thence transmitting downwards. that cover’d it before. that moves its circling sphere. if the warm ray Smites it.Paradise Will own it equaling the rest. Mark me well. that generates Proportion’d to its power. in whose virtue dies the being Of all that it contains. This is the formal cause. Made beauteous by so many luminaries. How through this passage to the truth I ford. With which it knits. Through different essences. from it distinct. And yet contain’d within it. this being divides. and not from dense or rare. safe.
“at this my smiling. I addressed me. as it still is wont. which. 9 . Then turn’d them back. Who would have all her court be like herself.” She cry’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . when I see Thy childish judgment. and this Your station here.Paradise And I. Permits not from its beams their feet to stray. and nothing saw. Sudden. Will not conceal me long. with kindness prompt. and flowing not so deep As that its bed is dark. But soon a sight appear’d. Makes thee fall back in unsound vacancy. from whence I straight conceiv’d Delusion opposite to that. not tasted. so intent to mark it. If thou wouldst tell me of thy name. the shape returns So faint of our impictur’d lineaments. which thou behold’st. As through translucent and smooth glass. this form. in the tardiest sphere thus plac’d. and began. but. As one by over-eagerness perplex’d: “O spirit. from the Holy Spirit conceiv’d. That on white forehead set a pearl as strong Comes to the eye: such saw I many a face. but thou wilt know Piccarda. of that sweetness know’st The flavour. which rais’d Between the man and fountain. I was a virgin sister in the earth. I turn’d mine eyes. Hither through failure of their vow exil’d. since not yet on truth It rests the foot. which fills them with desire. rais’d my head Erect for speech. With such addition grac’d of loveliness. me it well would please. as I perceiv’d them. deeming these Reflected semblances to see of whom They were. Bars not the door. That the true light. And if thy mind observe me well. All stretch’d to speak.” Whence she. to own myself convinc’d and free Of doubt. or wave Clear and unmov’d. and believe. who smiling shot forth beams From her celestial eyes. Which. But speak thou with them. passes far All apprehension. amorous flame. That of confession I no longer thought. listen. held me fix’d. no more than she above. born for joy! who in the rays Of life eternal. True substances are these. “Wonder not thou. Our hearts. To any wish by justice introduc’d.” Straight to the shadow which for converse seem’d Most earnest. And eyes glist’ning with smiles: “Our charity. Here ‘mid these other blessed also blest. as much as needed. whose high affections burn alone With pleasure. directed on the light Of my sweet guide.
though with like gracious dew The supreme virtue show’r not over all. if here To be in charity must needs befall. But what thou sayst hath to my memory Given now such aid. who sets us here. that our vows Were in some part neglected and made void. that this is ask’d. If we should wish to be exalted more. Then must our wishes jar with the high will Of him. Is for this cause assign’d us. From former knowledge quite transmuting you.” Whence I to her replied: “Something divine Beams in your countenance. And in his will is our tranquillity. that she seem’d With love’s first flame to glow: “Brother! our will Is in composure settled by the power Of charity. So that as we from step to step Are plac’d throughout this kingdom. whither tends Whatever it creates and nature makes. That e’en till death they may keep watch or sleep With their great bridegroom. by which our wills with his Are one. which appears so low. 10 . bent from her to learn What web it was. who in us plants his will. And thanks for that return’d. E’en as our King. And this condition. It is the mighty ocean. who here Are happy. Therefore to recollect was I so slow. which in these orbs Thou wilt confess not possible. Rather it is inherent in this state Of blessedness. and more in love to dwell?” She with those other spirits gently smil’d. pleases all. if one sort of food Hath satiated. to keep ourselves within The divine will. long ye for a higher place More to behold. ye. to that intent. By whose pure laws upon your nether earth The robe and veil they wear. Yet inform me. through which she had not drawn The shuttle to its point.The Divine Comedy of Dante . who makes us will alone What we possess. wond’rous fair. She thus began: “Exalted worth and perfectness of life The Lady higher up enshrine in heaven.Paradise Admitted to his order dwell in joy. Then answer’d with such gladness. e’en so did I In word and motion. that to retrace your forms Is easier. But as it chances. and of another still The appetite remains. and nought beyond desire.” Then saw I clearly how each spot in heav’n Is Paradise. who accepts each vow. And if her nature well thou contemplate.
when in dimness she was lost. if I was silent. that spurr’d him on to deeds unjust And violent. Thereafter men. so look’d Beatrice then. in her vesture mantling me. what of myself I tell May to herself apply. Made promise of the way her sect enjoins. E’en so would stand a lamb between the maw Of two fierce wolves. Pursued her. both equally Remote and tempting. 11 . Which blew the second over Suabia’s realm. who from that loud blast. God knows how after that my life was fram’d. and thus I spake My wish more earnestly than language could. And bent on Beatrice all its gaze. This other splendid shape. E’en when she to the world again was brought In spite of her own will and better wont. which was the third and last. for ill than good more apt. yet desire Was painted in my looks. Forth snatch’d me from the pleasant cloister’s pale. which thou beholdst At my right side. with like violence were torn The saintly folds. From her. and then began “Ave Maria” singing. As Daniel. and. first a man might die Of hunger. when the haughty king he freed From ire. that far as it was capable. Turn’d to the mark where greater want impell’d. to follow her. as heavy substance through deep wave. in dread of both alike: E’en so between two deer a dog would stand. since of necessity It happen’d. “How contrary desires each way constrain thee. That power produc’d. Whence I to question her became less prompt. from the world. Mine eye. Silent was I. But she as light’ning beam’d upon my looks: So that the sight sustain’d it not at first. Wherefore. Yet not for that the bosom’s inward veil Did she renounce. that shaded her fair brows.” She ceas’d from further talk. burning with all the light Of this our orb. and with that song Vanish’d. “Well I discern.The Divine Comedy of Dante . when young Escap’d. by equal doubts Held in suspense. like me A sister.Paradise Which to his gracious pleasure love conforms.” she thus her words address’d. ere he one could freely choose. This is the luminary Of mighty Constance. fault nor praise I to myself impute. CANTO IV Between two kinds of food.
Return. as Plato deem’d. What reason that another’s violence Should stint the measure of my fair desert? “Cause too thou findst for doubt. we speak: Since from things sensible alone ye learn That. “That. and therefore I the first Of that will treat which hath the more of gall. The judgment of Timaeus. nor breathes freely forth. condescending graciously To your perception. if the good intent remain. So that it fell to fabled names of Jove. who affirms Each soul restor’d to its particular star. but for a sign to thee Of that celestial furthest from the height. Moses and Samuel. which digested rightly after turns 12 . And Mercury. Thus needs. and him who made Tobias whole. Nor more or fewer years exist. Believing it to have been taken thence. not that fate assigns This for their sphere. that ye may apprehend. and Michael. If his meaning be. our justice seems Make the first circle beauteous. Which moves thee. and either John. nor so means: and holy church Doth represent with human countenance Gabriel. That to the influencing of these orbs revert The honour and the blame in human acts. for it brings No peril of removing thee from me. as more or less Afflation of eternal bliss pervades them. in that it seems. When nature gave it to inform her mold: Since to appearance his intention is E’en what his words declare: or else to shun Derision. For no other cause The scripture. not understood aright. Thou arguest. Have not in any other heav’n their seats. Unlike what here thou seest.Paradise So that thy anxious thought is in itself Bound up and stifled. hands and feet to God Attributes.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and Mars. Perchance he doth not wholly miss the truth. Choose which thou wilt. Of seraphim he who is most ensky’d. That spirits to the stars. but all To intellectual. is less harmful. These are the questions which thy will Urge equally. That other doubt. Here were they shown thee. diversely Partaking of sweet life. Than have those spirits which so late thou saw’st. This principle. haply thus he hath disguis’d His true opinion. Erewhile perverted well nigh all the world. nor even Mary’s self. to the eye of man.
The Divine Comedy of Dante . if it yield Or more or less. at his father’s suit Slew his own mother. And by these words If duly weigh’d. In them. for. Not seldom. that well’d From forth the fountain of all truth. and such The rest. or wrought in Scaevola To his own hand remorseless. brother. that argument is void. That force and will are blended in such wise As not to make the’ offence excusable. so that both have truly said. it agrees. Absolute will agrees not to the wrong. such as once upon the bars Held Laurence firm. instill’d into thy mind. I will content thee even to thy wish “If violence be. But now Another question thwarts thee. still survives unquench’d.Paradise Unjust. Yet to shun peril they have done amiss: E’en as Alcmaeon. Whence they were drawn. so far it follows force. which to solve Might try thy patience without better aid. whom they had power to seek The hallow’d place again. is argument for faith. it hath chanc’d for men To do what they had gladly left undone. Which oft might have perplex’d thee still. I have. When liberty return’d: but in too few Resolve so steadfast dwells. That will not. so made pitiless Not to lose pity. when that which suffers. To the end This truth may stand more clearly in your view. So that she seems to contradict me here. “O thou of primal love the prime delight! Goddess! “I straight reply’d. to the path. no doubt.” Such was the flow of that pure rill. Of will Thus absolute Piccarda spake. and I Of th’ other. “whose lively words Still shed new heat and vigour through my soul! Affection fails me to requite thy grace With equal sum of gratitude: be his 13 . since near The source of primal truth it dwells for aye: And thou might’st after of Piccarda learn That Constance held affection to the veil. and not For heretic declension. On this point bethink thee. For the will. tho’ violence Wrest it a thousand times. And thus did these. not for this These spirits stood exculpate. and doth As nature doth in fire. That inasmuch as there is fear of woe From non-compliance. had will Been perfect. that to my wond’ring thoughts l found. their steps had hasten’d back. nought Consents to that which forceth. That blessed spirit may not lie.
as one who breaks not off Discourse. And thence doth doubt Spring. I well discern. Well I discern. continued in her saintly strain. CANTO V “If beyond earthly wont. around the stock of truth. and thus. marvel not: but learn the cause In that perfection of the sight. if failure of the vow By other service may be so supplied. Was liberty of will. sign most evident Of goodness. which God creating gave Of his free bounty. This doth assure me. that yet Is dark to me. and them sole He hath endow’d. How in thine intellect already shines The light eternal. which to view alone Ne’er fails to kindle love. e’en as in his lair The wild beast. I fain would know. beyond which no truth may roam. who sees and can reward thee. “Supreme of gifts. so that I o’ercome thy power Of vision. For in the compact between God and him. ‘t is but that it shows Some ill-mark’d vestige of that primal beam. As from self-question to assure the soul. Our mind can satisfy her thirst to know: Therein she resteth. soon as she hath reach’d that bound. And she hath power to reach it.” Thus she her words. which so is fram’d That when man offers. God well-pleas’d accepts. Illume me. else desire Were given to no end.Paradise To recompense. the flame of love 14 . that in your scale They lack not weight. hasteneth on to reach The good it apprehends. rev’rently To ask thee of other truth. and in his account most priz’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . virtue sinking in me overpower’d. And it is nature which from height to height On to the summit prompts us. the boon wherewith All intellectual creatures. not heedless of my wish.” I spake. like a shoot. Began. and on me straight Beatrice look’d with eyes that shot forth sparks Of love celestial in such copious stream. and downward bent confus’d my sight. which soon As apprehending. that by that truth alone Enlighten’d. Hence now thou mayst infer Of what high worth the vow. “This would’st thou know. lady. and if aught else Your love seduces. That. This invites. I turn’d. if man By other works well done may so supply The failure of his vows.
If the last bond be not within the new Included. “But forasmuch as holy church. Nor deem of any change. By using well thou think’st to consecrate.’ than to redeem his pledge By doing worse or. whereof ‘t is made. ‘I have done ill. like feather. and hath since made mourn Both wise and simple. Be ye more staid. Th’ other part. not. The covenant the other. 15 . No satisfaction therefore can be paid For what so precious in the balance weighs. with faith Preserve it. Blindly to execute a rash resolve. yet behooves Thou rest a little longer at the board. Ere the crude aliment. That all in counterpoise must kick the beam. unfruitful else. as Jephthah once. by each wind Removable: nor think to cleanse ourselves In every water. to change The offering. who hear Of so fell sacrifice. For the last. He makes the victim. whereof thou hast oblation made. which thou hast taken. herein Dispensing. such as I describe it to thee. Whom better it had suited to exclaim. Take then no vow at random: ta’en. even all. Iphigenia mourn’d Her virgin beauty. Though leave were giv’n them. on the alter. May well be such. The matter and the substance of the vow. Thou would’st of theft do charitable deed. still to offer. Thus I resolve thee of the greater point. as thou know’st. one is that. as the quatre in the six. that great leader of the Greeks: Whence. And give it inward keeping. What compensation therefore may he find? If that. as less than vain. Open thy mind to what I now unfold. yet not bent. not unlike to him In folly. seems to contradict the truth I have discover’d to thee. Either testament. to that without offence It may for other substance be exchang’d. “This sacrifice in essence of two things Consisteth. But at his own discretion none may shift The burden on his shoulders.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and of his own act. Knowledge comes Of learning well retain’d. Digested fitly to nutrition turn. For this it was enjoin’d the Israelites. the yellow and the white. It ne’er is cancell’d if not kept: and hence I spake erewhile so strictly of its force. unreleas’d By either key. O Christians.Paradise This treasure.
who thou art. Leapeth unto its mark. denotes thy joy.The Divine Comedy of Dante . reader! think. To know the rest how sorely thou wouldst crave. deeming it their food. and from thence the virtue bring’st. “O born in happy hour! Thou to whom grace vouchsafes.” Such were the words that Beatrice spake: These ended. and of our radiance take thy fill. sparkling in thine eyes. and turn’d Toward the lustre. streaming forth effulgence new. Or wherefore. which through heaven Expatiates without bound. what then was my cheer. And as the arrow. not senseless beasts. is yours: and for your guide The shepherd of the church let this suffice To save you. When by evil lust entic’d. leaves its mother’s milk. If aught approach them from without. That. Remember ye be men. If thou didst miss the sequel of my tale. And thou shalt see what vehement desire Possess’d me. so drew Full more than thousand splendours towards us. Hold you in mock’ry. but. Here. if the star Were mov’d to gladness. Be not. am still to seek. so joyous enter. There I beheld The dame. To know their state. do draw Towards it. that oft from mortal ken Is veil’d by others’ beams.Paradise The old and new. Witness’d augmented joy. worthy spirit! for thy lot This sphere assign’d. as soon as these had met my view. full of fond desire she turn’d. to that region. To dally with itself in idle play. that the orb Grew brighter at her smiles.” Thus of those piteous spirits one bespake me. Nor let the Jew. and. I mark. who dwelleth in your streets. where the world Is liveliest. or ere thy close Of fleshly warfare. Therefore. to behold the thrones Of that eternal triumph. And in each one was heard: “Lo! one arriv’d To multiply our loves!” and as each came The shadow. as the lamb. Whom nature hath made apt for every change! As in a quiet and clear lake the fish.” I said. fickle wanton. And Beatrice next: “Say on. Spare not. That. Her silence and chang’d look did keep me dumb. that with greeting. ere the cord is still. and trust As unto gods!”—”How in the light supreme Thou harbour’st. know to us The light communicated. Though mainly prompt new question to propose. kind 16 . if aught Thou of our beams wouldst borrow for thine aid. so on we sped Into the second realm.
as himself the sun Hides through excess of light. thus conceal’d. with whom heaven’s right hand Was link’d in such conjointment. Caesar I was. As thou in every contradiction seest The true and false oppos’d. To thy first question thus I shape mine answer. ‘t was a sign That I should rest. mayst mark What reason on each side they have to plead. Who was chief shepherd.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that roll’d Consenting with its course. behold the valorous deeds Have made it worthy reverence. under shadow of his sacred plumes Swaying the world. how for three hundred years and more It dwelt in Alba. when he of yore. And am Justinian. through increase of gladness. destin’d by the will Of that prime love. it wax’d: and. whence he issued first. But the blessed Agapete. “Beginning from that hour. But that its tendency doth prompt perforce To some addition. Both who pretend its power and who oppose. shrouded so in splendour answer’d me. Soon as my feet Were to the church reclaim’d. Forthwith brighter far Than erst. to my great task. By whom that holiest banner is withstood. From vain excess to clear th’ encumber’d laws. Or ere that work engag’d me. Lavinia’s spouse. I believ’d His words: and what he taught. when Pallas died To give it rule. till through successive hands To mine he came devolv’d. that thou well. E’en as the tenour of my song declares. CANTO VI “After that Constantine the eagle turn’d Against the motions of the heav’n. Christ’s nature merely human. I gave me wholly. There. he with warning voice To the true faith recall’d me. now plainly see. Not unknown To thee. And. with such faith Contented. A hundred years twice told and more. By inspiration of God’s grace impell’d. whose influence I feel. his seat At Europe’s extreme point. when his warm gaze Hath on the mantle of thick vapours prey’d. up to those fell lists Where for its sake were met the rival three. which were ended here. Within its proper ray the saintly shape Was. the bird of Jove Held. I did hold 17 . near the mountains. and consign’d mine arms To Belisarius.Paradise Erewhile had hail’d me. was leader of the flight.
or states in league combin’d Of social warfare. That of his temple Janus barr’d the door. Rued its stern bearing. Its native shores Antandros. And Quintius nam’d of his neglected locks. then ill for Ptolemy His pennons shook again. When they led on by Hannibal o’erpass’d The Alpine rocks. Falls in appearance dwindled and obscur’d. which I with duteous zeal embalm. return’d. “What following and in its next bearer’s gripe It wrought. Saw Loire and Seine. The Decii. who. to Caesar’s hand Did Rome consign it. is now by Cassius and Brutus Bark’d off in hell. Tow’rds Spain It wheel’d its bands. E’en the warm Nile was conscious to the pang. When heav’n was minded that o’er all the world His own deep calm should brood. By it the pride of Arab hordes was quell’d. in their prime of days Scipio and Pompey triumph’d. hence Torquatus stern. “But all the mighty standard yet had wrought. which it achiev’d Down to the Sabines’ wrong to Lucrece’ woe. pursued by it. whence glide thy currents.The Divine Comedy of Dante . What after that it wrought. After. And on Pharsalia with so fierce a plunge. Under whose summit thou didst see the light. If one with steady eye and perfect thought On the third Caesar look.Paradise Nor aught unknown to thee. Nor all it wrought. lightning thence fell On Juba. and by Perugia’s sons And Modena’s was mourn’d. Took from the adder black and sudden death. Hence weepeth still Sad Cleopatra. and there Where Hector lies. That tongue nor pen may follow it. and every vale. and the next upon your west. near the hour. that fills The torrent Rhone. and leap’d The Rubicon. then tow’rd Dyrrachium smote. saw Isere’s flood. And was appointed to perform thereafter. by Roman worthies home ‘Gainst Brennus and th’ Epirot prince. Throughout the mortal kingdom which it sway’d. for to his hands. and hosts Of single chiefs. With its sev’n kings conqu’ring the nation round. With him compos’d the world to such a peace. 18 . was of so bold a flight. and the Fabii hence acquir’d Their fame. and that hill. and the streams Of Simois revisited. With him it ran e’en to the Red Sea coast. and what then it wrought From Var unto the Rhine. When from Ravenna it came forth. At sound of the Pompeian trump. Po! Beneath its guidance.
Four daughters were there born To Raymond Berenger. The one Against the universal ensign rears The yellow lilies. Did gore the bosom of the holy church. Under its wings victorious. Whose mortal lives were busied to that end. have little cause for mirth. that now encloseth us. with fangs impure. It ne’er can warp to any wrongfulness. and admire The close proportion. and how grievous their offending. Judge then for thyself Of those. Ill shapes that man his course. but those talons hold in dread. What they are. when the Lombard tooth. Of diverse voices is sweet music made: So in our life the different degrees Render sweet harmony among these wheels. “This little star is furnish’d with good spirits. “Hear now and wonder at what next I tell. e’en into his hands. Committed glory. And. Yet envious tongues incited him to ask 19 . Who are the cause of all your ills. To execute the vengeance of its wrath. and with partial aim That to himself the other arrogates: So that ‘t is hard to see which more offends. Shines Romeo’s light.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that heav’n Will truck its armour for his lilied shield. Which from a lion of more lofty port Have rent the easing.Paradise The living Justice. when desires thus err in their intention. Be yours. Nor let him trust the fond belief. and this for him did Romeo. “Within the pearl. who severs it and justice: And let not with his Guelphs the new-crown’d Charles Assail it. who makes his wrong Of other’s worth. That honour and renown might wait on them: And. Hence doth heav’nly justice Temper so evenly affection in us. Charlemagne Sped to her rescue. whom I erewhile accus’d to thee. True love must needs ascend with slacker beam. to veil your arts Beneath another standard: ill is this Follow’d of him. to measure Our wages with the merit. ye Ghibellines. Many a time ere now The sons have for the sire’s transgression wail’d. But it is part of our delight. whose goodly deed and fair Met ill acceptance. After with Titus it was sent to wreak Vengeance for vengeance of the ancient sin. in whose breath I move. and every one Became a queen. Though of mean state and from a foreign land. That were his foes. But the Provencals.
who took Such nature on him. who return’d Twelve fold to him for ten. As might have made one blest amid the flames. speak unto thy lady. thus her words began: 20 . “Speak. Revolving.” Yet blank awe. The nature with its Maker thus conjoin’d. from its Maker far estrang’d. scantly dealt. and the rest unto their dance With it mov’d also. did bow me down As one in slumber held. God therefore and the Jews one sentence pleased: CANTO VII “Hosanna Sanctus Deus Sabaoth Superillustrans claritate tua Felices ignes horum malahoth!” Thus chanting saw I turn that substance bright With fourfold lustre to its orb again. because it had eschew’d The way of truth and life. begging his life by morsels. Which lords it o’er me. For they of weighty matter shall possess thee. Aged and poor He parted thence: and if the world did know The heart he had.Paradise A reckoning of that just one. “That man. and “Speak. Me doubt possess’d. and endur’d the doom. if thou regard The nature in assumption doom’d: ne’er wrong So great. so thou mark my words. to evil turn’d. Ne’er then was penalty so just as that Inflicted by the cross. the human kind Lay sick in grievous error many an age. In sudden distance from my sight were veil’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . His offspring: whence. who was unborn. And. But through itself alone was driven forth From Paradise. below. with such a smile. himself condemn’d. in reference to him. Contemplate here the wonder I unfold.” “Thou in thy thought art pond’ring (as I deem. pure and good. it yields him. who since him have liv’d. Not long that mood Beatrice suffer’d: she. Until it pleas’d the Word of God to come Amongst them down. all. and like swiftest sparks. Beaming upon me. in himself. By the mere act of his eternal love. ‘T would deem the praise. And what I deem is truth how just revenge Could be with justice punish’d: from which doubt I soon will free thee. that she quench Thy thirst with drops of sweetness. Created first was blameless. even at the sound Of Beatrice’s name.” it whisper’d me. to his own person joining The nature.
Sin alone is that. What distils Immediate thence. Whatever thence immediate falls. Though all partake their shining. whose bright beams. for he could not stoop 21 . But yet I see thy mind By thought on thought arising sore perplex’d. Count it not hard henceforth. Bearing its seal immutably impress’d. thou sayst: but wherefore God this way For our redemption chose. which resemble him the most. He needs must forfeit his nobility. Your nature. and make unlike To the chief good. uncontrollable by power Of each thing new: by such conformity More grateful to its author. It is a mark. the dread abyss. No longer stainless. intently as thou canst. no end of being knows. where guilt makes void. in itself With such effulgence blazeth. In sooth. or else man himself For his own folly by himself aton’d. What I have heard. as sends forth All beauteous things eternal. The celestial love. and explore. “Fix now thine eye. Nor fully ripen’d in the flame of love. “Brother! no eye of man not perfected. if any of them fail. These tokens of pre-eminence on man Largely bestow’d. is free. though the earth did quake. unless. when thou dost hear That a just vengeance was by righteous court Justly reveng’d. much aim’d at. that spume All envying in its bounty. Which doth disfranchise him. And with how vehement desire it asks Solution of the maze.Paradise So different effects flow’d from one act. And to dignity thus lost Is no return. “Man in himself had ever lack’d the means Of satisfaction. which entirely in its seed Trangress’d. The only fords were left through which to wade. for that its light in him Is darken’d. And heav’n was open’d. and but little kenn’d: And I will therefore show thee why such way Was worthiest. On th’ everlasting counsel. eludes my search. May fathom this decree. Free wholly. yet in those Are liveliest.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Either that God had of his courtesy Releas’d him merely. nor means Found of recovery (search all methods out As strickly as thou may) save one of these. from these distinctions fell. Instructed by my words. Is plain. no less Than from its state in Paradise. He for ill pleasure pay with equal pain.
and soon Dissolve. Either for him who gave or who receiv’d Between the last night and the primal day. Then behooved That God should by his own ways lead him back Unto the life. “I see. Which thou hast nam’d.Paradise Obeying. impassible and pure. thought to soar: And for this reason he had vainly tried Out of his own sufficiency to pay The rigid satisfaction. to fulfil each wish of thine. than had the terms Been mere and unconditional release. Nor aught so vast or so magnificent. The earth and water. But since the deed is ever priz’d the more. disobeying. Because. The ray and motion of the sacred lights. When both our parents at the first were made. restor’d: By both his ways. if thy mind Consider how the human flesh was fram’d. or one alone. And for his justice. whose broad signature Is on the universe. had been true They from corruption had been therefore free. “And hence thou mayst by inference conclude Our resurrection certain. as indeed they are In their whole being. I call created. Yet these were also things create. As high he. Was or can be. With complex potency attract and turn. was fain to leave out none. had not the Son of God Humbled himself to put on mortal flesh. thou sayst. in humility so low. For God more bounty show’d. to corruption turn. if what were told me. O my brother! and this clime Wherein thou art.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” 22 . But the elements. remains I somewhat further to thy view unfold. and enamours of itself. that round them circling move The soul of every brute and of each plant. “Now. every method else Were all too scant. That thou mayst see as clearly as myself. “The angels. of all its ways To raise ye up. and all things of them Compounded. The more the doer’s good intent appears. I mean. But this our life the’ eternal good inspires Immediate. Are by created virtue’ inform’d: create Their substance. from whence he fell. So that our wishes rest for ever here. Giving himself to make man capable Of his return to life. and create the’ informing virtue In these bright stars. Goodness celestial. the fire I see. and what of them is made. the air.
so in that light I other luminaries saw. Now obvious and now averse. ne’er since extinct in me. and were by her Assur’d. And after them. rapid more or less. to hear Renew’d the strain.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Then parting from the rest One near us drew. they turn’d again unto the light Who had so largely promis’d. him whom they feign’d To sit in Dido’s bosom: and from her. deem’d of them Her mother. One motion. the sun. who rolls In her third epicycle. which views. Not her alone with sacrifice ador’d And invocation. that cours’d In circling motion.” After mine eyes had with meek reverence Sought the celestial guide. Conducted by the lofty seraphim. shed on men By stream of potent radiance: therefore they Of elder time.Paradise CANTO VIII The world was in its day of peril dark Wont to believe the dotage of fond love From the fair Cyprian deity. Whom I have sung preluding. Leaving the circuit of their joyous ring. when one its even tenour keeps. We are they. well dispos’d To do thee gentle service. and her son. And as in flame A sparkle is distinct. who in the van appear’d. with those who rule Princedoms in heaven. but the new loveliness That grac’d my lady. compar’d To those celestial lights. as hath left Desire. or voice in voice Discern’d. Never was blast from vapour charged with cold. yet are of love so full. it had not seem’d To linger in dull tardiness. and with voice 23 . As their eternal phases each impels. Such an hosanna sounded. in their old error blind. and sole began: “We all Are ready at thy pleasure. that tow’rds us came. one impulse. Whether invisible to eye or no. The other comes and goes. borrow’d they The appellation of that star. gave me ample proof That we had entered there. To whom thou in the world erewhile didst Sing ‘O ye! whose intellectual ministry Moves the third heaven!’ and in one orb we roll. That to please thee ‘t will be as sweet to rest. but like honours paid To Cupid and Dione. I was not ware that I was wafted up Into its orb. Descended with such speed.
As to myself.’ re-echo’d loud and long. He had been warier that the greedy want Of Catalonia might not work his bale. The beautiful Trinacria lies in gloom (Not through Typhaeus. to the salt sea-flood. That Rhone. as an animal In its own silk unswath’d. Around. whenas he strays beyond The limits of his German shores. My gladness hides thee from me.” I cried. Or other for him. for had my sojourning Been longer on the earth. Already on my temples beam’d the crown. sprung through me from Charles and Rodolph. Betwixt Pelorus and Pachynian heights. for much I muse.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Would ask the guard of braver arms. With Verde mingled. Now make intelligent. lest more freight be laid On his already over-laden bark. That too did look To have its scepter wielded by a race Of monarchs. when he hath mix’d with Sorga. that will come. And truly need there is. it doth enhance the joy thy words Infuse into me. and Croton. Which gave me sov’reignty over the land By Danube wash’d. Bari.Paradise That bare the lively pressure of my zeal. Thou lov’dst me well. And thus it answer’d: “A short date below The world possess’d me. than such As only care to have their coffers fill’d. The realm. and Gaeta pil’d. and that horn Of fair Ausonia. 24 .” “My liege. had never chanc’d. who own it. from bounty fall’n to thrift. Glad thou hast made me. that he forecast. but the vap’ry cloud Bituminous upsteam’d). in Palermo rais’d The shout of ‘death. the love I bare thee Had put forth more than blossoms. Nature in him. Had the time been more. where thou markest that which thou dost speak. And had’st good cause. and shroud me. From where the Trento disembogues his waves. Had but my brother’s foresight kenn’d as much. In me its lord expected. laves. when thou lookst Into the source and limit of all good. mighty as it is. To think my gladness manifest to thee. Where. clearing the doubt Thy speech hath raised in me. on the gulf by stormy Eurus lash’d. Forthwith it grew In size and splendour. There. which doth shine. with its boroughs old. “Tell who ye are. Thence priz’d of me the more. The left bank. through augmented joy. Much evil. had not ill lording which doth spirit up The people ever.
but in them Their energy to save: for nought. were it worse for man. first faulty made them fail. The Good. if different estates Grow not of different duties in your life? Consult your teacher. “nor here a reason needs. soon that Shall face thee. he forthwith replied: “If I have power to show one truth. and he a fourth. like all seed Out of its proper climate. Must differ. In her circuitous course. from whence your operations come. when sweet is sown. but destruction. The roots. and this may not chance. but no distinctions owns ‘Twixt one or other household. Ordains its providence to be the virtue In these great bodies: nor th’ all perfect Mind Upholds their nature merely. that guides And blessed makes this realm. it would not be Art. and Melchisidec A third. Another. If th’ intellectual powers. Would their effect so work. And were the world below content to mark 25 . ‘t is my will Thou wear this corollary.” I thus inquiring. Nature ever Finding discordant fortune. Nature. which thou dost mount. must the path Trac’d by the generator. lest nature in her part should tire. Xerxes. Nature. Were it not thus.” answer’d I. these heavens. Hence befalls That Esau is so wide of Jacob: hence Quirinus of so base a father springs. that move these stars. whose airy voyage Cost him his son. As ever mark to arrow’s point oppos’d. Were it not That providence celestial overrul’d. I see. which was late behind thee. He dates from Mars his lineage. Thus place I in thy sight That. or who. Wilt thou this truth more clearly evidenc’d?” To whom I thus: “It is enough: no fear. still pursue Unswervingly. which thy questioning declares Behind thee now conceal’d. Fail not. and he tells you ‘no. in generation. Therefore one is Solon born. But.”’ Thus did he come. deducing to this point. But is as level with the destin’d aim.Paradise How bitter can spring up.” “And may that be. thrives but ill. in sign Of more affection for thee. And then concluded: “For this cause behooves. thou dost visit. Doth well her art.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that lies Within the range of that unerring bow. If he liv’d not in fellowship on earth?” “Yea.” He straight rejoin’d: “Say. that is the seal to mortal wax.
Therefore your steps have wander’d from the paths. which lies Between Rialto. and bend your gaze on vanity. It would not lack supply of excellence. my name on earth Cunizza: And here I glitter. a hill. that my inmost thoughts I can reflect on thee.” Said he. But ye perversely to religion strain Him. who was born to gird on him the sword. testified The will it had to pleasure me. thy Charles. “This jewel. That sorely sheet the region. From whence erewhile a firebrand did descend. “And O. turn’d again. resting. Where it before was singing. And prove thou to me. for that by its light This star o’ercame me. and the fountain-springs Of Brenta and of Piava. And not to perish. as before. O ye misguided souls! Infatuate. great renown hath left. “and let the destin’d years come round. Which haply vulgar hearts can scarce conceive.” Of Beatrice. Lustrous and costly. thus began. Another of those splendent forms approach’d. Blest spirit! quickly be my will perform’d. who from such a good estrange Your hearts. That yet was new to me. that is next me in our heaven. As one who joys in kindness: “In that part Of the deprav’d Italian land. Firmly upon me. That. If to excel be worthy man’s endeavour. next. The eyes 26 . CANTO IX After solution of my doubt. Nor grudge myself the cause of this my lot. And now the visage of that saintly light Was to the sun. But to no lofty eminence. Yet I naught repine.” I cried.” Nor may I tell thee more. save that the meed Of sorrow well-deserv’d shall quit your wrongs. of the treachery spake That must befall his seed: but. Alas for you!—And lo! toward me.The Divine Comedy of Dante . whose plenitude of bliss Sufficeth all. “Tell it not. O fair Clemenza. From one root I and it sprang.Paradise And work on the foundation nature lays.” Thereat the light. And of the fluent phrasemen make your king. there doth rise. manifested forth Approva1 of my wish. As to the good. Consider thou. by its outward bright’ning. that fills it. from the recess. ere these hundred years Five times absolve their round.
Where was before th’ horizon. Mirrors. As the mind saddens. it makes meridian there. murkier grows the shade. shapes its course. The which this priest. “blest Spirit! Therefore will of his Cannot to thee be dark. Why then delays Thy voice to satisfy my wish untold. “God seeth all: and in him is thy sight. the which those ardours sing. for whom The web is now a-warping. that divides with passage brief Genoan bounds from Tuscan. East and west Are nearly one to Begga and my land. tho’ scourg’d. one Lords it. widest next to that Which doth the earth engarland. We descry above. and bears his head aloft. thus his words began: “The valley’ of waters. wert thou known To me. in show of party-zeal. re-ent’ring on the wheel she late Had left. ‘twixt Ebro’s stream And Macra’s. in splendour glowing. Whose haven erst was with its own blood warm. Pastime of heav’n. from which to us Reflected shine the judgments of our God: Whence these our sayings we avouch for good. Too large should be The skillet. who ounce by ounce would weight it. That cowl them with six shadowing wings outspread? I would not wait thy asking. nor will the gift ill suit The country’s custom. Of that vale Dwelt I upon the shore. in that upper clime. Like choicest ruby stricken by the sun. For.Paradise When such life may attend the first. the crowd that now are girt By Adice and Tagliamento. as here laughter: and below. And wearied he. Of so deep stain. that would hold Ferrara’s blood. effulgence comes Of gladness. Between discordant shores. Who knew my name were wont to call me Folco: And I did bear impression of this heav’n. ye call them thrones. that never.The Divine Comedy of Dante . against the sun Inward so far. and appear’d on other thoughts Intent. Courteous will give. That voice which joins the inexpressive song.” She ended. Yet they Care not for this. still Impenitent. for the like. When for their stubbornness at Padua’s marsh The water shall be chang’d.’’ He forthwith answ’ring. The hour is near.” Said I. Feltro too Shall sorrow for its godless shepherd’s fault. that laves Vicena And where Cagnano meets with Sile. 27 . as thoroughly I to thee am known. That other joyance meanwhile wax’d A thing to marvel at. Was Malta’s bar unclos’d.
than did I. For this. Inquire thou wouldst. For that she favour’d first the high exploit Of Joshua on the holy land. Not for the fault (that doth not come to mind). whose o’erruling sway And providence have wrought thus quaintly. The decretals. that on his Maker turn’d the back. and the foremost rank assign’d. when the charms of Iole Were shrin’d within his heart. whereof The Pope recks little now. Yet it may chance.” 28 . was taken up. that here Beside me sparkles. The gospel and great teachers laid aside. Shall be deliver’d from the adult’rous bond. plant Of him. in Christ’s triumph.The Divine Comedy of Dante . That were the grave of Peter’s soldiery. to our tribe United. That hath made wander both the sheep and lambs. Turning the shepherd to a wolf. Are the sole study. Intent on these. Nor Jove’s son. accruing to this upper world From that below. And other most selected parts of Rome. Engenders and expands the cursed flower. Know then. But for the virtue. Demands my further parle. Pope and Cardinals. at which the shadow ends Of your sublunar world. and the good Discern’d. the Vatican. He to that heav’n. of all souls redeem’d: For well behoov’d. in some part of heav’n. but mirth. that fashioneth With such effectual working. She should remain a trophy. Who of this light is denizen. But fully to content Thy wishes. all that in this sphere have birth. erelong. that. as their stuft margins show. as the sun-beam doth On the clear wave. That was beguiled of Demophoon. Thy city. First. to declare The mighty contest won with either palm.Paradise That now bears mine: for not with fiercer flame Glow’d Belus’ daughter. injuring alike Sichaeus and Creusa. where Gabriel op’d his wings. Long as it suited the unripen’d down That fledg’d my cheek: nor she of Rhodope. Here The skill is look’d into. ne’er journey but in thought To Nazareth. And of whose envying so much woe hath sprung. the soul of Rahab Is in that gladsome harbour. And yet there hides No sorrowful repentance here.
the first Might Ineffable. All power well nigh extinct: or. oh then how great must needs Have been her brightness! What she was i’ th’ sun (Where I had enter’d). art.The Divine Comedy of Dante . whereat One motion strikes on th’ other. For Beatrice. and doles out Time for us with his beam. the great minister Of nature. she who passeth on So suddenly from good to better. O reader! to the lofty wheels. ensue. hath in such order all dispos’d. Thy ken directed to the point. and muse Anticipative of the feast to come. Now rest thee. who till arriv’d. As none may see and fail to’ enjoy. And thus to me Beatrice: “Thank. from direct Were its departure distant more or less. And if our fantasy fail of such height. It should be e’er imagin’d: yet believ’d It may be. Join’d with the part. where the planets roll To pour their wished influence on the world. how thence oblique Brancheth the circle. weets not his coming. Lo! I have set before thee. not through change of hue. that upon the world imprints The virtue of the heaven. What marvel. then. There begin Thy wonder of the mighty Architect. both in heav’n and here beneath. So shall delight make thee not feel thy toil. Which late we told of. for thyself Feed now: the matter I indite. Which breathes from both eternal. As one. where each hour sooner comes. since no eye above the sun Hath ever travel’d? Such are they dwell here. weetless of ascent. and the sight be justly crav’d. Whose path not bending thus. great defect Must. time Counts not the act. reader! on thy bench. But light transparent—did I summon up Genius. See. oh thank. 29 . henceforth Demands entire my thought. Raise. in heav’n above Much virtue would be lost. Fourth family of the Omnipotent Sire. went circling on Along the spires. and here on earth. And holds them still enraptur’d with the view. whence eye or mind Can roam. practice—I might not so speak. Who loves his work so inwardly. I’ th’ universal order. his eye Doth ever watch it.Paradise CANTO X Looking into his first-born with the love. Who of his spirit and of his offspring shows. And I was with him. with me.
Than in their visage beaming. Those burning suns that circled round us thrice. in liveliness Surpassing. they cannot brook Transporting from that realm: and of these lights Such was the song. Thus heard I one. That of her laughing eyes the radiance brake And scatter’d my collected mind abroad.Paradise The Sun of angels. Thomas I. no less constrained were. And with complacency so absolute Dispos’d to render up itself to God.” Never was heart in such devotion bound. That after doth increase by loving. He. who by his grace To this perceptible hath lifted thee. down whose hallow’d steps None e’er descend. him. admiring. that Dominic Leads. Whence I return. Sometime Latona’s daughter we behold. from within. that bloom In the bright garland. who spake: “Since with its beam The grace. Then seem’d they like to ladies. As nearest stars around the fixed pole. As mine was at those words: and so entire The love for Him. So dear and beautiful. but suspense. And master to me: Albert of Cologne Is this: and of Aquinum. Naught displeas’d Was she. Who from his phial should refuse thee wine To slake thy thirst. for his saintly flock. nearest on my right hand. brother was. along the way. If thou of all the rest wouldst be assur’d. till they have caught the strain anew: Suspended so they stood: and. Cinctur’d thus. not sworn with vanity. are many jewels found. singing thus. And us their centre: yet more sweet in voice. whence true love lighteth first his flame. List’ning. it eclips’d Beatrice in oblivion. 30 . Who doth not prune his wing To soar up thither. and mount them not again.The Divine Comedy of Dante . from the dance Not ceasing. When the impregnate air retains the thread. let him look from thence For tidings from the dumb. but smil’d thereat so joyously. Than water flowing not unto the sea. Where well they thrive. Thou fain wouldst hear. which. girds This fair dame round. who strengthens thee for heav’n. Then saw I a bright band. waiting on the words I speak. in silent pause. what plants are these. who themselves did make the crown. In the celestial court. When. I then was of the lambs. That weaves her zone. that held me. shines So multiplied in thee. Let thine eye. it leads thee up Along this ladder.
there is the lofty light. Goodliest of all. Rebuk’d the ling’ring tardiness of death. In deep discernment. Where flames the arduous Spirit of Isidore. with the sight of all the good. if truth be truth. Sends out a tinkling sound. that shows The world’s deceitfulness. The saintly soul.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” Forthwith. That next resplendence issues from the smile Of Gratian. to whose view was shown. Upon my praises following. Next behold That taper’s radiance. nearest. It is the eternal light of Sigebert. Who ‘scap’d not envy. that is. is by such love inspired. Thus saw I move the glorious wheel. from whom Thy look on me reverteth. Lo! further on. Of Bede. That with a ken of such wide amplitude No second hath arisen. on high musings bent. Reading in the straw-litter’d street. Blest there. whose spirit. he Who did provide Augustin of his lore. The limbs. Was Peter. As clock.Paradise In circuit journey round the blessed wreath. of the eighth Thy thirst is next. when of truth he argued. thus heard Voice answ’ring voice. Now. erewhile. and Richard. In the other little light serenely smiles That pleader for the Christian temples. Each part of other fitly drawn and urg’d. that calleth up the spouse of God To win her bridegroom’s love at matin’s hour. to all who hear him. who to either forum lent Such help. which make thee beat thy wings below 31 . Lastly this. The other. he that with the widow gave To holy church his treasure. and from martyrdom And exile came it here. CANTO XI O fond anxiety of mortal men! How vain and inconclusive arguments Are those. while yet in flesh it dwelt. Affection springs in well-disposed breast. as favour wins in Paradise. whence it was driven. endow’d With sapience so profound. It can be known but where day endless shines. more than man. Is. of note so sweet. That all your world craves tidings of its doom: Within. was the beam Of one. Clearliest. so musical and soft. who adorns our quire. if thy mind’s eye pass from light to light. The fifth light. the nature and the ministry Angelical. lie Down in Cieldauro.
The other splendour of cherubic light. Then within The lustre. Thou art in doubt. one moiling lay Tangled in net of sensual delight. I thus gloriously Was rais’d aloft. who speak Of that place. Upon that side. and clearly mark Thy thoughts. as may be smooth To thy perception. in its rear Mourn for their heavy yoke. and the wave. so I look Into the eternal light. And wouldst.The Divine Comedy of Dante . heard I thus begin: “E’en as his beam illumes me. Who with loud cries was ‘spous’d in precious blood. To call things rightly. and another sought By civil business wealth. Where it doth break its steepness most. that I should bolt my words afresh In such plain open phrase. Might keep her footing towards her well-belov’d. Who one commendeth. that erewhile bespake me. say Ascesi. What time from all these empty things escap’d. In depth of counsel by created ken Unfathomable. arose A sun upon the world. whence heat and cold Are wafted through Perugia’s eastern gate: And Norcera with Gualdo. Hath two ordain’d. smiling With merer gladness. I but of one will tell: he tells of both. there hangs Rich slope of mountain high. which of them so’er Be taken: for their deeds were to one end. that governeth the world. each one. but the East. “The providence. 32 . who should on either hand In chief escort her: one seraphic all In fervency. where I told thee late That ‘well they thrive. had turn’d. He was not yet much distant from his rising. as duly this From Ganges doth: therefore let none. Where erst it was. As candle in his socket. and one for aphorisms Was hunting.’ and that ‘no second such Hath risen. to the end that she. that By force or sophistry aspir’d to rule. for wisdom upon earth. and steady glow’d. from whence they rise. Safe in herself and constant unto him. To rob another.’ which no small distinction needs. And one to witless indolence resign’d. for its name Were lamely so deliver’d. that falls From blest Ubaldo’s chosen hill. this the priesthood follow’d. and made the guest of heav’n. “Between Tupino. be it henceforth styl’d.Paradise For statues one. When his good influence ‘gan to bless the earth. With Beatrice. They of the circle to that point.
Then. Thousand and hundred years and more. But not to deal Thus closely with thee longer.Paradise A dame to whom none openeth pleasure’s gate More than to death. Then the season come. and from him first receiv’d the seal On his religion. Who shook the world: nor aught her constant boldness Whereby with Christ she mounted on the cross. when numerous flock’d The tribe of lowly ones. for that he was son Of Pietro Bernardone. On the hard rock. and. And with that family. she Was found unmov’d at rumour of his voice. was pleas’d T’ advance him to the meed. through Honorius’ hand A second crown. ‘gainst his father’s will. Whose marvellous life deservedly were sung In heights empyreal. and next Sylvester. that. was. And follow both the bridegroom. The father and the master. And reap’d Ausonian lands.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Their concord and glad looks. bereav’d Of her first husband. ran. and by men In wond’rous sort despis’d. And in his father’s sight: from day to day. till he came. stood up In the proud Soldan’s presence. She. which his limbs two years Did carry. which he had earn’d 33 . that venerable Bernard first Did bare his feet. through thirst of martyrdom. that trac’d HIS steps. slighted and obscure. Nor aught avail’d. remain’d Without a single suitor. he from Christ Took the last Signet. that he. When Mary stay’d beneath. but found the race Unripen’d for conversion: back once more He hasted (not to intermit his toil). And sweet regard gave birth to holy thoughts. with his spouse. by nuptial bonds. But royally His hard intention he to Innocent Set forth. whom now the cord Girt humbly: nor did abjectness of heart Weigh down his eyelids. His stripling choice: and he did make her his. ‘Twixt Arno and the Tyber. So much. Who to such good had destin’d him. yet deem’d his footing slow. to deck their Guardian’s virtues. O hidden riches! O prolific good! Egidius bares him next. in pursuit of peace So heavenly. with Amyclas. take at large The rovers’ titles—Poverty and Francis. and there preach’d Christ and his followers. wonder and love. Thenceforth goes he on his way. so the bride Can please them. Was by the eternal Spirit inwreath’d: and when He had. Then lov’d her more devoutly. Before the Spiritual court.
thy wish may be in part fulfill’d: For thou wilt see the point from whence they split. So that they needs into strange pastures wide Must spread them: and the more remote from him The stragglers wander. When the footing. Two arches parallel. There are of them. “Now. bending. to his brotherhood. Motion to motion. straight the holy mill Began to wheel. about us thus Of sempiternal roses. if that. as ray Of primal splendour doth its faint reflex. ‘That well they thrive not sworn with vanity. the outer taking birth From that within (in manner of that voice Whom love did melt away. circling. As their just heritage. compass’d it. of the world No more to be o’erflow’d. if Juno bid her handmaid forth. which that implies. nor would have His body laid upon another bier.Paradise By his self-humbling. song to song. Or ere another. and such our Patriarch was. take good lading in. Nor miss of the reproof. who were a fit colleague. conjoining. “Think now of one. Thou mayst be certain. Span the thin cloud. destitute of milk. Our Sirens with their tuneful pipes. And to the shepherd cleave. if my words be clear. so much mole they come Home to the sheep-fold. and trick’d alike. nor yet had once revolv’d. light with light accordant. And they who gaze. presageful call to mind The compact. and to the innermost E’en thus th’ external answered. from her bosom. As when. recall To mind. who fear their harm.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And other great festivity. will’d His goodly spirit should move forth. Therefore who follow him. which I have told. wreath’d Those garlands twain. each 34 . made with Noah. returning To its appointed kingdom. To keep the bark of Peter in deep sea Helm’d to right point. But hunger of new viands tempts his flock. and enjoin’d their love And faith to her: and. Song. he gave in charge His dearest lady. but these so few. in truth. And radiance. if thou have ta’en Good heed. as sun the mist). of song.”’ CANTO XII Soon as its final word the blessed flame Had rais’d for utterance. that as much our muses doth excel. A little stuff may furnish out their cloaks. as he enjoins.
In turning to its whereabout. and friend Fast-knit to Christ. with which Europe sees herself New-garmented. That as their warfare was alike. wherein the lion lies Subjected and supreme. In that clime. who by their deeds and words might join Again his scatter’d people. Whom Christ in his own garden chose to be His help-mate. When. for the drooping host Did make provision. nor from those billows far. had at their pleasure still’d (E’en as the eyes by quick volition mov’d. Was after the first counsel that Christ gave. Beyond whose chiding. and thus Began: “The love. 35 . The dame. Whose he was wholly. after its banner mov’d The army of Christ (which it so clearly cost To reappoint). It prophesied. Many a time his nurse. for whom Such good of mine is spoken. and the first love he show’d. And not through its deserving. and full of doubt. and so call’d him Dominic. Who reigneth ever. when its imperial Head. who was his surety. Messenger he seem’d. Where springs the pleasant west-wind to unfold The fresh leaves. The other worthily should also be. from the heart Of one amongst the new lights mov’d a voice. The spousals were complete ‘twixt faith and him. after weary course. at the sacred font. Slow. as the labourer.Paradise Jocund and blythe. She was inspir’d to name him of his owner.The Divine Comedy of Dante . alike Should be their glory. And to his enemies terrible. Where one is. that when first Created. as indeed he was. Prompts me to tell of th’ other guide. And there was born The loving million of the Christian faith. Two champions to the succour of his spouse He sent. thorough grace alone. in her sleep Beheld the wondrous fruit. As thou heard’st. even in the mother’s womb. that was from him And from his heirs to issue. Where pledge of mutual safety was exchang’d. The hollow’d wrestler. And with thin ranks. And that such He might be construed. safe abides The happy Callaroga. and was prostrate. Are shut and rais’d together). under guard Of the great shield. that makes me beautiful. That made me seem like needle to the star. And I speak of him. at entering found That he had ris’n in silence. gentle to his own. So replete His soul with lively virtue. The sun doth sometimes hide him.
ere my coming. who search’d our volume. Like torrent bursting from a lofty vein. whence Of those. Wherein the holy church defended her. “If such one wheel of that two-yoked car. Smote fiercest. Licence to fight. Nor the first vacant fortune. ‘gainst an erring and degenerate world. hath declar’d So courteously unto thee. and invert their steps. soon he grew Mighty in learning. I question not But he. That to God’s paupers rightly appertain. nor the tenth). he besought. One stretches and another cramps its rule. “My errand was for this. But the track. who come to meddle with the text. 36 . and have fed its plants. From which the twice twelve cions gird thee round.” O happy father! Felix rightly nam’d! O favour’d mother! rightly nam’d Joanna! If that do mean. Then. with sage doctrine and good will to help. But his who fills it basely). Over the garden Catholic to lead Their living waters. not through its fault.’ Yet such were not From Acquasparta nor Casale. one. No dispensation for commuted wrong. From Bagnororegio. Which its smooth fellies made. Thence many rivulets have since been turn’d. Might still find page with this inscription on’t. that soon turns To wan and wither’d. Not for the world’s sake. But. erelong To rue the gathering in of their ill crop. is now deserted: That mouldy mother is where late were lees. that wont to trace his path. When the rejected tares in vain shall ask Admittance to the barn. and did set himself To go about the vineyard. in favour of that seed. ‘I am as I was wont. if not tended well: And from the see (whose bounty to the just And needy is gone by. who in discharge Of my great offices still laid aside All sinister aim. Which Thomas. dashing ‘gainst the stocks of heresy. Bonaventura’s life in me behold.Paradise As who should say. leaf by leaf. But for the real manna.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Turn backward. Forth on his great apostleship he far’d. for which now they pore Upon Ostiense and Taddeo’s page. His family. And rode triumphant through the civil broil. Illuminato here. as men interpret it. Thou canst not doubt its fellow’s excellence. And. where resistance was most stout.
and no Io Paean. O’ercome the massiest air: thereto imagine The wain. that circled me. Joachim . that each should tend With opposite motion and. and his goodly lore. he shall attain As ‘t were the shadow. such as Ariadne made. Pietro Mangiadore. Amid th’ accordant sons of Deity. that. Among the first of those barefooted meek ones. Of that true constellation. happier made At each new minist’ring. that. and in one Substance that nature and the human join’d. The bright courtesy Of friar Thomas. Imagine (and retain the image firm.Paradise And Agostino join me: two they were. but Three Persons in the Godhead. Donatus. Of stars fifteen. Have mov’d me to the blazon of a peer So worthy. sweet charity Invites me with the other to like toil. As mountain rock. and both In such sort whirl around. Spins ever on its axle night and day. And thus it spake: “One ear o’ th’ harvest thresh’d. T’ have rang’d themselves in fashion of two signs In heav’n. and to us Those saintly lights attended. from midst the ethereal host Selected. who would conceive what now I saw. in which the wondrous life Of the meek man of God was told to me.The Divine Comedy of Dante . for things there as much Surpass our usage. 37 . and that one of them Did compass in the other’s beam. conceiving thus. When death’s chill seized her. There was sung No Bacchus. and. And its grain safely stor’d. who deign’d To put his hand to the first art. Nathan the prophet. Then silence brake. endow’d With soul prophetic. And he of Spain in his twelve volumes shining. the whilst he hears me speak).” With the bright summit of that horn which swells Due from the pole. and Anselmo. as the swiftest heav’n Is swifter than the Chiana. and with me have mov’d this throng. CANTO XIII Let him. That luminary. with lively ray serene. and the dance Twofold. in the bosom of our sky. Metropolitan Chrysostom. round which the first wheel rolls. The song fulfill’d its measure. Who sought God’s friendship in the cord: with them Hugues of Saint Victor. Raban is here: and at my side there shines Calabria’s abbot.
are but each the beam Of that idea. and such The clay was made. And worse: and. 38 .The Divine Comedy of Dante . As centre in the round. kindling with bright view. and in that. as outweighs Each evil in the scale. Mirror’d. that in the bosom. must all Have by his virtue been infus’d. nor from his love triune with them. whence the rib Was ta’en to fashion that fair cheek. hath better fruit. through his bounty. there is none. whate’er of light To human nature is allow’d. which the heav’nly orbs Moving. Their wax. for that lively light. congregate itself. as ‘t were in new existences. with seed or without seed. Whose faultering hand is faithless to his skill. “Descending hence unto the lowest powers. both after and before Such satisfaction offer’d. and thou shalt see Thy deeming and my saying meet in truth. and mark The primal virtue. to his enclos’d In the fifth radiance. if love itself dispose. such as in them it was. ‘How then had he no peer?’ thou might’st reply. who form’d Both one and other: and thou thence admir’st In that I told thee. That life can teem with. ye. at your birth. accomplish’d with each gift. Doth. mortal men. which pierc’d By the keen lance. and that which molds it. Howe’er. Resembling thus the artist in her work. Its energy so sinks. Are in your talents various. more or less. that the human nature ne’er Was or can be. whose taste All the world pays for. There all perfection is vouchsafed. it shows Th’ ideal stamp impress: so that one tree According to his kind. That which dies not. Which passeth from his brightness. And that which can die.Paradise “Thou know’st. which our Soverign Sire Engendereth loving. produce. such the burden fill’d The virgin’s bosom: so that I commend Thy judgment. Were the wax Molded with nice exactness. of beatitudes A second. and the heav’n In its disposing influence supreme. not disjoin’d From him. The lustre of the seal should be complete: But nature renders it imperfect ever. “Did I advance no further than this point. at last it makes But brief contingencies: for so I name Things generated. Open now thine eyes To what I answer thee. differ much: And thence with lustre. Itself unalterable and ever one.
that I told thee. the motive sway’d To his requesting. Who fishes for the truth and wanteth skill. ponder. which I have said. or denial. And.’ Thou shalt discern it only hath respect To kings. Bryso. in each case alike Since it befalls. is Without distinction. by distortion marr’d. that what now appears not. he was a king. or to know. of whom are many. blunt or sharp. Or ere the crop be ripe. “Much more than vainly doth he loose from shore. And of our well-beloved. “Whence.Paradise But. ‘Risen. And open proofs of this unto the world Have been afforded in Parmenides. Since he returns not such as he set forth. With this distinction take my words. Who journey’d on. who ask’d For wisdom. I have spoken thus. and the other fools. And let this Henceforth be led unto thy feet.The Divine Comedy of Dante . may appear Right plainly. and the good Are rare. And they may well consist with that which thou Of the first human father dost believe. who he was. noting that. as a weary man. to the end he might be king Sufficient: not the number to search out Of the celestial movers. to make Thee slow in motion. that first motion is. reflected back The scripture-image. E’en in the haven’s mouth seeing one steal. Who. and knew not whither: so did Sabellius. 39 . Thou kingly prudence and that ken mayst learn. That thou mayst see. “Let not the people be too swift to judge. For I have seen The thorn frown rudely all the winter long And after bear the rose upon its top. like to scymitars. marking clearly. At which the dart of my intention aims. and the crowd beside. If necessary with contingent e’er Have made necessity. Arius. Whose affirmation. As one who reckons on the blades in field. by art. perish at the last. be made Triangle with each corner. and what (When he was bidden ‘Ask’ ). or whether that Be granted. Melissus. or if Of the mid circle can. Both to the ‘yea’ and to the ‘nay’ thou seest not. that all the way across the sea Ran straight and speedy. that in most instances Current opinion leads to false: and then Affection bends the judgment to her ply. For he among the fools is down full low. and this. And bark.
How. Such was the image glanc’d into my mind. with such melody. if it doth.Paradise Another brine. Him. bright. Show yet more gracious. he hath not seen The sweet refreshing. being thus entire. Tell him. CANTO XIV From centre to the circle. As the great spirit of Aquinum ceas’d. 40 . thus replied: “Long as the joy of Paradise shall last. Wherewith your substance blooms. and for ever reigns In mystic union of the Three in One. inwardly. gratuitous. Whate’er of light. even as the blow Impels it. As it hath grave beyond its virtue great. The saintly circles in their tourneying And wond’rous note attested new delight. As fervent. that we must doff this garb Of frail mortality. as in vision blest. And from the lesser orb the goodliest light.” As those. With gentle voice and mild.” Thus. if the light. That also tell. Our love shall shine around that raiment. And that as far in blessedness exceeding. shall stay with you Eternally. must.The Divine Comedy of Dante . The sight may without harm endure the change. and spring with gladder bound. who lives ever. in their fitful mirth Raise loud the voice. bounding all. his offering to the priest. each spirit thrice Sang. at the hearing of that pious suit. Therefore shall increase. nor e’en In thought) that he should fathom to its depth Another mystery. Let not Dame Birtha and Sir Martin thence Into heav’n’s counsels deem that they can pry: For one of these may rise. who in a ring Tread the light measure. and so back From circle to the centre. And Beatrice after him her words Resum’d alternate: “Need there is (tho’ yet He tells it to you not in words. Our shape. light. of that heav’nly shower. as now: and. Whoso laments. when ye shall regain your visible forms. thenceforth to live Immortally above. as but to hear For highest merit were an ample meed. ministering aid. regarmented with glorious weeds Of saintly flesh. such as perhaps The angel’s once to Mary. Unbounded. or from without. imparts The Supreme Good. water moves In the round chalice. the other fall. fervent.
So there new substances. to more lofty bliss Translated: for the star. shall to view less radiant seem. And lo! forthwith there rose up round about A lustre over that already there. doubtfully descried. nor words express Her infinite sweetness. an holocaust I made To God. which the wisest fail to spell. With such mighty sheen And mantling crimson. in corporeal organs made Firm. 41 . in two listed rays The splendours shot before me. when I knew The rite accepted. and so preserves Its proper semblance. and those whom best they lov’d. but for their kindred dear. Beatrice show’d. yet perchance Not for themselves. yet it its whiteness shines More lively than that. that comes from it. With all the heart. with warmer smile Impurpled. As at an evening hour Of twilight. So thickly studded. sweep their ampler circuit wide.” So ready and so cordial an “Amen. well denoted our ascent. and round the other twain Enwheeling. O gentle glitter of eternal beam! With what a such whiteness did it flow. like the brightening up Of the horizon. new appearances through heav’n Peer with faint glimmer. Its pathway. and that too The ray. Nor will such excess of light O’erpower us. Than shall our fleshly robe. thus this circling sphere Of splendour. as plainly spoke Desire of their dead bodies. Thence mine eyes regain’d Power to look up. much increase The fervour. But as the greed Which gives out flame.Paradise The better disclose his glory: whence The vision needs increasing. befitting the new grace vouchsaf’d. Mothers and sires. and with that tongue which speaks The same in all. Mind cannot follow it. that I cried. and susceptible of all delight. And from my bosom had not yet upsteam’d The fuming of that incense. methought began To rise in view. in the depth of Mars. Ere they were made imperishable flame. O’erpowering vision in me! But so fair. which it kindles. “God of Sabaoth! that does prank them thus!” As leads the galaxy from pole to pole. So passing lovely. Sole with my lady. and I beheld myself. which yonder earth Now covers. Distinguish’d into greater lights and less.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Of equal clearness.” Followed from either choir.
42 . So from the lights. Me such ecstasy O’ercame. indistinctly heard. To move along the sunbeam. CANTO XV True love. Gather’d along the cross a melody. When in the flecker’d dawning he shall spy The glitterance of Christ. scintillating. and help With many strings. Perhaps my saying over bold appears. long or short. dulcimer. Thus oft are seen. that are by heav’n’s right hand Unwound and tighten’d. in accordance thus were mute? He hath in sooth good cause for endless grief. The higher they are ris’n. The atomies of bodies. as loose appetite in wrong. whereof in my excuse I do accuse me. which there appear’d to me. to give me will For praying. and that there I had not turn’d me to them. that never till that hour was thing That held me in so sweet imprisonment. Which grows in transport as we mount aloof. and still’d The sacred chords. he may well Excuse me that.Paradise Those rays describ’d the venerable sign. who heareth not distinct the note. Here memory mocks the toil of genius. Silenced that lyre harmonious. That quadrants in the round conjoining frame. a pleasant dining makes To him. with ever-changeful glance. for there came to me “Arise and conquer. that ever shows itself as clear In kindness. But he. interpos’d by art Against the noontide heat. as they met and pass’d. who. But whoso takes his cross. Whereon to look fulfilleth all desire. whose slant line Checkers the shadow. who is aware those living seals Of every beauty work with quicker force. and may own my truth. and follows Christ Will pardon me for that I leave untold. and pattern fails me now.” as to one who hears And comprehends not. Straight or athwart. And ‘tween the summit and the base did move Lights. Accounting less the pleasure of those eyes.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Christ Beam’d on that cross. And as the chime Of minstrel music. Yet I mark’d it was a hymn Of lofty praises. That holy pleasure here not yet reveal’d. with ravishment Possess’d me. That. now rapid and now slow. From horn to horn. flow to righteous prayers Should they not hearken.
within this light. I thought that mine Had div’d unto the bottom of my grace And of my bliss in Paradise. tho’ long. my blood! O most exceeding grace divine! to whom. Triunal Deity! That hast such favour in my seed vouchsaf’d!” Then follow’d: “No unpleasant thirst. Thou hast allay’d. Who for such lofty mounting has with plumes Begirt thee. That nearer to the level of our thought The speech descended. Down to its foot. glides a sudden trail of fire. And seems some star that shifted place in heav’n. Than any other in this gladsome throng. Forthwith To hearing and to sight grateful alike. then unto my dame My sight directed. whence it kindles. Despoils himself forever of that love. my son. From whence my voice thou hear’st.Paradise Who. Thou dost deem thy thoughts to me From him transmitted. Or why to thee more joyous I appear. That on the dexter of the cross extends. the first sounds I heard Were. “Best he thou. erewhile at rest. When the flight Of holy transport had so spent its rage. Whose leaves or white or dusky never change. in the’ Elysian bower. And therefore dost not ask me who I am. for in her eyes Was lighted such a smile. one luminary ran From mid the cluster shone there. The spirit to his proem added things I understood not. Which took me reading in the sacred book. glow’d its course. Only that. Yet not of choice but through necessity Mysterious. At nightfall. hath twice the heav’nly gate Been e’er unclos’d?” so spake the light. When he perceiv’d his son. and through the beamy list Like flame in alabaster. “O thou. thus from the horn. yet no gem Dropp’d from its foil. And it is soon extinct. who is first of all. for the love of thing that lasteth not. and on either side Amazement waited me. so profound he spake. whence I Turn’d me toward him. As oft along the still and pure serene.The Divine Comedy of Dante . E’en as all numbers ray from unity. So forward stretch’d him (if of credence aught Our greater muse may claim) the pious ghost Of old Anchises. Attracting with involuntary heed The eye to follow it. 43 . none is lost. more thanks to her. As now to thee. for his high conception scar’d Beyond the mark of mortals.
” “I am thy root. From whence ye drew your radiance and your heat. which keeps me wakeful ever. Fearless. For thy paternal greeting. Time was not yet. next it added. and who. Wisdom and love were in one measure dealt. Montemalo yet O’er our suburban turret rose. Urging with sacred thirst of sweet desire. No purfled dames. Was chaste and sober. hath pleas’d me: “thus the prompt reply Prefacing.” I turn’d me to Beatrice. She had no armlets and no head-tires then. smiling. and frank and jocund. that caught the eye More than the person did. are shown. within her ancient limit-mark. what time ye kenn’d The nature. But will and means. When at his daughter’s birth the sire grew pale. and I began “To each among your tribe. and she heard Ere I had spoken. Well befits. nor yet had come Hardanapalus. his long Endurance should he shorten’d by thy deeds. as in its rising. utter forth Thy will distinctly. That to my will gave wings. utter forth the wish. With unlike wings are fledge. In which thy thoughts. For fear the age and dowry should exceed On each side just proportion. “he. A mortal I Experience inequality like this. May be contended fully. House was none Void of its family. And therefore give no thanks. that the love.Paradise The truth is as thou deem’st. This howe’er I pray thee. an assent. let thy voice. But. And. For that they are so equal in the sun. was my son And thy great grandsire. and abode in peace. Which calls her still to matin prayers and noon. with no artful colouring on her cheeks. Whereto my ready answer stands decreed. for in this hue Both less and greater in that mirror look.The Divine Comedy of Dante . in whom naught unequal dwells. of whom Thy kindred appellation comes. In mortals. or ere thou think’st. I saw Bellincione Berti walk abroad In leathern girdle and a clasp of bone. on its first ledge Hath circuited the mountain. as much To be surpass in fall. “Florence. living topaz! that ingemm’st This precious jewel. 44 . but in the heart. let me hear thy name. no zone. These hundred years and more. for the cause ye well discern. to exhibit feats Of chamber prowess. As makes all likeness scant. O leaf! whom to expect Even.
lectur’d them Old tales of Troy and Fesole and Rome. and his knighthood he Did gird on me. E’en in that region of unwarp’d desire. “In such compos’d and seemly fellowship. by that foul crew Was I releas’d from the deceitful world. In so sweet household. as Rome. Resuming then With greeting such. In heav’n itself. smil’d reminding me of her. that a little space Was sever’d. possess Your right. A Salterello and Cianghella we Had held as strange a marvel. And Beatrice. O happy they! Each sure of burial in her native land. when I could not choose. by the shepherd’s fault. and there In your old baptistery. usurping. And hence thy surname grew. for that time. But since hath disaccustom’d I began. I follow’d then The Emperor Conrad. There. After him I went To testify against that evil law. And from the martyrdom came to this peace.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and their good dames handling The spindle and the flax. Whose cough embolden’d (as the story holds) To first offence the doubting Guenever. Mary at my birth Bestow’d me. Such faithful and such fair equality. And none left desolate a-bed for France! One wak’d to tend the cradle. drawing off The tresses from the distaff. Whose people. “From Valdipado came to me my spouse. Whose base affection many a spirit soils. in such good part he took My valiant service. hushing it With sounds that lull’d the parent’s infancy: Another. That our infirm affection here below Thou mov’st to boasting. as ye would A Cincinnatus or Cornelia now. was first to bear. I was made Christian at once and Cacciaguida.Paradise His lady leave the glass. as were my brethren. but make my vaunt in thee! Yet cloak thou art soon shorten’d. call’d on with loud cries. 45 . Unless thou be eked out from day to day. Eliseo and Moronto.” CANTO XVI O slight respect of man’s nobility! I never shall account it marvelous. The sons I saw Of Nerli and of Vecchio well content With unrob’d jerkin. with her maidens. Goes round thee with his shears.
Such one. So that it bears the mighty tide. and. him. ye should have your bound’ry. and Signa’s. The Conti were possess’d Of Montemurlo still: the Cerchi still Were in Acone’s parish. when it was said ‘ Hail Virgin!’ to the throes. more honourable It is to pass in silence than to tell. by which my mother. Their flame enliven.Paradise “You are my sire. fit to carry arms. forthwith It answer’d: “From the day. O how much better were it. had there our birth-place. that runs her annual game. lighten’d her of me Whom she was heavy with.The Divine Comedy of Dante . where his grandsire ply’d The beggar’s craft. as it grew More fair to look on. that these people Were neighbours to you. “you give me heart Freely to speak my thought: above myself You raise me. where the last Partition of our city first is reach’d By him. That hath his eye already keen for bart’ring! Had not the people. Thus much Suffice of my forefathers: who they were. gracious to her son. 46 . They. Were but the fifth of them this day alive. nor had haply From Valdigrieve past the Buondelmonte. Five hundred fifty times and thrice. who in that time were there from Mars Until the Baptist. and bursts not Say then. been stepdame unto Caesar. All those. which of all the world Degenerates most. And whence they hither came. my honour’d stem! what ancestors Where those you sprang from. had been turn’d adrift To Simifonte. That hath Saint John for guardian. and what years were mark’d In your first childhood? Tell me of the fold. And I. And trades and traffics. that gladness wells from it. so with voice more sweet. its beams To reilumine underneath the foot Of its own lion. Who now is sainted. Ran purely through the last mechanic’s veins. what was then Its state. and who in it were highest seated?” As embers. But then the citizen’s blood. But. so that light I saw Shine at my blandishments. at the breathing of the wind. and bear the stench Of Aguglione’s hind. as a mother. Through so many streams with joy My soul is fill’d. this fire had come. that now is mix’d From Campi and Certaldo and Fighine. Yet not in this our modern phrase. of whom I sprang. Than to have them within.” said I. and that at Galluzzo And at Trespiano. as hath become a Florentine.
The o’erweening brood. as The body’s. With them who blush to hear the bushel nam’d. Than five. whom since their pride Hath undone! and in all her goodly deeds Florence was by the bullets of bright gold O’erflourish’d. Are mortal: but mortality in some Ye mark not. as turn and show the tooth. At the poop. The Alberichi. Giouchi. like yourselves. How they are gone. the first Florentines. So cumb’rous it may speedily sink the bark. How mighty them I saw. when cities have their end. That families fail. by the rolling of her heav’nly sphere. of Sannella him. Such the sires of those. in variety of food: And the blind bull falls with a steeper plunge. still was seen Unshaken: the Sacchetti still were great. whose renown Time covers. in his house. But unto such. and you Pass by so suddenly. That plays the dragon after him that flees. The Ravignani sat. Catilini and Filippi. So fortune deals with Florence. and ‘t will seem No longer new or strange to thee to hear. and Soldanieri And Ardinghi. Of the Calfucci still the branchy trunk Was in its strength: and to the curule chairs Sizii and Arigucci yet were drawn. Greci and Ormanni. that appertain t’ ye. Hence admire not At what of them I tell thee. of whom is sprung The County Guido. All things.Paradise The city’s malady hath ever source In the confusion of its persons. Hide and reveal the strand unceasingly. cloth’d with verrey. and oftentimes one sword Doth more and better execution. illustrious citizens: And great as ancient. As surely as your church is vacant. Than the blind lamb. Galli and Barucci.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and after them how go Chiusi and Sinigaglia. who now. flock Into her consistory. I saw The Ughi. Mark Luni. they endure so long. Now in their wane. Fair governance was yet an art well priz’d By him of Pressa: Galigaio show’d The gilded hilt and pommel. and at leisure There stall them and grow fat. The column. Sifanti. 47 . Urbisaglia mark. That now is laden with new felony. and Bostichi. With him of Arca saw. and whoso hath since His title from the fam’d Bellincione ta’en. And as the moon Doth.
is gentle as a lamb. who came to Clymene To certify himself of that reproach. from whence your tears have had their spring. would rejoice. With these and others like to them. Through the just anger that hath murder’d ye And put a period to your gladsome days. the first time Thou near our city cam’st. When thus by lady: “Give thy wish free vent. led Into the narrow circuit of your walls. A thing incredible I tell. Was on its rise. Was honour’d. O Buondelmonte! what ill counseling Prevail’d on thee to break the plighted bond Many. not that aught thy words May to our knowledge add. the victim.” CANTO XVII Such as the youth. who bears the sightly quarterings Of the great Baron (he whose name and worth The festival of Thomas still revives) His knighthood and his privilege retain’d. tho’ true: The gateway. (he whose end Still makes the fathers chary to their sons. but yet so slight esteem’d. and that saintly lamp.The Divine Comedy of Dante . The house. I saw Florence in such assur’d tranquility. Each one. it. That Ubertino of Donati grudg’d His father-in-law should yoke him to its tribe. who borders them With gold. who now are weeping. In Borgo yet the Gualterotti dwelt. Albeit one. that ne’er The lily from the lance had hung reverse. Who had erewhile for me his station mov’d. But so was doom’d: On that maim’d stone set up to guard the bridge. That it may issue. nor unobserv’d was such Of Beatrice. Already Caponsacco had descended Into the mart from Fesole: and Giuda And Infangato were good citizens.Paradise Ay or the purse. named from those of Pera. E’en such was I. She had no cause at which to grieve: with these Saw her so glorious and so just. but to the end. And Importuni: well for its repose Had it still lack’d of newer neighbourhood. and those consorted with it. Had God to Ema giv’n thee. bearing true report Of the mind’s impress. This day is mingled with the common herd. 48 . Which had been fasten’d on him. Florence! fell. At thy last peace. Or through division been with vermeil dyed.
As earthly thought determines two obtuse In one triangle not contain’d. as to the ear sweet harmony From organ comes. and thus spake: “Contingency. in terms Precise and unambiguous lore. Beguil’d the credulous nations.” So said I to the brightness. More then the tall ship. that reflects the scene. Thou shalt prove How salt the savour is of other’s bread. hurried down the flood. Throughout the livelong day. I.Paradise That thou mayst use thyself to own thy thirst And men may mingle for thee when they hear. As Beatrice will’d. Nor with oracular response obscure. Touching my future destiny have heard Words grievous. and my will declar’d. Hippolytus departed. replied The spirit of paternal love. as or ere the Lamb of God was slain. enshrin’d. The arrow. Is all depictur’d in the’ eternal sight. such must thou Depart from Florence. ere in themselves Existent. affix the blame Unto the party injur’d: but the truth Shall. The common cry. though I feel me on all sides Well squar’d to fortune’s blows. there. seen beforehand. and will ere long effectuate.” “O plant! from whence I spring! rever’d and lov’d! Who soar’st so high a pitch. by his cruel stepdame’s wiles. Will. looking at the point whereto All times are present.The Divine Comedy of Dante . How hard the passage to descend and climb By other’s stairs. in the vengeance it dispenseth. Such. slacks its flight. explicitly. 49 . Yet in his smile apparent. so comes before mine eye The time prepar’d for thee. thou seest as clear. But hence deriveth not necessity. Therefore my will Were satisfied to know the lot awaits me. From thence. Doth from the vision. But that shall gall thee most Will he the worthless and vile company. as ‘t is ever wont. the whilst I scal’d With Virgil the soul purifying mount. but. which erewhile To me had spoken. find A faithful witness. This they wish. unfolded not to view Upon the tablet of your mortal mold. Thou shall leave each thing Belov’d most dearly: this is the first shaft Shot from the bow of exile. And visited the nether world of woe. Such as driv’n out From Athens. so clear Dost see contingencies. Where gainful merchandize is made of Christ. and this Contrive.
the granting shall Forerun the asking. first place of rest. who in perplexity desires Counsel of other. Which falls most heavily on him. 50 . “First refuge thou must find. What hath been told thee. In the great Lombard’s courtesy. As one. I began. With him shalt thou see That mortal. and along the mount From whose fair height my lady’s eyes did lift me. that of his deeds The nations shall take note. ready to inflict the blow. In equal scorn of labours and of gold. Sparkles of virtue shall shoot forth in him. that driven from the place Most dear to me. Rich men and beggars interchanging fortunes. for these wheels Only nine years have compass him about. His bounty shall be spread abroad so widely. Shall turn ‘gainst thee: but in a little while Theirs and not thine shall be the crimson’d brow Their course shall so evince their brutishness T’ have ta’en thy stand apart shall well become thee. wise. As not to let the tongues e’en of his foes Be idle in its praise. who bears Upon the ladder perch’d the sacred bird. the contrary to that Which falls ‘twixt other men.Paradise With whom thou must be thrown into these straits. I may not lose myself All others by my song. Down through the world Of infinite mourning. by his silence. “and things he told Incredible to those who witness them. ere the Gascon practice on great Harry. who was at his birth impress So strongly from this star. He shall behold thee with such kind regard. And thou shalt bear this written in thy soul Of him. And after through this heav’n from light to light. But.—Lo! the ambushment That a few circling seasons hide for thee! Yet envy not thy neighbours: time extends Thy span beyond their treason’s chastisement. For all ungrateful.” Soon. which I had streteh’d for him Upon the warp. who most Abandoned himself. That ‘twixt ye two. Had shown the web. Then added: “So interpret thou. as the saintly spirit. but tell it not. was woven. impious all and mad. Look thou to him And his beneficence: for he shall cause Reversal of their lot to many people. Therefore ‘t is good I should forecast.The Divine Comedy of Dante . benign and friendly: “My father! well I mark how time spurs on Toward me. my son. His unripe age Yet holds him from observance.
which if I tell again. and I fed on mine. sole. Which is of honour no light argument. whom fame hath note of. Who led me unto God. if I am a timid friend to truth. will feel thy saying sharp. These eyes are not thy only Paradise. flashing. joy’d That blessed spirit. that did full On Beatrice shine. unless the instance brought Be palpable. all deceit remov’d. dimm’d or by its own Or other’s shame. For this there only have been shown to thee.” At the sweet sounds of comfort straight I turn’d.” As here we sometimes in the looks may see Th’ affection mark’d. on digestion it will turn To vital nourishment. admonish’d: “Muse On other thoughts: bethink thee. And. when tasted first. as the wind doth. Shall. notwithstanding. I leave in silence here: nor through distrust Of my words only. It may with many woefully disrelish. the mountain. The cry thou raisest. For the mind Of him. Affection found no room for other wish. ruminating. thus the hallow’d light. And. Next answer’d: “Conscience. but that to such bliss The mind remounts not without aid. as I gaz’d on her. with second view From her fair countenance my gladden’d soul Contented. in the saintly eyes what love was seen. is loth to acquiesce And fix its faith. Which I had found there. thy voice shall prove Unwelcome. who hears. where enclos’d the treasure smil’d. she spake: “Turn thee. vanquishing me with a beam Of her soft smile.” CANTO XVIII Now in his word. Spirits.Paradise Have I learnt that. Like to a golden mirror in the sun. and list. that near Him I dwell. To whom I turn’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante . first shone glisteningly. and the deep. Throughout these orbs. Tempting the sweet with bitter: she meanwhile. who recompenseth every wrong. Thou. See the whole vision be made manifest.” The brightness. when that its sway hath ta’en The spirit wholly. bewray’d its will 51 . smite the proudest summits. And let them wince who have their withers wrung. To whom these days shall be of ancient date. What though. While the everlasting pleasure. that. I fear my life may perish among those. and proof apparent urge. Thus much Yet may I speak.
And. that reign’d there. within the lights. At the repeated name of Joshua. and Renard. Through silvery whiteness of that temperate star. figur’d I’ th’ air. Which from its fairness doth discharge the weight Of pudency. now I. greeting. Whose sixth orb now enfolded us. I saw. The saintly creatures flying. as seems. fashion to my view Our language. whose fruit is ever fair And leaf unwith’ring. two my gaze Pursued. whose life Is from its top. singing.The Divine Comedy of Dante . such joy. So mighty in renown. A splendour gliding. nor. Array them in their flight. Within that Jovial cresset. To Beatrice on my right l bent. And as birds. what next behoov’d. at the naming saw Of the great Maccabee. Looking for intimation or by word Or act. together with the heav’n The circuit widen’d. And to mine eyes so sudden was the change. Last. and mix. and Duke Godfrey drew My ken. from river banks Arisen. noting the increase Of beauty in that wonder. whom I name. I e’en thus perceiv’d Of my ascent. the clear sparks Of love. and with the choir Of heav’nly songsters prov’d his tuneful skill. Their new-found pastures. so. as every muse Might grace her triumph with them. now L. and began: “On this fifth lodgment of the tree. ere they arriv’d in heav’n. another move With whirling speed. blessed spirits abide. along the cross. who perseveres In good deeds doth perceive from day to day His virtue growing. such in her.” Along the cross I saw. First. The next for Charlemagne And for the peer Orlando. It past all former wont. sang. On the horns Look therefore of the cross: he. and Robert Guiscard. now in round. Like the change In a brief moment on some maiden’s cheek. and did descry Such mere effulgence in her eyes. as doth 1n summer cloud Its nimble fire. that stain’d it. Who spake with me among the other lights Did move away. to their notes they mov’d.Paradise To talk yet further with me. the word was said. And the soul. William. intently. and gladness was the scourge Unto that top. the man. then one 52 . and made Now D. Shall there enact. now lengthen’d troop. as the eye pursues A falcon flying. That were below. Ere it was done: then. as by sense Of new delight.
Diligite Justitiam.The Divine Comedy of Dante . their bliss and primal good. and a higher pitch Some mounting. the first. e’en as the sun. that are on earth All after ill example gone astray. and were mute. a little while Did rest them. which thou. as at shaking of a lighted brand. with lilied crowning. of himself he guides. Sparkles innumerable on all sides Rise scatter’d. Be thy power Display’d in this brief song. Of the fifth word they held their station. as they Cities and realms by thee! thou with thyself Inform me. Which kindleth them. decreed. O nymph divine Of Pegasean race! whose souls. well content To over-canopy the M. Singing. In order each. source of augury to th’ unwise. Following gently the impress of the bird. as drive Their traffic in that sanctuary. whose walls With miracles and martyrdoms were built. mov’d forth. Sweet star! what glorious and thick-studded gems Declar’d to me our justice on the earth To be the effluence of that heav’n. Hath none to guide him. Both verb and noun all blazon’d. The other bright beatitude. And when each one Had settled in his place. War once had for its instrument the sword: 53 . from whom Thy motion and thy virtue are begun. that seem’d Erewhile. That he would look from whence the fog doth rise. methinks. And on the summit of the M.Paradise Becoming of these signs. To vitiate thy beam: so that once more He may put forth his hand ‘gainst such. fashions it. In the M. As fancy doth present them. And every line and texture of the nest Doth own from him the virtue. I saw Descending other lights. that I may set forth the shapes. mak’st glorious and long-liv’d. as they appear’d. Ye host of heaven! whose glory I survey l O beg ye grace for those. dost inlay! Therefore I pray the Sovran Mind. lively Grav’d in that streaky fire. Who painteth there. Thus more than thousand twinkling lustres hence Seem’d reascending. were five-fold seven. that rested there. The characters. the head and neck Then saw I of an eagle. which thou Inspir’st. and some less. and the extreme Qui judicatis terram. Making the star seem silver streak’d with gold. Vocal and consonant. Then. I mark’d. Thyself a costly jewel.
whereon so intense The sun-beam glow’d that to mine eyes it came In clear refraction. think. that issued from them all. As in that image many were the loves. “My heart so cleaves To him. And that.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Each did seem A little ruby. That writes but to cancel. Peter and Paul live yet. and. The beauteous image. Who for the vineyard. that liv’d in solitude remote. —And thou. Whence I address them: “O perennial flowers Of gladness everlasting! that exhale In single breath your odours manifold! Breathe now. nor in fantasy Was e’er conceiv’d. And one the voice. which thou wastest. That with great craving long hath held my soul.Paradise But now ‘t is made. Beginning: “For that I was just and piteous. For I beheld and heard The beak discourse.” The which no wish exceeds: and there on earth Have I my memory left. This well I know. His beauty and his eagerness bewraying. Finding no food on earth. And from the wilds was dragg’d to martyrdom. 54 . what intention form’d Of many. Yours without veil reflects it. voice hath not utter’d. I wist not of the fisherman nor Paul. l am exalted to this height of glory.” Thus is one heat from many embers felt. that they. which next Befalls me to portray. died. with open wings. e’en by the bad Commended. while they leave its course untrod. That if there be in heav’n a realm. singly as of one express. So saw I move that stately sign. Nor hath ink written. Like to a falcon issuing from the hood. That rears his head. “Who turn’d his compass on the world’s extreme. in fruition sweet Gladdening the thronged spirits. and mark thy doings. Ye discern The heed.” it began. CANTO XIX Before my sight appear’d. with praise Of grace divine inwoven and high song Of inexpressive joy. that shows In faithful mirror the celestial Justice. wherewith I do prepare myself To hearken. Thou hast good cause to cry. “He.” Straight I saw. taking the bread away Which the good Father locks from none. ye the doubt that urges me With such inveterate craving. and let the hunger be appeas’d. and claps him with his wings.
of the which thou mad’st Such frequent question. if he believeth not?’—What then. in the wide main Discerns it not. which though it mark The bottom from the shore. Or else its poison. Whence needs each lesser nature is but scant Receptacle unto that Good. and void of faith. are good. “O animals of clay! O spirits gross I The primal will. ‘Tis darkness all. Derivable by no created good. And he offendeth not in word or deed. or shadow of the flesh. As eye doth in the sea. And who art thou. who was sum Of each created being.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Save that which cometh from the pure serene Of ne’er disturbed ether: for the rest. Light is none. And all his inclinations and his acts. As far as human reason sees. that turns about 55 . who subtilizes thus with me. In proof whereof. for thou saidst—’A man Is born on Indus’ banks. Both openly. But hidden through its deepness. The ken. in such wise Could not through all the universe display Impression of his glory. the chief Good. that the Word Of his omniscience should not still remain In infinite excess. Hath from itself. your world is gifted with. waited not For light celestial. nor who doth read nor write. But unbaptiz’d he dies. and ne’ertheless it is. He first through pride supplanted. did not the safe word Of scripture hold supreme authority. that in itself is good. There would assuredly be room for doubt Even to wonder. Whose very cause depends upon its beam. and none is there Who speaks of Christ.” As on her nest the stork. Here confess reveal’d That covert. which hath hidden from thy search The living justice. and in secret. of th’ omnipresent Mind A single beam. and abortive fell.Paradise And in that space so variously hath wrought. that on the stool wouldst sit To judge at distance of a thousand miles With the short-sighted vision of a span? To him. ne’er been mov’d. Therefore your sight. Where is the justice that condemns him? where His blame. descends In th’ everlasting Justice as low down. measur’d by itself alone. Justice consists in consonance with it. its origin must own Surpassing far its utmost potency. which knows No limit.
that he doth work With his adulterate money on the Seine. O blest Hungary! 56 . that speak Much in a narrow space. of Portugal And Norway. spread to view? There amidst Albert’s works shall that be read. While they with upward eyes do look on her. Either before or after the blest limbs Were nail’d upon the wood. Which will give speedy motion to the pen. One rich eternally. And they. Who still to worth has been a willing stranger.The Divine Comedy of Dante . There shall be read the woe. But lo! of those Who call ‘Christ. All there shall know His uncle and his brother’s filthy doings. Those burning splendours of the Holy Spirit Took up the strain. who understand’st them not. Than such. When they shall see that volume. whom lately she hath fed. who guards The isle of fire by old Anchises honour’d Shall find his avarice there and cowardice. there shall be expos’d with him Of Ratza. Lab’ring with such deep counsel.’ there shall be many found. Christ. further off from him by far. The delicate living there of the Bohemian. So lifted I my gaze. Who by the tusk will perish: there be read The thirsting pride. “What may the Persians say unto your kings. He. and bending so The ever-blessed image wav’d its wings. When Prague shall mourn her desolated realm. Who so renown’d a nation and two crowns Have bastardized. In judgment. that maketh fool alike The English and Scot. and did say: “As are my notes To thee. such is Th’ eternal judgment unto mortal ken.” Then still abiding in that ensign rang’d.Paradise Unto her young. to whom his name was never known. Who hath not a believer been in Christ. for his vices No less a mark than million. Wheeling round It warbled. There shall be seen the Spaniard’s luxury. Christians like these the Ethiop shall condemn: When that the two assemblages shall part. the other poor. And better to denote his littleness. Wherewith the Romans over-awed the world. and thus it spake again: “None ever hath ascended to this realm. who hath counterfeited ill The coin of Venice. The halter of Jerusalem shall see A unit for his virtue. The writing must be letters maim’d. impatient of their bound. in the which All their dispraise is written.
that marshaleth the world And the world’s leaders. grudging at their beast. and forthwith Voice there assum’d. burst forth into songs. In mortal eagles. as it were hollow.” it began. Such as from memory glide and fall away. rose That murmuring of the eagle. Sweet love! that dost apparel thee in smiles. That make the circle of the vision.The Divine Comedy of Dante . How lustrous was thy semblance in those sparkles. glittering in mine eye. or of pipe. Which merely are from holy thoughts inspir’d! 57 . The world’s enlightener vanishes. Waxing in splendour. Of such vicissitude in heaven I thought. those. That did ingem the sixth light. that shines Midmost for pupil. from our hemisphere. on whose tables I inscrib’d them. who sang The Holy Spirit’s song. This. at the fret-board. that sees. disappearing. in the blessed beak Was silent. for that all those living lights. suddenly the sky. Is yet again unfolded. “must now Be noted steadfastly: for of the fires. Erewhile irradiate only with his beam. modulate and tun’d. Who keepeth even footing with the rest. now doth he know The merit of his soul-impassion’d strains By their well-fitted guerdon. he Who to the beak is nearest. at the wind-hole. making known The richness of his spring-head: and as sound Of cistern.” After the precious and bright beaming stones. such as my heart Did look for. Thus up the neck. O blest Navarre! If with thy mountainous girdle thou wouldst arm thee In earnest of that day. As the great sign. and bare about The ark from town to town. and day On all sides wasteth. “The part in me.Paradise If thou no longer patiently abid’st Thy ill-entreating! and. that doth fall From rock to rock transpicuous. That figure me. Is. methought I heard The murmuring of a river. was the same. ceas’d the chiming Of their angelic bells. and thence along the beak Issued in form of words. Of the five.. Are chief of all the greatest. comforted CANTO XX When. e’en now are heard Wailings and groans in Famagosta’s streets And Nicosia’s. and bears the sun. putting forth Innumerable lights wherein one shines.
The Divine Comedy of Dante . The eye was kindled: and the blessed sign No more to keep me wond’ring and suspense. And of its opposite. Both from experience of this pleasant life. Replied: “I see that thou believ’st these things. Who in the erring world beneath would deem. That warbling in the air expatiates long. deriv’d From his well doing. not in such sort As man prevails o’er man. Fervent love And lively hope with violence assail The kingdom of the heavens. In silence waited not: for to my lips “What things are these?” involuntary rush’d. Which he betokens by his radiant seeming. Was William. The other following. Because ‘t is willing to be conquer’d. albeit e’en his sight Reach not its utmost depth. That. Drops satiate with the sweetness. pass’d o’er to Greece. By true repenting slack’d the pace of death: Now knoweth he. when through pious prayer below Today’s is made tomorrow’s destiny. for the over arch. but discern’st not how. whom that land bewails. how all the ill. From good intent producing evil fruit: Now knoweth he. which the world cannot see. I. trilling out his last sweet melody. Till other’s tongue reveal them. As is through glass the hue that mantles it. which thou seest in the under bow.” Like to the lark. though my doubting were as manifest. 58 . such appear’d That image stampt by the’ everlasting pleasure. which weeps For Charles and Frederick living: now he knows How well is lov’d in heav’n the righteous king. So that thy knowledge waits not on thy faith: As one who knows the name of thing by rote. Because I tell them. and overcome The will of the Most high. doth not helm him aught.Paradise The widow for her son: now doth he know How dear he costeth not to follow Christ. with the laws and me. that the degrees of heav’n Alter not. To yield the shepherd room. That Trojan Ripheus in this round was set Fifth of the saintly splendours? now he knows Enough of that. still. He next. who follows In the circumference. but conquers it. Though it have brought destruction on the world. Which fashions like itself all lovely things. And forc’d a passage out: whereat I mark’d A sudden lightening and new revelry. But is a stranger to its properties. Then. The grace divine.
O how far remov’d. by its mercy conquering. who see our Maker. and God’s will and ours are one. and for their ways Rebuk’d the stubborn nations. And. Plac’d all his love below on just and right: Wherefore of grace God op’d in him the eye To the redemption of mankind to come. The other. in the eye who live the first and fifth. Wherein believing. in believing. Where never any with good will returns.The Divine Comedy of Dante .Paradise Though conquer’d. Predestination! is thy root from such As see not the First cause entire: and ye. the whilst it spake. A little while returning to the flesh. by that form divine. that I beheld The pair of blessed luminaries move. in that thou behold’st The region of the angels deck’d with them. That of feet nail’d already to the cross. The three nymphs. know not yet The number of the chosen: and esteem Such scantiness of knowledge our delight: For all our good is in that primal good Concentrate. The glorious Spirit. through the riches of that grace. Whom at the right wheel thou beheldst advancing.” So. One from the barrier of the dark abyss. “Those. Cause thee to marvel. O mortal men! be wary how ye judge: For we. They quitted not their bodies. that wing’d The prayers sent up to God for his release. nourish’d such a flame Of holy love. Their beamy circlets. dancing to the sounds. in firm rooted faith. of whom I speak to thee. And put power into them to bend his will. Which from so deep a fountain doth distil. was giv’n to me Sweet medicine to clear and strengthen sight. Were sponsors for him more than thousand years Before baptizing. who had the means to help. It doth remember me. so. and therein the song Acquires more pleasure. as one handling skillfully the harp. Of lively hope Such was the meed. Like the accordant twinkling of two eyes. that at the second death He was made sharer in our gamesome mirth. he endur’d no more The filth of paganism. Gentiles but Christians. And. Came back unto his bones. This of the feet in future to be pierc’d. as thou deem’st. 59 . Attendant on some skilful songster’s voice Bids the chords vibrate. Believ’d in him. of lively hope. As never eye created saw its rising.
Into the seventh splendour are we wafted. and I began: “I am not worthy. as the leaf doth from the thunderbolt. Which this betokens me. Who in the sight of Him. My beauty. cross their flight. (As its remoter circle girds the world) Of that lov’d monarch. So shines. methought. Saw wherefore I was silent. still doth kindle more. so seem’d That glitterance. As the rooks. “Did I smile. in this hour. how fondly I had fed My sight upon her blissful countenance. admits no doubt. mounting these eternal palace-stairs. ev’ry light in heav’n.Paradise CANTO XXI Again mine eyes were fix’d on Beatrice. Yet no smile she wore And.” Unwillingly from question I refrain. Within the crystal. by whom my silence and my speech Are order’d. Thy mortal puissance would from its rays Shrink. commingled with his might. A ladder. that in my thought: said: “The love. prompted me T’ indulge the fervent wish.” Whoso can deem. down whose steps I saw the splendours in such multitude Descending. which my ken pursued in vain. “thou wouldst be straight Like Semele when into ashes turn’d: For.” quoth she. were no temp’ring interpos’d. which in this mirror shall be shown. May know. at dawn of day Bestirring them to dry their feathers chill. while some abide And wheel around their airy lodge. I saw rear’d up. 60 . which records the name. that in her looks Found all contentment. Thy mind be with thine eyes: and in them mirror’d The shape. what joy To do the bidding of my heav’nly guide: In equal balance poising either weight. which the loftier it climbs. and homeward some. As upon certain stair it met. In colour like to sun-illumin’d gold. So lofty was the summit. of my own desert. that seeth all. That thou shouldst answer me. Returning. That underneath the burning lion’s breast Beams. but for her sake. Was shed thence. that. And with mine eyes my soul. looking for a sign: whence she. and clash’d Its shining. wafted on alternate wing. when to new thoughts I chang’d. To her.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And one ling’ring near us. wax’d So bright. As thou hast noted. in whose happy reign No ill had power to harm. Some speed their way a-field.
Which bringeth thee so near: and wherefore. but follows free Th’ eternal Providence.The Divine Comedy of Dante . as much Or more of love is witness’d in those flames: But such my lot by charity assign’d. “‘Twixt either shore Of Italy. what passeth her ability. That makes us ready servants. to the mortal world when thou return’st. I the question urg’d no more.” Was the reply: “and what forbade the smile Of Beatrice interrupts our song. and thus Supported. on the earth Is wrapt in mist. which it wells from. I have the power to gaze: and hence the joy. Its virtue to my vision knits. And.” By words like these Admonish’d. like rapid mill. That no created ken may fathom it. pervading with such sounds Of rapt devotion ev’ry lower sphere?” “Mortal art thou in hearing as in sight. That is in heav’n most lustrous. Upon its centre whirl’d the light. when. Look then if she may do. “O sacred lamp! Love no compulsion needs. To execute the counsel of the Highest. And of the spirit humbly sued alone T’ instruct me of its state. A stony ridge ariseth.” said I.Paradise Who hath vouchsaf’d my asking. Be this reported. Doth the sweet symphony of Paradise Keep silence here. That on the sov’ran essence. piercing through these folds. Wherewith I sparkle. “That in this court. why of thy peers Thou only to this office wert foredoom’d. and then The love. And of the light that vests me. equaling with my blaze The keenness of my sight. in such sort.” I had not ended. shall solve What thou hast ask’d: for in th’ abyss it lies Of th’ everlasting statute sunk so low. The thunder doth not lift his voice so high. for lo! there aloft. nor the seraph That hath his eyes most fix’d on God. But not the soul. say. I well discern: This harder find to deem. Only to yield thee gladness of my voice. The mind. as thou seest. 61 . lifts me so above myself. replied: “Splendour eternal. that did inhabit there. Below. nor distant from thy land. When she is ta’en to heav’n. spirit blest! That in thy joy art shrouded! say the cause. I thus far Descend these hallow’d steps: not that more love Invites me. that none henceforth dare Direct his footsteps to so dread a bourn. that here is radiant.
—Cephas came. Soothing me: “Know’st not thou.Paradise They call it Catria: at whose foot a cell Is sacred to the lonely Eremite. And she was like the mother. For worship set apart and holy rites. O patience! thou That lookst on this and doth endure so long. and that nothing there is done But is done zealously and well? Deem now. and what my smile Had wrought. in the house Of our blest Lady. then added: “There So firmly to God’s service I adher’d. it hath no likeness here: nor I Wist what it spake. content In heav’n-ward musings. So burly are they grown: and from behind Others to hoist them. Near upon my close Of mortal life. which that cloister once was us’d To render to these heavens: now ‘t is fall’n Into a waste so empty. 62 . thou art in heav’n? And know’st not thou. since thus the shout had pow’r to move thee. who was the Holy Spirit’s vessel. uttered them a shout So loud. as chanc’d. through much importuning I was constrain’d to wear the hat that still From bad to worse it shifted. Barefoot and lean. to the guardian of my steps I turn’d me. more beautiful. and stay’d them. Down the palfrey’s sides Spread their broad mantles. so as both the beasts Are cover’d with one skin. and he is cheer’d. Each circuiting. and wheel. for thus she spake. He came. CANTO XXII Astounded.” A third time thus it spake.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Round this They came. when before I dwelt Beside the Adriatic. that ere long Detection must lay bare its vanity Pietro Damiano there was I y-clept: Pietro the sinner. easily I pass’d the heats Of summer and the winter frosts. Is holy. Modern Shepherd’s need Those who on either hand may prop and lead them. What change in thee the song. so deaf’ning was the thunder.” I at those accents saw the splendours down From step to step alight. where he trusteth most. with her voice Soothes him. whatever is in heav’n. and wax. like the chill. eating their bread. Rich were the returns And fertile. At the first table. who her son Beholding pale and breathless. who always runs Thither for succour. That with no costlier viands than the juice Of olives.
expectance may not weary thee. as a rose Before the sun. at whose side Cassino rests. In old days. I remain’d. wakening it Full-blossom’d in my bosom. when the consummate flower Has spread to utmost amplitude. But that. who fearful of o’er-much presuming. Which thou hast such respect of. The sword of heav’n is not in haste to smite. Abates in him the keenness of desire. who with the world Were in delusion lost. Have rais’d assurance in me. “Thy gentle words and kind. That it might yield contentment to my wish. 63 . ere the lofty bound Thou reach. And from within it these the sounds I heard. “in the last sphere Expect completion of thy lofty aim. One largest and most lustrous onward drew. I saw A hundred little spheres. The vengeance were already known to thee. beaming in ye all. That from their impious worship I reclaim’d The dwellers round about. Was on its height frequented by a race Deceived and ill dispos’d: and I it was.” “Brother!” he thus rejoin’d. when amid those pearls. The spirits of men contemplative. “If thou. thus. like me. Nor yet doth linger.The Divine Comedy of Dante . beheldst the charity That burns amongst us. That mountain. Who brought the soul-subliming truth to man. Were utter’d. And such a speeding grace shone over me. I will make answer even to the thought. Who thither carried first the name of Him. Romoaldo here: And here my brethren.Paradise In which couldst thou have understood their prayers. as she will’d. And this the cheerful semblance. So shalt thou many a famous spirit behold. These other flames. Nor dares to question. As one. I behold Not unobservant. Which thou must witness ere thy mortal hour. what thy mind conceives. that fairer grew By interchange of splendour. Of thee Therefore entreat I. whose kindly force Gives birth to flowers and fruits of holiness. who their steps refrain’d Within the cloisters. But elsewhere now l bid thee turn thy view. as to gaze Upon thine image. and held firm their heart.” Mine eyes directing. save unto his seeming.” I answ’ring. father! to declare If I may gain such favour. were all Enliven’d by that warmth. Here is Macarius. Who in desire or fear doth look for it. by no covering veil’d.
with my pennon vied. I beheld. so prevail’d Over my nature. Had. With ye the parent of all mortal life 64 . turned into dens. The walls. So. reader. grateful I refer. And if thou note the point. There all things are as they have ever been: For space is none to bound. ere The sign. Then look what it hath err’d to. The sweet dame beckon’d me to follow them: And. Our ladder reaches even to that clime. May at God’s pleasure work amendment here. And Francis his in meek humility. I with pray’rs and fasting mine. for the which I ofttimes wail my sins. for abbey rear’d. then the refluent sea. The cowls to sacks choak’d up with musty meal. and not To those who in respect of kindred claim. by that influence only. as sue for heav’n’s sweet sake. as my hope is to return Unto the holy triumph. O glorious stars! O light impregnate with exceeding virtue! To whom whate’er of genius lifteth me Above the vulgar. Thither the Patriarch Jacob saw it stretch Its topmost round.” So saying. and smite my breast. Or on more vile allowance. And so at giddy distance mocks thy view. than I was. Jordan was turn’d back. Mortal flesh Is grown so dainty. Then all roll’d upward like an eddying wind. And enter’d its precinct. that followeth Taurus. Ascending or descending here below.The Divine Comedy of Dante . to his assembly back he drew: And they together cluster’d into one. Thou hadst been longer drawing out and thrusting Thy finger in the fire. And there on mine: where every aim is found Perfect. when it appear’d to him With angels laden. unto the acorn’s setting. that no natural motion. But to mount it now None lifts his foot from earth: and hence my rule Is left a profitless stain upon the leaves. His convent Peter founded without gold Or silver. whence each proceeds. all pertains. And a less wonder. as I mounted.Paradise For there on each desire completion waits. To such. good beginnings last not From the oak’s birth. entire. Foul usury doth not more lift itself Against God’s pleasure. thou shalt find The white grown murky. than that fruit which makes The hearts of monks so wanton: for whate’er Is in the church’s keeping. nor pole divides. and for fulfillment ripe.
appear’d before me all. hence Look downward. who midst the leafy bower Has. CANTO XXIII E’en as the bird. and to bring home their food. how bulky each.Paradise Arose and set. This petty area (o’er the which we stride So fiercely). Which through the’ etherial concave comes rejoicing. Then to the beauteous eyes mine eyes return’d. when I did first inhale The Tuscan air. and saw this globe So pitiful of semblance. and afterward. how swift. of the time prevenient. fate decreed My passage at your clime. And mark’d. In the fond quest unconscious of her toil: She. Nor might I not descry Of all the seven. how near him with their circle. and with mine eye return’d Through all the seven spheres. sat darkling through the night. round Move Maia and Dione.” I straight obey’d. nor ever. who esteems it least: whose thoughts Elsewhere are fix’d. That overhangs their couch. And. as along the eternal twins I wound my way. “that behooves thy ken Be vigilant and clear. him worthiest call and best. that perforce It moved my smiles: and him in truth I hold For wisest.The Divine Comedy of Dante . With her sweet brood. and contemplate. with wakeful gaze Expects the sun. to this end. here discern’d Jove’s tempering ‘twixt his sire and son. in her nest. Forth from the havens stretch’d unto the hills. impatient to descry Their wished looks. I saw the daughter of Latona shine Without the shadow. Removeth from the east her eager ken. Hyperion! of thy sun. for virtue even now To meet the hard emprize that draws me on. To you my soul Devoutly sighs. “Thou art so near the sum of blessedness. Or even thou advance thee further. on the spray. when grace Vouchsaf’d me entrance to the lofty wheel That in its orb impels ye. till the dawn. Nor of their several distances not learn. what a world Already stretched under our feet there lies: So as thy heart may. whereof late I deem’d That dense and rare were cause. Here I sustain’d The visage. 65 . Present itself to the triumphal throng. in its blithest mood.” Said Beatrice. and hence Their changes and their various aspects Distinctly scann’d.
Unto the thousandth parcel of the truth. As in the calm full moon. seeing her Suspense and wand’ring.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and. In whom desire is waken’d. O’er million lamps a sun. Whenas that gracious boon was proffer’d me. Which never may be cancel’d from the book. 66 . that had been yearned for so long. and bent her glance Wistfully on that region. where the sun Abateth most his speed. In peerless beauty. I became as one. that empower thee to sustain my smile. which did open lay The path. “the triumphal hosts Of Christ.” Like to the fire. not with all their help to boot. from whom all drew Their radiance as from ours the starry train: And through the living light so lustrous glow’d The substance. and he strives in vain To shape it in his fantasy again. “Behold. in the transport lost. so that from its womb enlarg’d. That paint through all its gulfs the blue profound In bright pre-eminence so saw I there. That. Here is the might.” Meseem’d. I was not held. that my ken endur’d it not. that. And I am fain to pass unconstrued by. in a cloud imprison’d doth break out Expansive. when I saw the heav’n Wax more and more resplendent. Thus in that heav’nly banqueting my soul Outgrew herself.” I was as one. that have on sweetest milk Of Polyhymnia and her sisters fed And fatten’d.” Cried Beatrice. It falleth against nature to the ground. flow merely in her saintly looks it wrought. while she spake her image all did burn. when Trivia smiles. and the hope Of somewhat new to come fills with delight. Now were all Those tongues to sound. that o’erpow’reth thee. “Ope thou thine eyes. That. And in her eyes such fullness was of joy. Holds now remembrance none of what she was. Short space ensued. Betwixt the heav’n and earth. And here the wisdom.Paradise So stood the dame erect. and mark me: thou hast seen Things. and all the harvest reap’d at length Of thy ascending up these spheres. when a forgotten dream Doth come across him. and. O Beatrice! sweet and precious guide! Who cheer’d me with her comfortable words! “Against the virtue. I say. My song might shadow forth that saintly smile. Avails not to resist. ‘mid th’ eternal nympus. Long in expectance. Wherein the past is written.
so saw I there Legions of splendours. blossoming Beneath the rays of Christ? Here is the rose. higher up Thou didst exalt thy glory to give room To my o’erlabour’d sight: when at the name Of that fair flower. May pardon. Whatever melody sounds sweetest here. And girt the star. and echoed Mary’s name. Though veil’d themselves in shade. and hov’ring round it wheel’d. as that thou dost not turn Unto the beautiful garden. who thus with hov’ring flight enwheel The lofty rapture from that womb inspir’d. as once here on earth Were. whom duly I invoke Both morn and eve. who thinks how ponderous the theme. And draws the spirit most unto itself. But he. and diviner joy Shall from thy presence gild the highest sphere. our ventrous keel must furrow. as the bright dimensions of the star In heav’n excelling.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and encounter once again The strife of aching vision. And. O gracious virtue! Thou. my soul. The track. that meets A sudden interruption to his road. brooks No unribb’d pinnace. yet saw I not The fountain whence they flow’d. And that ‘t is lain upon a mortal shoulder. Lady of Heav’n! will hover. Wherewith the goodliest sapphire.Paradise And with such figuring of Paradise The sacred strain must leap.” said Beatrice. on whom burning rays Shed lightnings from above. “thus Enamour thee. Compar’d unto the sounding of that lyre. that inlays The floor of heav’n. Lo! from within the sky a cresset fell. stream’d through broken cloud. like one. “ Angelic Love I am. on the goodliest ardour fix’d. And here the lilies. Might seem a rent cloud when it grates the thunder. Circling in fashion of a diadem.” Such close was to the circling melody: And. whose broad stamp is on them. as it ended. Mine eyes a flower-besprinkled mead have seen. long as thou Thy Son shalt follow. 67 . in my eyeballs lively portray’d.” Prompt I heard Her bidding. “Why doth my face. no self-sparing pilot. by whose odour known The way of life was follow’d. Through glance of sunlight. Where our desire did dwell: and round thee so. was crown’d. with all her might Collected. if it tremble with the burden. As erewhile. Wherein the word divine was made incarnate. all the other lights Took up the strain.
trail’d a blaze Of comet splendour. the delight hath left me never. which from your table falls. Whence flows what most he craves. Here are the treasures tasted. Round Beatrice thrice it wheel’d about. Through zealous love to Mary: then in view There halted. Be ye not heedless of his urgent will. and. that with tears Were in the Babylonian exile won. so outstretch’d Their wavy summits all the fervent band. Of the fount ye alway drink. That rose and sought its natal seed of fire. as none was left more goodly there. They by the measure pac’d. saw I issue forth a flame So bright. whose harvest now they keep. which I did note in beauty most Excelling. that wind Their circles in the horologe. That yet no glimmer of its majesty Had stream’d unto me: therefore were mine eyes Unequal to pursue the crowned flame. After the milk is taken. that stretches forth its arms For very eagerness towards the breast. and “Regina Coeli “ sang So sweetly. But may some influence of your sacred dews Sprinkle him. Victorious he his mighty triumph holds. that to th’ observant eye The first seems still. CANTO XXIV “O ye! in chosen fellowship advanc’d To the great supper of the blessed Lamb. so work The stated rounds. Whereon who feeds hath every wish fulfill’d! If to this man through God’s grace be vouchsaf’d Foretaste of that. like to spheres On firm-set poles revolving. E’en thus their carols weaving variously. that with its regal folds enwraps The world. and as wheels. And the rejoicing spirits. and with the nearer breath of God Doth burn and quiver. Here in synod high Of ancient council with the new conven’d. From that. as it flew. the last.The Divine Comedy of Dante . or swift.Paradise The robe. And like to babe.” Beatrice spake. which below Sow’d the good seed. Or ever death his fated term prescribe. O what o’erflowing plenty is up-pil’d In those rich-laden coffers. To whom the keys of glory were assign’d. When gold had fail’d them. or slow. 68 . Made me to rate the riches of their joy. Under the Son of Mary and of God. held so far retir’d Its inner hem and skirting over us.
who with thee conspir’d To bring Rome in unto the way of life. in hope.Paradise With so divine a song. arm’d me. Hath colours fine enough to trace such folds. “O saintly sister mine! thy prayer devout Is with so vehement affection urg’d.”—”Rightly hast thou deem’d. on which credence hope sublime 69 . in silence. that fancy’s ear Records it not. that to exalt its glory more. to approve. and not to end it. soon as it was stay’d: To whom she thus: “O everlasting light Of him. who arms himself. which of this wondrous bliss He bare below! tent this man. and the pen passeth on And leaves a blank: for that our mortal speech. With lighter probe or deep. as thou wilt. Then turn’d to Beatrice. within whose mighty grasp our Lord Did leave the keys. are below from mortal eye So hidden. Summoning up each argument to aid. “vouchsafe to me Apt utterance for my thoughts!” then added: “Sire! E’en as set down by the unerring style Of thy dear brother. that from their inmost fount I should unlock the waters. whence this had breath’d. “May the grace.” Such were the accents towards my lady breath’d From that blest ardour. So I.” I replied. If he in love. Be steadfast. and the proof Of things not seen.” said I. And such profession: “As good Christian ought. Nor e’en the inward shaping of the brain.” “The deep things. they have in belief alone Their being. What is faith?” Whereat I rais’d My forehead to the light. where all things are beheld In liveliest portraiture. Faith of things hop’d is substance. As was behooveful for such questioner.” Like to the bachelor. till the master have propos’d The question. That giveth me the captain of the church For confessor. and in her looks Approval met. But since true faith Has peopled this fair realm with citizens. and in belief. Meet is.The Divine Comedy of Dante . touching the faith.” Was answer’d: “if thou well discern. Thou in his audience shouldst thereof discourse. is not hid from thee: for thou Hast there thy ken. Thou dost unbind me from that beauteous sphere. and then proof. why first He hath defin’d it. Declare thee. By the which thou didst on the billows walk. And speaks not. and herein doth consist Methinks its essence. while she spake. substance. “which here I scan Distinctly.
And inasmuch as we must needs infer From such belief our reasoning. “that they in very deed Are that they purport? None hath sworn so to thee. Was the reply. and whereon thy belief hath grown.— Here is the reas’ning.” Next issued from the deep imbosom’d splendour: “Say. I answer’d: “Nature did not make for these The iron hot. “should have bee turn’d To Christian. Behooves thee to express. the sophist would want room To exercise his wit. And when that Worthy thus.” said I. what thou believ’st. “Who seest that.” said I. he straight resum’d.” Forthwith I heard: “If thus. Would in itself be such a miracle.” I answer’d. which thou didst so believe. whence the costly jewel. Examining.The Divine Comedy of Dante . through the high celestial court Resounded all the spheres. “I not a whit misdoubt of its assay. that convinceth me So feelingly. each argument beside Seems blunt and forceless in comparison. But tell me. 70 . It once was.” “O saintly sire and spirit!” I began. that we now Approach’d the topmost bough. and therefore substance it intends.” “Who voucheth to thee of the works themselves. evidence their truth”.” “The flood. “The grace. Were understood. and no miracle been wrought. from branch to branch. “Praise we one God!” In song of most unearthly melody. came to thee. whatsoe’er has past them. had led me. all respect To other view excluded. The elder proposition and the new. that follow’d.Paradise Is built. on the which Is founded every virtue. both in weight and in alloy. whate’er by learning men attain.” “That all the world. “from the Spirit of God Rain’d down upon the ancient bond and new. The next. The rest were not an hundredth part so great.” That ended.” So breath’d the flame Of love: then added: “Current is the coin Thou utter’st. So far discreetly hath thy lips unclos’d That. hence of proof Th’ intention is deriv’d. if thou hast it in thy purse. I commend.” Then heard I: “Wherefore holdest thou that each. that from the vine. or on her anvil mould them. E’en thou wentst forth in poverty and hunger To set the goodly plant. Which so persuade thee.” “Even so glittering and so round. are the voice of heav’n?” “The works. that holds sweet dalliance with thy soul. now is grown unsightly bramble.
many a time. Nor demonstration physical alone. CANTO XXV If e’er the sacred poem that hath made Both heav’n and earth copartners in its toil. which. himself unmov’d the while. That I the tenour of my creed unfold. Peter had then circled my forehead thus.The Divine Comedy of Dante . but from that truth It cometh to me rather. The lively flame dilates. whence had issued forth The first fruit of Christ’s vicars on the earth. which is shed Through Moses. When ye were gifted of the Holy Ghost. And having told the errand keeps his peace. Well pleas’d. The word of gospel lore upon my mind Imprints: and from this germ. of whose love All heav’n is mov’d.’’ As the master hears. shall claim the wreath Due to the poet’s temples: for I there First enter’d on the faith which maketh souls Acceptable to God: and. standing up At my baptismal font. mysterious league Of union absolute. Toward the sepulchre? thy will is here. and the Psalms. this firstling spark. 71 . In three eternal Persons I believe. who hath joyful tidings brought. And thou the cause of it hast likewise ask’d. With other voice and fleece of other grain I shall forthwith return. and like heav’n’s star Doth glitter in me. and. Persuades me to this faith. spake to me: “Lo! lo! behold the peer of mickle might. Or more intelligential and abstruse. compass’d me thrice The apostolic radiance. full of gladness. Faded my brow. Toward us mov’d a light. at view whereof My Lady. and then enfoldeth in his arms The servant.Paradise As to outstrip feet younger than thine own. whose behest Had op’d lips. One sole eternal Godhead. through many a year. And with lean abstinence. and that ye yourselves did write. Essence threefold and one. be destin’d to prevail Over the cruelty. The Gospel. Thus benediction uttering with song Soon as my peace I held. so well their answer pleas’d. the rapt Prophets. for its sake. Next from the squadron. And I reply: I in one God believe. where a sleeping lamb The wolves set on and fain had worried me. which bars me forth Of the fair sheep-fold.
both which thou hast inquir’d. Not for more knowledge. or ere thy death. for he may answer thee with ease. these to him Leave I. must be ripen’d in our beam. And whence thou hadst it?” Thus proceeding still. Seconds his teacher gladly. “Sith our Liege Wills of his grace that thou. The second light: and she. to see. how it doth flourish in thee. who figur’st them in shapes. And murmuring cooes his fondness.” said I. and mine eyes I lifted up Unto the mountains that had bow’d them late With over-heavy burden. so that having view’d The glories of our court. hence permitted he is come. but that he may tell How dear thou holdst the virtue. whose gentle love My soaring pennons in that lofty flight Escorted.Paradise That makes Falicia throng’d with visitants!” As when the ring-dove by his mate alights. well can’st speak them. In the most secret council. What is that hope. Who. silent. For thou.” Such cheering accents from the second flame Assur’d me. extolling both Their heavenly banqueting. as clear. As Jesus stood before thee. and all who hear. and be thou strong in trust: For that. “Hope. so God give him grace. 72 . Hath the church militant: so ‘t is of him Recorded in the sun. each. practis’d in his task.The Divine Comedy of Dante . that leads to blissful end. The other points. which hither from the mortal world Arriveth. rejoin’d: Among her sons. but when an end Was to their gratulation. declare. willing to give proof of diligence. Th’ effect of grace divine and merit preceding.” Like to the scholar. And without boasting. not one more full of hope. thou mayst therewith Thyself. I could not look upon them. whose liberal orb Enlighteneth all our tribe: and ere his term Of warfare.” “Lift up thy head. thus saw I One. so burning bright. of the other great and glorious prince. “Is of the joy to come a sure expectance. In circles each about the other wheels. Beatrice spake: “O life in glory shrin’d!” Who didst the largess of our kingly court Set down with faithful pen! let now thy voice Of hope the praises in this height resound. Before me sat they down. invigorate With hope. with his lords Shouldst be confronted. Smiling then. thus preventing me. With kindly greeting hail’d. From Egypt to Jerusalem.
thy brother hath set forth This revelation to us. That. ‘who have known Thy name. in their own land. Or when they clos’d. “Propose the mark (which even now I view) For souls belov’d of God. then forth these accents breath’d: “Love for the virtue which attended me E’en to the palm. where he tells Of the white raiment destin’d to the saints.” first heard we cried: whereto Answer’d the carols all.The Divine Comedy of Dante . yet innocent of worse intent. So I beheld the new effulgence come Unto the other two. from above. Were such a crystal in the Cancer’s sign. Though gay. As he. In terms more full. In the dance And in the song it mingled. Than to do fitting honour to the bride. whom also it delights. “This is he. how he may see 73 . “They hope in thee. each one must be clad In twofold vesture. himself supreme Among his tuneful brethren.” I reply’d. Amidst them next. the next. Glows vigorous yet within me. who sang The songs of the Supreme.” And. who looks intent. or ere her words began. new and ancient.” “Both scriptures. as became their rapture.” Thus she spake. into whose keeping from the cross The mighty charge was given. fell on me the drops So plenteously. and goes. ‘Let all hope In thee. In thine epistle. What promise thou from hope in chief dost win. who lay Upon the bosom of our pelican: This he. A lamping. who in a ring Wheel’d. and issuing from the field.’ so speak his anthem. Isaias saith. distilling from his spring. Yet therefore naught the more remov’d her Sight From marking them. as of quick and vollied lightning. as the words were ending. That winter’s month were but a single day.” Whileas I spake. A light of so clear amplitude emerg’d. But flow’d to me the first from him. Within the bosom of that mighty sheen. Like as a virgin riseth up. And enters on the mazes of the dance. And clearer far.’ and with my faith who know not that? From thee. And the dame Held on them fix’d her looks: e’en as the spouse Silent and moveless. that I on others shower The influence of their dew. and inspires To ask of thee.Paradise This light from many a star visits my heart. Play’d tremulous. and their proper lands this delicious life. And strives with searching ken.
” “Philosophy. to what point thy soul aspires: And meanwhile rest assur’d. the like to that which dwelt In Ananias’ hand. And say. regain its virtue. In this our blessed cloister. and. that sight in thee Is but o’erpowered a space. is to all The lessons love can read me. or to shun Suspected peril at a whistle’s breath. loseth power of sight: so I Peer’d on that last resplendence. not wholly quench’d: Since thy fair guide and lovely. for ease of labour. ‘’hath arguments. erewhile dash’d frequent in the wave. All rest. The two that have ascended. on the happy coast she stood. who level’d at this scope thy bow. on my form O’erspent. that in attention mute Detain’d me. 74 . That. looking at my side again to see Beatrice. Which from the trinal band soft-breathing rose. and spake: “Behooves thee sift more narrowly thy terms. Issued a breath. As till our number equal the decree Of the Most High. to converse urg’d. My wishes here Are centered. for they were The gates. so long. shine alone With the two garments. although Not distant. Beginning. When. That Alpha and Omega. I descried her not. with discourse Thou compensate the brief delay. and did light Her never dying fire.Paradise The sun in his eclipse. Say then. but ah! how trembled in my thought.” As when. Forth of the beamy flame which dazzled me. with the rest. when daz’d With that excess. in her look Hath potency. Which here abides not? Earth my body is. at which she enter’d. and the mingling sound was still. the flamy circle at that voice So rested. whilst wond’ring I remain’d. In earth: and shall be. long as till thy vision. And this place hath authority enough ‘T’ imprint in me such love: for. CANTO XXVI With dazzled eyes. and these words it spake: “‘T were well.” said I. while I heard: “Why dazzlest thou thine eyes in seeking that. in this palace is the weal. I turn’d. through desire Of seeing. The oars. at her pleasure.” Yet again The voice which had dispers’d my fear. So report below.’’I answering thus: “Be to mine eyes the remedy or late Or early.The Divine Comedy of Dante . of constraint.
at his sudden waking. Such truth Learn I from him.Paradise Good. E’en at the outset of thy heralding. Have from the sea of ill love sav’d my bark. must needs attract The soul of each one. And the upstartled wight loathes that be sees. he misdeems Of all around him. And as a sleep is broken and dispers’d Through sharp encounter of the nimble light. To the foremention’d lively knowledge join’d. and “Holy. that tends them all. and in degree the more. holy. on which this proof is built. The essence then. So. who the truth Discerns.The Divine Comedy of Dante . As for the leaves. which he led to. yea noted well Th’ avowal. found without it. But say. where such advantage is. Kindles our love.” I ended. so that thou report How many are the fangs. With the eye’s spirit running forth to meet The ray. In mortal ears the mystery of heav’n. With the resplendence of her own. who chief proclaim’st. whose word Is truth. till assurance waits On better judgment: thus the saintly came Drove from before mine eyes the motes away. If thou yet other cords within thee feel’st That draw thee towards him. “keep The choicest of thy love for God. and th’ authority Therewith agreeing. inasmuch as we perceive the good. loving. To what intent the eagle of our Lord Had pointed his demand. and resum’d: “All grappling bonds. and therewith a song most sweet Rang through the spheres.’ Lastly from thee I learn. that knit the heart to God. and mine own being.” Accordant with the rest my lady sang. that of himself to Moses saith.” I did not miss. with which this love Is grappled to thy soul. ‘I will make all my good before thee pass. My love for them is great. The death which he endur’d that I should live. holy. who shows me the first love Of all intelligential substances Eternal: from his voice I learn. that in the garden bloom. as is the good Dealt by th’ eternal hand. as I do. The being of the world. that cast 75 .” heard I answer’d. And that. As it comprises more of goodness in ‘t. which all the faithful hope. And on the coast secur’d it of the right. Confederate to make fast our clarity. from membrane on to the membrane urg’d. That each good. is naught else But of his light the beam.” “Through human wisdom.
Paradise Their brightness downward. that through the covering shone. the whilst I dwelt Upon the earth. thousand miles below. my son. that now with us I saw. More speedily to hear thee. and Himself Parhelion unto all things. The language I did use Was worn away. What space endur’d my season of delight. And Beatrice: “The first diving soul. But only my transgressing of the mark Assign’d me. that stirs in him and conforms His outside seeming to the cheer within: And in like guise was Adam’s spirit mov’d To joyous mood. ask’d Of a fourth light. That bows its lithe top till the blast is blown. awe-stricken bow’d. By its own virtue rear’d then stands aloof. So I. Transparent. Four thousand and three hundred rounds and twice. clearer shall before.” Like the leaf. There. This wouldst thou hear. who is truth’s mirror. Recover’d. Whence truly sprang the wrath that banish’d me. and. The fondness. That ever the first virtue fram’d. I pray thee hold Converse with me: my will thou seest. when to pleasure me it spake: “No need thy will be told. steep and long. Then eagerness to speak embolden’d me. admires Within these rays his Maker. which I spake and fram’d Not that I tasted of the tree. And what the language. whence at thy lady’s hest The Mantuan mov’d him. or ever Nimrod’s race Their unaccomplishable work began. which I untold Better discern. the whilst she said. when first engender’d! Ancient father! That doubly seest in every wedded bride Thy daughter by affinity and blood! Devoutly as I may. how long since God Plac’d me high garden. from whose hounds She led me up in this ladder. and I. Thousand save sev’nty times. that man inclines to. Through the sleek cov’ring of his furry coat. ere was lasting. And I began: “O fruit! that wast alone Mature. till the sun had made complete. saw I him return. still was I debarr’d This council. through every light In his broad pathway. 76 . well nigh astounded. Was in itself the cause of that exile. than thou whatever thing Thou holdst most certain: for that will I see In Him.The Divine Comedy of Dante . For naught. Whence I my vision. tell it not “ It chanceth oft some animal bewrays. His annual journey. and. and naught else To him.
to the sixth. these shalt thou see All in like manner change with me. One universal smile it seem’d of all things. She leaves to you. shrinks with maiden fear. paints and adverse cloud. to the Son. Exhaustless riches and unmeasur’d bliss.The Divine Comedy of Dante . ay. the same hath made my cemetery A common sewer of puddle and of blood: The more below his triumph. by Him. So Beatrice in her semblance chang’d: And such eclipse in heav’n methinks was seen. Both innocent and guilty. And to the Holy Spirit. if my hue Be chang’d.Paradise Left by his reason free. and variable. yet at bare report Of other’s failing. for. enjoin’d. that goes. who from hence Malignant fell. My place He who usurps on earth (my place. did but reach From the first hour. so passing sweet the strain: And what I saw was equal ecstasy. And interchang’d their plumes. Then the words CANTO XXVII Then “Glory to the Father. El was the name on earth of the Chief Good. Imperishable life of peace and love. use Is as the leaf upon the bough. 77 . That he speaks. And as th’ unblemish’d dame. When thus I heard: “Wonder not. all my life. Joy past compare. mine. while I speak. Which in the presence of the Son of God Is void). Then saw I sprinkled over all the sky. And other comes instead. Before mine eyes stood the four torches lit. When the Most Holy suffer’d. who here appoints Vicissitude of ministry. gladness unutterable. Silence ensued. Upon the mount Most high above the waters. And that. Through the blest quire. Ere I descended into hell’s abyss. who in herself Secure of censure. began to wax In brightness. and in semblance such became. As Jove might be. if he and Mars were birds. as the sun.” Such colour.” rang aloud Throughout all Paradise. Is nature’s prompting: whether thus or thus. Whose joy enfolds me: Eli then ‘t was call’d And so beseemeth: for. At eve or morning. to that which cometh next (As the sun changes quarter). which first had come. as ye do most affect it. in mortals. As is the sky that sways him. that with the song My spirit reel’d.
The Divine Comedy of Dante - Paradise
Proceeded, with voice, alter’d from itself So clean, the semblance did not alter more. “Not to this end was Christ’s spouse with my blood, With that of Linus, and of Cletus fed: That she might serve for purchase of base gold: But for the purchase of this happy life Did Sextus, Pius, and Callixtus bleed, And Urban, they, whose doom was not without Much weeping seal’d. No purpose was of our That on the right hand of our successors Part of the Christian people should be set, And part upon their left; nor that the keys, Which were vouchsaf’d me, should for ensign serve Unto the banners, that do levy war On the baptiz’d: nor I, for sigil-mark Set upon sold and lying privileges; Which makes me oft to bicker and turn red. In shepherd’s clothing greedy wolves below Range wide o’er all the pastures. Arm of God! Why longer sleepst thou? Caorsines and Gascona Prepare to quaff our blood. O good beginning To what a vile conclusion must thou stoop! But the high providence, which did defend Through Scipio the world’s glory unto Rome, Will not delay its succour: and thou, son,
Who through thy mortal weight shall yet again Return below, open thy lips, nor hide What is by me not hidden.” As a Hood Of frozen vapours streams adown the air, What time the she-goat with her skiey horn Touches the sun; so saw I there stream wide The vapours, who with us had linger’d late And with glad triumph deck th’ ethereal cope. Onward my sight their semblances pursued; So far pursued, as till the space between From its reach sever’d them: whereat the guide Celestial, marking me no more intent On upward gazing, said, “Look down and see What circuit thou hast compass’d.” From the hour When I before had cast my view beneath, All the first region overpast I saw, Which from the midmost to the bound’ry winds; That onward thence from Gades I beheld The unwise passage of Laertes’ son, And hitherward the shore, where thou, Europa! Mad’st thee a joyful burden: and yet more Of this dim spot had seen, but that the sun, A constellation off and more, had ta’en His progress in the zodiac underneath. Then by the spirit, that doth never leave
The Divine Comedy of Dante - Paradise
Its amorous dalliance with my lady’s looks, Back with redoubled ardour were mine eyes Led unto her: and from her radiant smiles, Whenas I turn’d me, pleasure so divine Did lighten on me, that whatever bait Or art or nature in the human flesh, Or in its limn’d resemblance, can combine Through greedy eyes to take the soul withal, Were to her beauty nothing. Its boon influence From the fair nest of Leda rapt me forth, And wafted on into the swiftest heav’n. What place for entrance Beatrice chose, I may not say, so uniform was all, Liveliest and loftiest. She my secret wish Divin’d; and with such gladness, that God’s love Seem’d from her visage shining, thus began: “Here is the goal, whence motion on his race Starts; motionless the centre, and the rest All mov’d around. Except the soul divine, Place in this heav’n is none, the soul divine, Wherein the love, which ruleth o’er its orb, Is kindled, and the virtue that it sheds; One circle, light and love, enclasping it, As this doth clasp the others; and to Him, Who draws the bound, its limit only known.
Measur’d itself by none, it doth divide Motion to all, counted unto them forth, As by the fifth or half ye count forth ten. The vase, wherein time’s roots are plung’d, thou seest, Look elsewhere for the leaves. O mortal lust! That canst not lift thy head above the waves Which whelm and sink thee down! The will in man Bears goodly blossoms; but its ruddy promise Is, by the dripping of perpetual rain, Made mere abortion: faith and innocence Are met with but in babes, each taking leave Ere cheeks with down are sprinkled; he, that fasts, While yet a stammerer, with his tongue let loose Gluts every food alike in every moon. One yet a babbler, loves and listens to His mother; but no sooner hath free use Of speech, than he doth wish her in her grave. So suddenly doth the fair child of him, Whose welcome is the morn and eve his parting, To negro blackness change her virgin white. “Thou, to abate thy wonder, note that none Bears rule in earth, and its frail family Are therefore wand’rers. Yet before the date, When through the hundredth in his reck’ning drops Pale January must be shor’d aside
The Divine Comedy of Dante - Paradise
From winter’s calendar, these heav’nly spheres Shall roar so loud, that fortune shall be fain To turn the poop, where she hath now the prow; So that the fleet run onward; and true fruit, Expected long, shall crown at last the bloom!”
From hence, had seem’d a moon, set by its side, As star by side of star. And so far off, Perchance, as is the halo from the light Which paints it, when most dense the vapour spreads, There wheel’d about the point a circle of fire, More rapid than the motion, which first girds The world. Then, circle after circle, round Enring’d each other; till the seventh reach’d Circumference so ample, that its bow, Within the span of Juno’s messenger, lied scarce been held entire. Beyond the sev’nth, Follow’d yet other two. And every one, As more in number distant from the first, Was tardier in motion; and that glow’d With flame most pure, that to the sparkle’ of truth Was nearest, as partaking most, methinks, Of its reality. The guide belov’d Saw me in anxious thought suspense, and spake: “Heav’n, and all nature, hangs upon that point. The circle thereto most conjoin’d observe; And know, that by intenser love its course Is to this swiftness wing’d. “To whom I thus: “It were enough; nor should I further seek, Had I but witness’d order, in the world Appointed, such as in these wheels is seen.
So she who doth imparadise my soul, Had drawn the veil from off our pleasant life, And bar’d the truth of poor mortality; When lo! as one who, in a mirror, spies The shining of a flambeau at his back, Lit sudden ore he deem of its approach, And turneth to resolve him, if the glass Have told him true, and sees the record faithful As note is to its metre; even thus, I well remember, did befall to me, Looking upon the beauteous eyes, whence love Had made the leash to take me. As I turn’d; And that, which, in their circles, none who spies, Can miss of, in itself apparent, struck On mine; a point I saw, that darted light So sharp, no lid, unclosing, may bear up Against its keenness. The least star we view
From everlasting. Thus swift Follow their hoops. every cirque Ebullient shot forth scintillating fires: And every sparkle shivering to new blaze. Wherefore such disagreement is between Th’ exemplar and its copy: for myself. doth proportion its extent Unto the virtue through its parts diffus’d. measure. That hath for confine only light and love. I fail to pierce the cause. that scours the sky. that holds. Each to the’ intelligence that ruleth it.” Thus she said: “But take. they. In number did outmillion the account Reduplicate upon the chequer’d board. not unlike To iron in the furnace. Hence. whom thou beheldst. whose swift course enwheels The universal frame answers to that. and. Such was my cheer.” As when the sturdy north blows from his cheek A blast. my words. “if thou wish thy cure. As each is wider from the centre. and truth Was manifested. irremovable.Paradise But in the sensible world such diff’rence is. not the seeming. The firmament looks forth serene. Greater to more. And entertain them subtly. Therefore the circle. that hung on it before. Suited in strict and wondrous harmony. forthwith our air. Musing awhile I stood: and she. 81 . in likeness to the point. thou shalt see the heav’ns. and smaller unto less. breadth Of substance. If in this wondrous and angelic temple.” “It is no marvel. “Hosanna. And when the words were ended. thus began: “In the first circles. if thy fingers foil’d Do leave the knot untied: so hard ‘t is grown For want of tenting. Are seraphim and cherubim.The Divine Comedy of Dante . With his beauties all unveil’d. Glitters.” She added.” to the fixed point. That is each round shows more divinity. who saw by inward meditations. as a star in heaven. Which is supreme in knowledge and in love Thus by the virtue. And shall for ever hold them to their place. The greater is the body (if all parts Share equally) the more is to preserve. My wish may have completion I must know. Clear’d of the rack. The greater blessedness preserves the more. Every orb Corporeal. Contemplating. and smiles. when Beatrice drove With clear reply the shadows back. Then heard I echoing on from choir to choir.
and nam’d Their orders. and powers the third. which of sight Is aftergrowth. And of the seeing such The meed. each. nor what thou wouldst inquire demand. as I have done rang’d them. Desire In Dionysius so intently wrought. as unto each in due degree Grace and good-will their measure have assign’d. look Aloft. with glad round To tread their festal ring. hierarchy of gods. the loftier their vision. that with still opening buds In this eternal springtide blossom fair. Breathe up in warbled melodies threefold Hosannas blending ever. These once a mortal view beheld. and last the band Angelical. marshal’d in his thought. e’en so brief a space Did Beatrice’s silence hold. The other trine. even as their sight descends Deeper into the truth. The next to whom Are princedoms and archangels.Paradise Near as they can. one refus’d his sacred read. That he. Together both. at which my vision fail’d: When thus her words resuming she began: “I speak. from the three Transmitted. girding the’ horizon hang. From an eye-witness to heav’n’s mysteries. Gregory at his error smil’d Nor marvel. A smile Bat painted on her cheek. In even balance from the zenith pois’d. approaching. From him Dissentient. in whom the first trine ends. dominations first. Fearless of bruising from the nightly ram. disporting in their sphere. And all Are blessed. that a denizen of earth Should scan such secret truth. and they can The more. That round them fleet.” CANTO XXIX No longer than what time Latona’s twins Cover’d of Libra and the fleecy star. changing hemisphere. and her fix’d gaze Bent on the point. for aye Rejoicing. next then Virtues. Thus happiness hath root In seeing. Till from that verge. 82 . All. as they circle in their orders. But soon as in this heav’n his doubting eyes Were open’d. and downward with such sway prevail.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Are thrones. not in loving. wherein rest is For every mind. for he had learnt Both this and much beside of these our orbs. Those. That all with mutual impulse tend to God. gazing the Godhead next. Part the nice level.
And as ray In crystal. unsever’d bond. like three darts Shot from a bow three-corded. Into new natures. Ere the creating of another world. For not in process of before or aft Upon these waters mov’d the Spirit of God. began with such delight. Those penmen. whom here Thou seest. Thus when and where these spirits of love were made. E’en at the moment of its issuing. as he will’d. who had made them apt For ministries so high: therefore their views Were by enlight’ning grace and their own merit 83 . shines entire. at one act Produc’d coeval. but forth To manifest his glory by its beams.Paradise For I have mark’d it. Simple and mix’d. where all time and place Are present. which may not be increas’d. bound with strict league. forth To perfect being started. were lowly to confess themselves Of his free bounty. Those. like unto himself. As if in dull inaction torpid lay. whom the Holy Spirit mov’d In many a passage of their sacred book Attest. Not for increase to himself Of good. which from the triple question rose. Their circling. Who pure intelligence were made: mere power The lowest: in the midst. so long a space. whom thou hast seen Pent with the world’s incumbrance.The Divine Comedy of Dante . The others kept their station: and this task. Nor before. glass. as thou by diligent search shalt find And reason in some sort discerns the same. But that what I disclose to thee is true. That they surcease not ever. Who scarce would grant the heav’nly ministers Of their perfection void. Thou know’st. Yet in order each Created his due station knew: those highest. and amber. beam entire His threefold operation. day nor night. Eternal Love unfolded. e’en so soon Part of the angels fell: and in their fall Confusion to your elements ensued. Whereon thou lookst. from th’ eternal Sovran. and how: and knowing hast allay’d Thy thirst. Intelligence and power. Ere one had reckon’d twenty. both form and substance. Inhabiting his own eternity. Beyond time’s limit or what bound soe’er To circumscribe his being. Long tract of ages by the angels past. Of that fatal lapse the cause Was the curst pride of him. Describ’d on Jerome’s pages thou hast seen. thus Did.
and has a byway of his own: So much the restless eagerness to shine And love of singularity prevail. from the first. choice. let the gospel sleep. But to receive the grace. Or from its straightness warp’d: no reck’ning made What blood the sowing of it in the world Has cost. reckless some Of error. nor feel to fall. And gaze thy fill. To whom more guilt and shame are justly due. that. Who meekly clings to it. “Know thou. Canvas the’ angelic nature. provokes Heav’n’s anger less. The aim of all Is how to shine: e’en they. For do not doubt. Such fables Florence in her pulpit hears. memory. Bandied about more frequent. and shadow’d o’er the sun With intervenient disk. One tells. Pure and without disguise. offensive as it is.The Divine Comedy of Dante . these substances. others well aware they err. Remembrance there needs none to gather up Divided thought and images remote “So that men. But since thou hast on earth Heard vain disputers. how the light shrouded itself Within its tabernacle. 84 . Therefore. if with good heed My words thy mind have treasur’d. which they below. Rejoicing in the countenance of God. even as the soul With prompt affection welcometh the guest. Is meritorious. intent Upon the glorious vision.Paradise Exalted. which heav’n vouchsafes. than when the book of God Is forc’d to yield to man’s authority. than the names Of Bindi and of Lapi in her streets. reasoners in the schools. Each the known track of sage philosophy Deserts. how at Christ’s suffering the wan moon Bent back her steps. Have held unceasingly their view. thus at variance with the truth Dream. Equivocating. ‘t is well thou take from me the truth. from the which Naught absent is nor hid: where then no change Of newness with succession interrupts. And pass their own inventions off instead. thou henceforth This consistory round about mayst scan. what favour for himself he wins. without further help. Now. though their eyes be open. and left dark The Spaniard and the Indian. as she withdrew: Another. darken and perplex. with the Jew. whose office is To preach the Gospel. Yet this. and dispute Its powers of apprehension. so that in their will confirm’d They stand.
while he vents them. The fountain at whose source these drink their beams. and the shadowy cone Almost to level on our earth declines. so as the way Be shorten’d with the time. light by light. and the sound Was mighty on their lips. nor needed they. and he has won the meed he sought: Could but the vulgar catch a glimpse the while Of that dark bird which nestles in his hood. poor witless ones. broken and dispers’d Over such countless mirrors. And straightway as the handmaid of the sun Puts forth her radiant brow.” CANTO XXX Noon’s fervid hour perchance six thousand miles From hence is distant. other spear or shield. When from the midmost of this blue abyss By turns some star is to our vision lost. Differing in love and sweet affection. ‘Go forth and preach impostures to the world. “But (for we far have wander’d) let us seek The forward path again. No mortal tongue Nor thought of man hath ever reach’d so far. finds a throng Of credulous fools beneath. all. return From pasture.Paradise The sheep. and others worse Than swine. With light supplies them in as many modes. Saint Anthony Fattens with this his swine. Look then how lofty and how huge in breadth The’ eternal might. which. That of these natures he might count the tribes. and the spangled firmament shuts in. Paying with unstamp’d metal for their fare. They scarce would wait to hear the blessing said. as at the first. Which now the dotards hold in such esteem. they do not see their harm? Christ said not to his first conventicle. That every counterfeit. As there are splendours. his big cowl Distends. that it shines on: each According to the virtue it conceives. who spreads abroad The hands of holy promise. and. Beside the gospel. meanwhile.The Divine Comedy of Dante . so there be no lack Of laughter. fed with wind: and what avails For their excuse. who diet at his lazy board. Fade. The preacher now provides himself with store Of jests and gibes. 85 . What Daniel of their thousands hath reveal’d With finite number infinite conceals. yet remains Whole in itself and one.’ But gave them truth to build on. To aid them in their warfare for the faith.
Were in one praise concluded. ‘t were too weak To furnish out this turn. Urging its arduous matter to the close). and sight Kindled afresh. as each artist’s is. which hasteneth on. E’en so remembrance of that witching smile Hath dispossess my spirit of itself. With loss of other object. which plays ever round the point. So. as never bard Of buskin or of sock hath fail’d before. as I believe in sooth. Wherefore love. up to that view of them. with vigour to sustain 86 . in gesture and in voice Resembling one accustom’d to command: “Forth from the last corporeal are we come Into the heav’n. none can to the full Enjoy it.The Divine Comedy of Dante . forc’d me bend Mine eyes on Beatrice once again. Here shalt thou look on either mighty host Of Paradise. Love of true happiness replete with joy. Her words resum’d. fulminating streams Of living radiance play’d.Paradise E’en to the loveliest of the glittering throng. but not follow them no more. She (such as I bequeath her to the bruit Of louder trump than mine. such. Mine eyes did look On beauty. dashes from the blinding eyes The visive spirits dazzled and bedimm’d. Thus vanish’d gradually from my sight The triumph. seeming (for it did) Engirt by that it girdeth. At this point o’erpower’d I fail. That overcame me. Unequal to my theme. Such weal is in the love. Joy. Not from that day. that hitherto is told of her. If all. Light intellectual replete with love. when on this earth I first Beheld her charms. Which in the final judgment thou shalt see. than I understood New virtue into me infus’d. Have I with song applausive ever ceas’d To follow. and one in that array. My course here bounded. but. as the sun doth to the feeblest sight. That save its Maker.” As when the lightning. Not merely to exceed our human. and left me swath’d And veil’d in dense impenetrable blaze. For. For its own flame the torch this fitting ever! No sooner to my list’ning ear had come The brief assurance. that stills this heav’n. When it doth touch the limit of his skill. in a sudden spleen Unfolded. round about me. that transcends all sweetness of delight. that is unbodied light.
on either side. and. Rush. bending me. pleases me the more. and these. Then as a troop of maskers. There ever and anon. Or ere that longing be allay’d. There is in heav’n a light.” So spake The day-star of mine eyes. that had outslept his wont. That the circumference were too loose a zone To girdle in the sun. And as some cliff. outstarting. For that thy views not yet aspire so high. like to rubies chas’d in gold. as one Re’enter’d.Paradise Excess of light. in themselves. Then. as they glided on ‘Twixt banks. flew Sparkles instinct with life. whereby thou art inflam’d. With all this laughter on its bloomy shores. So into greater jubilee were chang’d Those flowers and sparkles. but on thy part is the defect. Incredible how fair. and. To make the better mirrors of mine eyes In the refining wave. But first behooves thee of this water drink. from which. O prime enlightener! thou who crav’st me strength On the high triumph of thy realm to gaze! Grant virtue now to utter what I kenn’d. Reflected from the summit of the first. to the milk. as the eaves Of mine eyelids did drink of it. that in seeing him alone Have peace.The Divine Comedy of Dante . And diving back. plung’d again Into the wondrous flood. then thus subjoin’d: “This stream. The more it warms thee. look other than before. as if drunk with odors. I look’d. forthwith Seem’d it unto me turn’d from length to round. Are but a preface. still another rose. however pure. from the tide. which being hence and vigour takes. “The thirst Of knowledge high. that from the bottom eyes 87 . The counterfeited semblance thrown aside. and in a circle spreads so far.” Never did babe. That moves. And in the likeness of a river saw Light flowing. painted with spring. whose goodly shine Makes the Creator visible to all Created. and in the flow’rs Did set them. and distinct I saw Before me either court of heav’n displac’d. forth issuing from its gulf. All is one beam. when they put Their vizors off. To search the meaning of what here thou seest. from whose amber-seeming waves Flash’d up effulgence. shadowy of the truth They emblem: not that. a living topaz each. the things Are crude. As I toward the water. with such eager straining.
Nor may it be. that of hunger dies. but my view with ease Took in the full dimensions of that joy. as a snow-white rose. which in bright expansiveness. But ye are sick.” she said. the crown. Eyeing the light.” CANTO XXXI In fashion. where we dwell. And in your tetchy wantonness as blind. Before her day be ripe. nor amplitude Nor height impeded. where their fragrant labour glows. “Behold. awed. or rose 88 . That he. Stood. and. Whose lowest step embosoms such a space Of ample radiance! Yet. On which. holds thine eyes—or ere thyself Mayst at the wedding sup. Hover’d around. And drives away the nurse. Beatrice led me.—shall rest the soul Of the great Harry.The Divine Comedy of Dante . he who. Flew downward to the mighty flow’r. like a troop of bees. what there avails. Lays forth its gradual blooming. lay then Before my view the saintly multitude. where Magna’s priest Will sink beneath him: such will be his meed. by the world Augustas hail’d. Meanwhile That other host. already o’er its state Suspended. whom they love. to Italy must come. suspends Her sway? Into the yellow of the rose Perennial. on more than million thrones. that soar aloft to gaze And celebrate his glory.Paradise Its image mirror’d in the crystal flood. Near or remote. and. who fain would speak yet holds his peace. How wide the leaves Extended to their utmost of this rose. where God Immediate rules. clustering. “This fair assemblage! stoles of snowy white How numberless! The city. Now. Which in his own blood Christ espous’d. As is the bantling. Amid the vernal sweets alighting now. redolent Of praises to the never-wint’ring sun. who in the sacred forum sways. but thrust him down To Simon Magus. Openly or in secret. Behold how vast! and these our seats so throng’d Few now are wanting here! In that proud stall. shall with him Accordant walk: Whom God will not endure I’ th’ holy office long. As if ‘t admire its brave appareling Of verdure and of flowers: so. As one. round about. eminent. whatever from our earth Has to the skies return’d. and Nature.
in glory. and no obstacle prevents. on one sole mark Their love and vision fix’d. So rov’d my ken. as a pilgrim. that held my thought suspense. The rest was whiter than the driven snow. from Arctic shores that roam’d. upon the flower. With gestures such as spake a father’s love. Sparkles a mother’s fondness on her son) Stood in mute wonder ‘mid the works of Rome. and wings of gold. from above. Shadow none. Wherever merited. Joy benign Glow’d in his eye. Where charity in soft persuasion sat. But answer found from other than I ween’d. who reign in safety and in bliss. and its general form All Paradise survey’d: when round I turn’d With purpose of my lady to inquire Once more of things. “Whither is she vanish’d?” straight I ask’d. through the universe. how might I choose But marvel too? ‘Twixt gladness and amaze.Paradise From the redundant petals. and now around. from time Unto eternity. Vouchsafe one glance to gild our storm below! If the grim brood. I. And. For. I saw instead a senior. celestial light Glides freely. and hopes some time to tell Of all its goodly state: e’en so mine eyes Cours’d up and down along the living light. forever. or view Obstructed aught. who then From human to divine had past. and out of Florence To justice and to truth. streaming back Unto the steadfast dwelling of their joy. And. O trinal beam Of individual star. For. Rob’d. And as they flitted down into the flower. From range to range. which they won From that soft winnowing. fanning their plumy loins.The Divine Comedy of Dante . When to their view the Lateran arose In greatness more than earthly. at my side. In sooth no will had I to utter aught. looks round In breathless awe. when I thought to see. Looks I beheld. Ages long past or new. Faces had they of flame. Now low. as she wheels. as the rest. Or hear. Smiles from within and radiance from above. when he rests Within the temple of his vow. And in each gesture grace and honour high. that charmst them thus. Beatrice. Visiting every step. (Where helice. 89 . Whisper’d the peace and ardour. the vast Interposition of such numerous flight Cast. All there. and now aloft. and o’er his cheek diffus’d.
unmix’d and pure.” Like a wight. As was my ken from hers. Thou hast to freedom brought me. there Behold her on the throne. mine eyes I rais’d. look’d down. And saw her. her brow A wreath reflecting of eternal beams. Is loosen’d from this body.Paradise “By Beatrice summon’d.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” Answering not. wherein her merit Hath plac’d her. And smil’d. so distant. virtue owe and grace. whom fervent I adore. Who haply from Croatia wends to see Our Veronica. “I come to aid thy wish. my true Lord and God? And was this semblance thine?” So gaz’d I then Adoring.” Straight mine eyes I rais’d. Who musing. it may find Favour with thee. for that I Am her own faithful Bernard. all that he hath heard revolving. for my safety. For my deliverance apt. by ray divine Kindled. “O Lady! thou in whom my hopes have rest! Who. 90 . for the charity of him. when my spirit. and the while ‘t is shown. as appear’d. holy and rever’d: “That thou at length mayst happily conclude Thy voyage (to which end I was dispatch’d. to the furthest. hast not scorn’d. where aloof she sat. the queen. which thou madest whole. hast left untried.” he replied. thy ken a higher flight shall mount. Of slave. Looking aloft To the third circle from the highest. if thine eyes are held Still in this depth below. All gracious aid befriend us. to thy power And goodness. “Child of grace!” Thus he began: “thou shalt not knowledge gain Of this glad being. Thy liberal bounty still toward me keep.” So I my suit preferr’d: And she. Hangs over it with never-sated gaze. Stood lively before me. saith Unto himself in thought: “And didst thou look E’en thus. Not from the centre of the sea so far Unto the region of the highest thunder. By supplication mov’d and holy love) Let thy upsoaring vision range. But search around The circles. and bright. at large. And from heav’n’s queen. And. and yet the form Came through that medium down. This garden through: for so. in hell To leave the traces of thy footsteps mark’d! For all mine eyes have seen. in the world that peace enjoy’d. That. that of this realm Is sovran. then tow’rds th’ eternal fountain turn’d. I. till thou spy Seated in state. And thus the senior. O Jesus. and no means.
So burn’d the peaceful oriflamb.The Divine Comedy of Dante . successively. And as our Lady on her glorious stool. and the gleaner maid. Judith. Who sits so beautiful at Mary’s feet. On this part. When he saw mine eyes Intent on her. who look’d to Christ already come. that charm’d him. where an intersected space Yet shows the semicircle void. And in that midst their sportive pennons wav’d Thousands of angels. And as the glow burns ruddiest o’er the wave. CANTO XXXII Freely the sage. that upward. Had I a tongue in eloquence as rich. That joy was in the eyes of all the blest. down from deaf to leaf. that Mary clos’d. or ere he came. the eastern clime Above th’ horizon. at th’ extreme bound. abide All they. as from vale To mountain sped. a part Excell’d in lustre all the front oppos’d. at the birth of morn. To mine eyes. Adown the breathing tresses of the flow’r Still doth the file of Hebrew dames proceed. That waits the sloping beam.Paradise As. intensest in the midst. For these are a partition wall. Rebecca. As is the colouring in fancy’s loom. Are in gradation throned on the rose. Bernard gaz’d With so exceeding fondness. Meek ancestress of him. On th’ other. who sang the songs Of sore repentance in his sorrowful mood. and slack’d On every side the living flame decay’d. are set Such as in Christ. and on each part the light Diminish’d fades. All. ‘T were all too poor to utter the least part Of that enchantment. And from the seventh step. and mild began: “The wound. At their glee And carol. 91 . in resplendence each Distinct. as I name them. she open’d first. believ’d. Assum’d the teacher’s part. underneath her. Sarah next. The third in order. where blooms Each leaf in full maturity. though wrapt in musings high. as infus’d Ardour into my breast. which Phaeton Ill knew to guide. and quaint adornment. whereby The sacred stairs are sever’d. smil’d the Lovely One of heav’n. unfelt before. as the faith In Christ divides them. lo! Rachel with Beatrice. where the sun declines.
“Here. Hath each his several degree assign’d. Learn too. Exactly. this garden equally to fill. and beneath. And. Thus far from round to round. And for a proof th’ effect may well suffice. Nor is there aught thou seest. With faith in either view. which cleaves Midway the twain compartments. behoov’d That circumcision in the males should imp The flight of innocent wings: but since the day Of grace hath come. if thou mark and listen to them well. or sorrow can. Yet still continued holy). I know thy doubt. Ere for themselves they had the power to choose. The mighty Baptist that way marks the line (He who endur’d the desert and the pains Of martyrdom. Our Sovran Lord—that settleth this estate In love and in delight so absolute. Are different in their shares of excellence. that doth not fit. On set conditions: spirits all releas’d. Augustin. none there are Who place obtain for merit of their own. innocence herself 92 . Benedict. have struggled in the womb. And gladly will I loose the knot. that downward from the step. And merely in respect to his prime gift. as grace Inweaves the coronet. With grace at pleasure variously endows. silent as thou art. Therefore. than the parents’ faith. as the finger to the ring. To save them: those first ages past. This way distinction make: e’en so on his.Paradise And they who on their stools beneath her sit. Francis. And ‘t is moreover most expressly mark’d In holy scripture. In early times with their own innocence More was not wanting. and for two years of hell. and the rest. chalice no entrance here may find. Created in his joyous sight to dwell. so every brow Weareth its proper hue of orient light. But have through others’ merit been advanc’d. thirst. that these. wherein Thy subtle thoughts have bound thee. Not in reward of meritorious deed. So heav’n’s decree Forecasts. From this realm Excluded.The Divine Comedy of Dante . past or to come. without baptismal rites In Christ accomplish’d. A law immutable hath establish’d all. It is not therefore without cause. where the twins are said To. O’erspeedy comers to immortal life. That wish can dare no further—every soul. No more shall hunger. Their childish looks and voice declare as much.
Into whose keeping Christ did give the keys Of this sweet flow’r: near whom behold the seer. so well content to look On her lov’d daughter. lo! Where Anna sits. on each hand next our empress thron’d. facing to Peter. who with the lance and nails Was won. The twain. who that angel is. who had to her descended. That. And note thou of this just and pious realm The chiefest nobles. in her splendour only. And. Or shown me such similitude of God. Whatever of buxomness and free delight May be in Spirit. Now raise thy view Unto the visage most resembling Christ: For. near unto the other. Had not so much suspended me with wonder. rang: that holier joy Brooded the deep serene. Who thus in answer spake: “In him are summ’d. 93 . whatsoever I had yet beheld. Maria. He to the left.The Divine Comedy of Dante . highest in bliss. winging that profound.” Forthwith I saw Such floods of gladness on her visage shower’d. Are as it were two roots unto this rose. on the right. he.” So I again resorted to the lore Of my wise teacher. On th’ other part. once. by eternal lot! Say. at whose hest thy lady sped. whom Mary’s charms Embellish’d. That ancient father of the holy church.Paradise Must linger yet below. Now let thine eyes wait heedful on my words. ere he died. rests The leader. that all fire he seems. saw all the grievous times Of the fair bride. Is Lucia. Wherein thou sittest. to quit the pleasant place. That.” sang: To whose sweet anthem all the blissful court. Gratia Plena. On earth. shalt thou win The pow’r to look on him. Those. and. that with such glee Beholds our queen. “Ave. or in angel. From holy spirits. and so enamour’d glows Of her high beauty. under whom on manna fed Th’ ungrateful nation. whose rash taste Proves bitter to his seed. fickle and perverse. And he. for me. that with moveless eye She chants the loud hosanna: while. when the Son of God Vouchsaf’d to clothe him in terrestrial weeds. “Father rever’d: Who deign’st. From all parts answ’ring. now hail’d in heav’n. and on pois’d wing. oppos’d To the first father of your mortal kind. met: And so beseems: for that he bare the palm Down unto Mary. the parent. as the sun the morning star.
pity mild. and comes not To thee for aidance. more fondly. Yet. Thou backward fall’st.The Divine Comedy of Dante . daughter of thy Son. whose might can help thee. And I. Nor only him who asks. Ennobler of thy nature.” He said. Relenting mercy. This also I entreat of thee. Than now for him. That shapes the cloak according to the cloth: And to the primal love our ken shall rise. beneath. Thou in prayer Seek her: and. yet more high to lift his ken Toward the bliss supreme. Whatsoe’er may be Of excellence in creature. That he who grace desireth. Himself. far As sight can bear thee. and yield me all thy heart. This flower to germin in eternal peace! Here thou to us. Suppliant to thee he kneels. as in height. That on the sovran pleasure he may gaze. Are all combin’d in thee. (And pray they be not scant) that thou wouldst drive Each cloud of his mortality away. To mortal men. as the good workman doth. O queen! Who canst do what thou wilt! that in him thou CANTO XXXIII “O virgin mother. of charity and love. Attend. in his own work enclos’d to dwell! For in thy womb rekindling shone the love Reveal’d. “But (for the vision hasteneth so an end) Here break we off. Created beings all in lowliness Surpassing. Who of all spirits hath review’d the state. Term by th’ eternal counsel pre-ordain’d. thinking to advance. of hope a living spring. my prayers to thee prefer. above them all. imploring grace For virtue. that its great Maker did not scorn. with affection. who ne’er Coveted sight. Grace then must first be gain’d. alas! in sooth Beating thy pennons.Paradise When on the edge of ruin clos’d thine eye. Thy bounty succours. for myself. So mighty art thou. Art. That thou mayst penetrate the brightness. And thus the saintly orison began. as the noon-day torch: and art. but doth freely oft Forerun the asking. Her grace. lady! and so great. fain would have desire Fly without wings. so advanc’d In thee. Here kneeleth one. whilst I sue. From the world’s lowest gap unto this height. whose genial influence makes now 94 . large munificence.
Thenceforward.The Divine Comedy of Dante . ere he bade. O grace! unenvying of thy boon! that gav’st Boldness to fix so earnestly my ken On th’ everlasting splendour. what I saw. all properties Of substance and of accident. I had been lost. give my tongue Power. as may well be thought. Fix’d on the suitor. with Beatrice. 95 . That I should look aloft: but. All he hath seen forgets. on I pass’d.Paradise Wouldst after all he hath beheld. The ardour of my wish (for so behooved). beheld. if mine eyes had turn’d away. who drew Near to the limit. Unto the race to come. in furtherance of my suit!” The eyes. Was not for words to speak. Such keenness from the living ray I met. where all wishes end. refining more and more. and. E’en such am I: for all the vision dies. As one. so far Can travel inward. While sight was unconsum’d. so embolden’d. methinks. Thus in the sun-thaw is the snow unseal’d. as I remember. witness’d. straight. O eternal beam! (Whose height what reach of mortal thought may soar?) Yield me again some little particle Of what thou then appearedst. Lo! Where. that I look’d. till my view Hover’d the brink of dread infinitude. if thou waken aught Of memory in me. Beck’ning smil’d the sage. in that depth. but to leave one sparkle of thy glory. For visual strength. Already of myself aloft I look’d. and endure to hear The record sound in this unequal strain. and yet the sense of sweet. how benign She looks on pious pray’rs: then fasten’d they On th’ everlasting light. nor memory’s self To stand against such outrage on her skill. that shall not lose Thy triumph wholly. meanwhile. still trickles in my heart. Saw in one volume clasp’d of love. I. Thus in the winds on flitting leaves was lost The Sybil’s sentence. who from a dream awaken’d. yet still retains Impression of the feeling in his dream. As ‘t were. wherein no eye Of creature. whatever The universe unfolds. many a saint Stretch their clasp’d hands. but. Ended within me. that heav’n with love and awe regards. Bare me into the ray authentical Of sovran light. That. That sprang from it. preserve Affection sound. and human passions quell. away.
from another. still new miracles descry’d. Wond’ring I gaz’d. And of such bond methinks I saw The universal form: for that whenever I do but speak of it. suspense and motionless. Complete. And in the spleen unfolded what it sought. willingly. It may not be. yet one individual light The whole. past. no more E’en what remembrance keeps. And toil’d me with the change.Paradise Compounded. Here vigour fail’d the tow’ring fantasy: But yet the will roll’d onward. e’en such was I. my soul dilates Beyond her proper self. For I therein. and all. Finds not. Than five-and-twenty ages had appear’d To that emprize. Oh eternal light! Sole in thyself that dwellst. As one Who vers’d in geometric lore. that will may covet. and. while I mus’d. and admiration still Was kindled. that beginning. like a wheel 96 . than could the babe’s That yet is moisten’d at his mother’s breast. would fain Measure the circle. to give Conception birth! Yet this to what I saw Is less than little. Not that the semblance of the living light Was chang’d (that ever as at first remain’d) But that my vision quickening. and therein How plac’d: but the flight was not for my wing. Had not a flash darted athwart my mind. seem’d methought. That one. or to come! Thou smiledst. that first made Neptune wonder At Argo’s shadow darkening on his flood. As rainbow is from rainbow: and the third Seem’d fire.The Divine Comedy of Dante . methought. as I gaz’d. in its own hue Beheld our image painted: steadfastly I therefore por’d upon the view. For all the good. My tongue shall utter now. one reflected seem’d. till I speak. One moment seems a longer lethargy. and trace out the form. and. How to the circle fitted. breath’d equally from both. which in thee Seem’d as reflected splendour. clear and lofty. Three orbs of triple hue clipt in one bound: And. his view. With fixed heed. though pondering long And deeply. intent to scan The novel wonder. on that circling. and of thyself Sole understood. there Is summ’d. which he needs. present. who looks upon that light. can turn To other object. In that abyss Of radiance. Oh speech How feeble and how faint art thou. in that sole Appearance. elsewhere defective found.
47. 69.] Being in the opposite hemisphere to ours.] He appears to mean nothing more than that this part of his poem will require a greater exertion of his powers than the former. st.” &c. join. Ediz. p. First Booke of Fame E par ch’ agginuga un altro sole al cielo. Met.] Chaucer has imitated this invention very closely at the beginning of the Third Booke of Fame. v. If.] “Like a reflected sunbeam. and let my voice sound like his own. . F. b. Through that.The Divine Comedy of Dante . The laurel. That moves the sun in heav’n and all the stars. Benign Apollo.] Aries. 44. 5. Par. vi. Q. Ne simil tanto mal raggio secondo Dal primo usci. II Filocopo. To the left. 1. turns herself to the left. v. And kisse it for it is thy tree Now entre thou my breast anone. 9. c. Chaucer. and the equinoctial colure. 19. “Egli nel mio petto entri. st. 15. Prima. v. Fir. Upon the day appear’d.] Ovid. NOTES TO PARADISE CANTO 1 Verse 12. b. Onor d’imperadori e di poeti. Son. L. 1. And Spenser. 29. divine vertue. 1. In happiest constellation. Compare Boccaccio. As from the first a second beam. Thus for. 25. Beatrice that she may behold the rising sun. the zodiac. Arbor vittoriosa e trionfale.“May he enter my bosom. the equator. 37. or bard. P. ii.] So Milton. —As glowing iron with fire. 7. 97 .] “Where the four circles. —If the heaven had ywonne. Caesar. 1723. thou Wilt helpe me to shewe now That in my head ymarked is. Marsyas.Paradise In even motion. v. iii. ***** Thou shalt see me go as blive Unto the next laurer I see. As iron that comes boiling from the fire. canz. i. 58. fab. All new of God another sunne. 39. by the Love impell’d. 15. as may be seen in the armillary sphere. when he made that daring mortal deserve to come forth unsheathed from his limbs. the last threeintersecting each other so as to form three crosses. Filicaja. meed of mighty conquerours And poets sage. v.” which he compares to a pilgrim hastening homewards. the horizon.] So Petrarch. 4. v. v. “ v. Some understand the planetVenus by the “miglior stella “ v.” v. 594.
71. and the empyrean.” v. there wanteth not him skill and desire to bring his labour to the best effect. E’en as the truth. So Filicaja. x.] Like a truth that does not need demonstration. CANTO II v. as a late French translator of the Paradise well remarks.] Con la barchetta mia cantando in rima Pulci. Met. which differ both in bulk and splendor. ] Ovid. 30. the primum mobile. Principio coelum. the eighth spheres containing the fixed stars. 52. Io me n’andro con la barchetta mia. This first star. Within the heaven. v. in imitation of this passage. as Glaucus. b. xxviii. Fab. Through sluggishness. st. st. b. Aen. Ion. v. he carrieth in mind the whole form which his work should have. introduces the angel arguing with Adam respecting the causes of the spots on the moon.] Virg. 66. i.” v. his reasoning is physical. G. Quando a paro col sol ma piu lucente L’angelo gli appari sull. 111. 123. that of Dante partly metaphysical and partly theologic. Perche a risponder la discordia e sorda “The workman hath in his heart a purpose. Adone. Ed ecco un lustro lampeggiar d’ intorno Che sole a sole aggiunse e giorno a giorno. “principj formali. 9 v.Paradise Ariosto. which he hath to work on is unframeable. Quanto l’acqua comporta un picciol legno Ibid. c. only the matter. &c. P. canz. vi. 9. —Seems another morn Ris’n on mid-noon.” Hooker’s Eccl. 1. Manno. there are ten heavens. oriente Tasso. xi.] Perch’ a risponder la materia e sorda.] Compare Hell. Milton. knowest whether 1 had not risen above my human nature. Cain. In small bark. Save one. L. 143. but is self-evident. 1550. Polity. 5. 27. Magg. c. 125. But. 1. are meant constituent or essential causes. 46. and were not merely such as thou hadst then. formed me.] “Except that principle of rarity and denseness which thou hast assigned. the seven planets. c. And Note v. 311. v. 1. L.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Number1ess lights.] the moon v.” By “formal principles. v. v. Canto XX. vi 724.” Milton.] The fixed stars. Xiii. 71. . c. Morg. 109. If.] “Thou O divine Spirit. Compare Euripides. st 9.] According to our Poet’s system. 65. The virtue mingled. O F.
50. v. erit facto pius et sceleratus eodem. Hist. I a substance for a shadow. and Ricordano Malaspina even mentions her decease as happening before that of her husband. The death of Henry Vl. t. and “because it was not credited that she could have a child at that age. v. L. f. distributed to the stars an equal number of souls. t. 1813. v. that deign’d To travel with Tobias. p. Paris. v. Edit.] Raphael.] “What Piccarda asserts of Constance. in the same words. Metam.] Henry Vl. son of Frederick I was the second emperor of the house of Saab.” v. Piccarda. The Lady. Of that. v. who pleased. 67. Daniel. She was fifty years old or more at the time. 12. 122. 16. Rer.] Daughter of Ruggieri.] “An error the contrary to that of Narcissus. p.” Neseit utro potius ruat. 166 v. v. 1. The second. “The Creator. appointing to each soul its several star. Plato. It. That to the eye of man. ought rather to be a motive to faith than an inducement to heresy. t. 1. because he mistook a shadow for a substance. c. Alcmaeon. king of Sicily. the sociable spirit. viii. mugitibus armentorum —Ultusque parente parentem Natus.] Plato’s opinion. b. Delusion. P. v. I v. Between two deer] Tigris ut auditis. is recorded in the Chronicon Siciliae. is said absolutely and without relation to circumstances. 939. v. with some others. Him who made Tobias whole. who.. and that which I affirm is spoken of the will 99 . and the suspicion ceased. v.) but not a word of his having been poisoned by Constance. 1.] See Liv.] Ovid. 1. and died in 1253. Met. See Biogr. 1. ii. c. Laurence. Script. 223. v. Constance. being taken by force out of a monastery where she had professed. 598. for so this author. and his son Frederick II “the third and last. Ovid. by an anonymous writer. and G.] St. she was delivered in a pavilion and it was given out. ii. 121. 82. 48.” Ricordano Malaspina in Muratori. the foundress of the order called after her She was born of opulent and noble parents at Assisi. D. Scaevola. 8vo. Milton. and saw her. v. that she retained her affection to the monastic life. 100. Bip.] “That the ways of divine justice are often inscrutable to man. 16. when he had framed the universe. p. 82.” v. 13. 24. was married to the Emperor Henry Vl.] See Daniel. Henry V. 326.] The sister of Forese whom we have seen in the Purgatory. 107. x. in 1193. 90.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and by him was mother to Frederick 11. v. ix. The first circle. Many came.] Plato Timaeus v. 6. The French translator above mentored speaks of her having poisoned her husband. and secur’d His marriage with the sev’n times wedded maid.” Such appears to me the most satisfactory explanation of the passage.] Who suffered martyrdom in the third century. Of will. that any lady. (Muratori. Hist. ix. Univ. v. was at liberty to see her. et ruere ardet utroque. 10. Clare. diversa valle duorum Extimulata fame. 34. 27.] The empyrean.Paradise CANTO III v. terms him. Villani. CANTO IV v. Canto XXIII.
39. At Europe’s extreme point. the east.” who taught that in Christ there was but one nature.] The Arabians seem to be put for the barbarians in general. Who pretend its power. Two things. 16. and Justinian began his reign in 527. c. Cent. 124.] The planet Mercury. X. A hundred years twice told and more. v.] As some explain it. p.] The Emperor Constantine entered Byzantium in 324. or form of it.] The city of Fesulae. ii. 15. 34. 8. 54.] Purgatory. t. the other.] In the following fifteen lines the Poet has comprised the exploits of Julius Caesar. To clear th’ incumber’d laws. on the contrary had moved along with the sun’s course. v.] Constantine. e. Arab hordes. difference is v. Cent. That region. according to others the equinoctial line.” Ibid.” Maclaine’s Mosheim.] The light of divine truth. Bishop of Rome. which was sacked by the Romans after the defeat of Cataline. ii. After that Constantine the eagle turn’d. Near the hour. and xxvii. v. Down. xii.” v. CANTO V v. 119. Christ’s nature merely human. Petrarca. v.] Constantinople being situated at the extreme of Europe.” v. v.] See Virgil. 43.] The Ghibellines.] See Lev. viz.] The one.] The code of laws was abridged and reformed by Justinian. What then it wrought. 1. 13. v. addressed to the Emperor Justinian. from whence the first founders of Rome had emigrated. being nearest to the sun. 6. v. 33. v. ii c.] Near the time of our Saviour’s birth. E Cincinnato dall’ inculta chioma. that of the incarnate word. v. 100 . and on the borders of Asia.] The Horatii and Curiatii. in transferring the seat of empire from Rome to Byzantium. Quintius. That truth. 47. is oftenest hidden by that luminary CANTO VI v. v.] Quintius Cincinnatus. v. v. vi. 50. 59. 33.] Agapetus. the Imperial ensign. from the west to the east. carried the eagle. Aen. near those mountains in the neighbourhood of Troy. That hill. the compact. It was enjoin’d the Israelites. 56. procured him a place among the wisest and most judicious writers of this century. 56. 86. Aeneas.] Justinian is said to have been a follower of the heretical Opinions held by Eutyches. The rival three. which. p. v. the substance of the vow. when he passed from Troy to Italy. 5. v. Agapete. 13. 48. And who oppose ] The Guelphs. v. v. v. v. Canto IX. 108. 1. whose Scheda Regia. 41. v. Either key.The Divine Comedy of Dante .Paradise conditionally and respectively: so that our apparent without any disagreement. Pallas died. This sphere.] “From the rape of the Sabine women to the violation of Lucretia. ii.
75. v.] The story of Romeo is involved in some uncertainty. Nor is it probable that the Italians. Villani. 98. See Millot. signifying “kingdoms. What distils. the next. Bella Mano. who was count of Provence. Beatrice. by destroying the city of . Is it not more likely to allude to Charles of Valois. and of a higher kind. the eldest.] “Tiberius the third of the Caesars. Malahoth. I think. That man who was unborn. who was the contemporary of that prince.” v.] “Venturi appears to mistake the Poet’s reasoning. was married to Louis IX of France. v. “Qual salamandra. and parted as he came. 104. 140. who lived so near the time. Eleanor. had it in his power to surpass the glory of all who either preceded or came after him. into Italy by Pope Boniface.” v. 131. Vengeance for vengeance ] This will be afterwards explained by the Poet himself. the last of the house of Barcelona.Jerusalem.] So Giusto de’ Conti. with the promise of being made emperor? See G. James in Galicia.” G. King of Naples and Sicily. Hist. Margaret. when an account was required from him of the revenues whichhe had carefully husbanded. Henry’s brother. He is in the list of Provencal poets. In its next bearer’s gripe. 136. CANTO VII 101 .] “That which proceeds immediately from God. if we had not arguments more convincing. to Charles I. Villani.] With Augustus Caesar. son of Philip III of France. c. 112. 23. and without intervention of secondary causes. t. The conclusion is that as before sin man was immortal.] Adam. in immortal. 89.] Dante could not be ignorant that the reign of Justinian was long prior to that of Charlemagne. There might however have been more than one person of the name of Romieu. 4. v. 61. to Richard.] A Hebrew word. As might have made one blest amid the flames. 3. 95.] Of the four daughters of Raymond Berenger. 135. v. of England. preserved in the archives of the bishopric of Venice. the third. and the scrip. The yellow lilies. 92. c.” It is here intended. having left large possessions behind him. both in this instance and in what follows. after he had long been a faithful steward to Raymond.] Justinian. and the youngest. 110. Litt des Troubadours. and his master as lavishly disbursed. he had first entered into the count’s service. 17. that the whole of God’s dispensations to man should be considered as a proof of our resurrection. were misinformed in an occurrence of such notoriety.] This prince. v. v. v.] The French ensign. That substance bright. v. The third Caesar. 1. Four daughters. so being restored to the favor of heaven by the expiation made for sin. “He demanded the little mule. Charlemagne. Charles. Romeo’s light. with which he v. vi. and King of the Romans. to assure us of the truth of our resurrection. Raymond Berenger.” Che puommi nelle fiammi far beato. P.The Divine Comedy of Dante . and brother to Louis. who was sent for. as appears by his will. to Henry III. the staff. a stranger pilgrim from the shrine of St. Sancha. when he observes: “Wretched for us. or Romeo which answers to that of Palmer in our language. as conscious of the events that had taken place after his own time. as Titus afterwards did. but the spirit of the former emperor is represented. king of Naples and Sicily. and thus revenging the cause of God himself on the Jews. v. nor was it ever known whence he was or wither he went. The French writers assert the continuance of his ministerial office even after the decease of his soverign Raymond Berenger. viii. Our resurrection certain. ii. about this time. According to them. 1.” v. v. died in 1245.] The commentators explain this to mean Charles II. count of Provence: and they rest this assertion chiefly on the fact of a certain Romieu de Villeneuve.Paradise v. 42.
“both celebrated in the Purgatory Canto. The left bank. Studiando io sto lungi da tutti gli nomini Ed ho irnparato piu teologia In questi giorni. Ven.] The giant whom Jupiter is fabled to have overwhelmed under the mountain Aetna from whence he vomits forth smoke and flame.Paradise necessarily recovers his claim to immortality. My brother’s foresight. Convito di Dante. The land.” v. Se volete saper la vita mia. Opere. v. the latter emperor of Germany. The beautiful Trinaeria. ‘O ye whose intellectual ministry. See his Convito. my father-in-law. c. Had not ill lording. 11. 77. 53. and son of Charles 11 king of Naples and Sicily. and he was much in favour with all. what themes my mind engage? The lonely hours I give to Dante’s page. 57. Aen. Thou lov’dst me well. “Upon the back of this circle. that “he remained more than twenty days in Florence. Vll. And meet more sacred learning in his lines Than I had gain’d from all the school divines.] Hungary. was the friend of Petrarch.] “If the ill conduct of our governors in Sicily had not excited the resentment and hatred of the people and stimulated them to that dreadful massacre at the Sicilian vespers. p. t.] The kingdom of Naples. are two. v. 40. king of Naples. 62.] He seems to tax his brother Robert with employing necessitous and greedy Catalonians to administer the affairs CANTO VIII v.] Charles Martel might have been known to our poet at Florence whither he came to meet his father in 1295. in 1282 v. His brother Robert. v. 73. v.” &c. 1. had the time been more. imitating what Horace had said of Homer. 78. v. is a little sphere. which has in that heaven a revolution of its own: whose circle the astronomers term epicycle. 1793. of which Pachynus and Pelorus. v.] “In sul dosso di questo cerchio. 68.] “Sicily would be still ruled by a race of monarchs.] Virgil. There is much in this poem to justify the encomium which the learned Salvini has passed on it.] The spirit now speaking is Charles Martel crowned king of Hungary.] Voi ch’ intendendo il terzo ciel movete. 4. 40. i. viii. v. That horn Of fair Ausonia. he did not succeed. Sprang through me from Charles and Rodolph. 81. v. the year of his death. p. The first line in our Poet” first canzone. che ho riletto Dante. Che nelle scuole fattto io non avria.” in consequence of which the kingdom fell into the hands of Peter III of Arragon. who adds.] Sicily. 14 ‘Typhaeus. 60. that the duties of life might be better learnt from the Grecian bard than from the teachers of the porch or the academy. 102 . To sit in Dido’s bosom. to which dominions dying in his father’s lifetime. 718.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Epicycle. when. i. v. 48. he says— And dost thou ask. Florentines and he showed no less love towards them. here mentioned. ed. waiting for his father King Charles and his brothers during which time great honour was done him by the. 13. descended through me from Charles I and Rodolph I the former my grandfather king of Naples and Sicily. Ibid. Villani. in an epistle to Redi.] Provence. The retinue and the habiliments of the young monarch are minutely described by G. in the heaven of Venus. so called from its three promontories.” 1. v. whereof we are now treating.
The hour is near. and a family. 99. It. was by her brother married to a nobleman of Braganzo. See G. How bitter can spring up. the birth-place of the famous tyrant Ezzolino or Azzolino. 40. c. Cunizza. in like manner a state consists both of all these and besides these of other dissimilar kinds. in the first instance. All that appears certain. 7. P. c. born of so obscure a father. where the rivers (Sile and Cagnano meet) while he was engaged in playing at chess. 6. Canto VI.] Folco of Genoa. 137. 43 The crowd. 37. 1. Eloq. after her brother’s death. v. One. the brother of Cunizza.) with whom she is supposed to have cohabited before her marriage: then lived with a soldier of Trevigi. 1.] “How a covetous son can spring from a liberal father. c. of reason and desire. at Vicenza. v. In that part. that he was of Genoa. 3.] The people who inhabited the tract of country bounded by the river Tagliamento to the east. Richard of St. and Millot. v. De Rep. p. in exclusion of his brother s son Carobert.] Charles Martel. v. Villani. 2. v. O fair Clemenza. De Vulg. 1. Esau. and the soul. 112. v.” Hell. was again wedded in Verona. commonly termed Folques of Marseilles. This. xxv. lastly when he also had fallen by the same hand she. 25. and at last resumed the religious habit. viii. a celebrated Provencal poet. are detected by the diligence of Tiraboschi. though his general character was that of a bounteous prince.] Cunizza foretells the defeat of Giacopo da Carrara. Villani. and second wife of Louis X. who is said to have been murdered at Trevigi. c.] Daughter of Charles Martel. “Since a state is made up of members differing from one another. v. 48. of France.] The five hundred years are elapsed: and unless the Provencal MSS. c. is what we are told in this Canto. She eloped from her first husband. One of his verses is cited by Dante. are related by the chronicler Rolandino of Padua.Paradise of his kingdom. (for even as an animal.] He alludes to the occupation of the kingdom of Sicily by Robert. which have been followed by Crescimbeni. Matthias’s ed. overcome by the influence of her star. iii. or Charles.] Between Rialto and the Venetian territory.] Genesis c. Robert. Canto XII. and by Petrarch in the Triumph of Love.” v. Consult your teacher. Quirinus. v. 62.] The adventures of Cunizza. 136. v. iv. of which place he was perhaps bishop. 173. 1. Lord of Padua by Can Grande. 22. 18. i. Script. (see Purgatory. and the sources of the rivers Brenta and Piava is situated a castle called Romano. Five times.] Aristole. Mr. 1. and property of master and slave. v. 2. See G. consists of soul and body. of man and woman. v. that he was better known by the appellation he derived from Marseilles. ii. The treachery. that his parentage was attributed to Mars. v. 103 . 4.] Romulus.] She predicts also the fate of Ricciardo da Camino. and VII.The Divine Comedy of Dante . in Muratori Rer. Many errors of Nostradamus.) it necessarily follows that the excellence of all the members of the state cannot be one and the same. 45. The tyrant we have seen in “the river of blood. regarding him. viii. 125. 1. 78. c. v. v. on the 18th September 1314. v. CANTO IX v. who is now speaking. whose wife was living at the same time in the same city. 32. the rightful heir. That saintly light. Boniface. should be brought to light the poetical reputation of Folco must rest on the mention made of him by the more fortunate Italians. 110. t.” Yet that father has himself been accused of avarice in the Purgatory Canto XX. ix. and Adice to the west. in the company of Sordello. and on his being murdered by her brother the tyrant. Quadrio.
98. v.] The coin of Florence. v. 58. and this repercussion. to the east of Genoa. Meridian. The cursed flower. to the transfer of the holy see from Rome to Avignon. is here the strongest. v. where Folco was born. the Mediterranean at last reaches the coast of Palestine.] Phyllis. v. 91.] The great ocean.] He alludes either to the death of Pope Boniface VIII.] A place in Africa. 134. 2. This heav’n. which is on its horizon when it enters the straits of Gibraltar. v. 82.] The canon law. which under the tyranny of Ezzolino. a river to the west. Malta’s. v. 56 This priest. We descry. 80. Discordant shores. v. c. “in which the equinoctial circle and the Zodiac intersect each other. 50. 88. —’Twixt Ebro’s stream And Macra’s.] A tower. 85. Rahab. She of Rhodope. CANTO X v. 83. either in the citadel of Padua. into Italy. because the velocity of each is increased to the utmost by their respective distance from the poles. Begga. v. according to the yet more probable conjecture of Lombardi. That other joyance.] The net or snare into.” 104 . 126. where the common motion of the heavens from east to west may be said to strike with greatest force against the motion proper to the planets. 130. called the florin. who were in opposition to the Pope. 96. Whose haven.” v. Feltro. and the greater part of them there put to death. Six shadowing wings. Belus’ daughter. “Wherever a man is.] “We behold the things that we predict. v.] The planet Venus.] Eora. 120.] The Bishop of Felto having received a number of fugitives from Ferrara. The decretals. his own particular meridian circle. v.] Extending to the east.] Heb.] The Mediterranean sea.] Europe and Africa. v. With either palm.” says Vellutello.] “To that part of heaven. had been “with many a foul and midnight murder fed.] The bishop. v. The valley of waters. v. 89. to show himself a zealous partisan of the Pope. 112.” Isaiah. or. above his head. to the coming of the Emperor Henry VII. in which the Pope was accustomed to imprison such as had been guilty of an irremissible sin. The point. who.] Alluding to the terrible slaughter of the Genoese made by the Saracens in 936. which took place in the pontificate of Clement V.” or (as some say) near a river of the same name. 50. which he is destined to fall. That.] Folco. vi. 76. 7. v. c.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “there he has. v. as Venturi supposes. as it were.Paradise v. 93. 80. 53.] “Above it stood the seraphims: each one had six wings. The web. v. Jove’s son.] “By the crucifixion of Christ” v.” as Venturi explains it. 31. in the mirrors of eternal truth. so that they were reconducted to that city. v. for which event Vellutello refers to the history of Augustino Giustiniani. v. v. Such at least is the system of Dante. nearly opposite to Genoa. and Macra. under a promise of protection.] Dido. had committed the above-mentioned act of treachery.” v. 64. or else. xi. that falls into the lake of Bolsena.] Hercules. The Vatican. afterwards gave them up.
Paradise v. Bernard. and for that purpose remained some time at Rheims. v. c. v. 96. 101. 271. t. and his biographers take some pains to clear him of it.” as Venturi explains it “the civil with the canon law. Ital. 46.” (Eccl.] Albertus Magnus was born at Laugingen. 4. he reluctantly accepted the bishopric of Ratisbon. p. In 1260.. 25. 105 . v. v.” Tiraboschi. The fifth light. fol. that it may be deemed an original work. and particularly at Cologne. in 1193. The part. 30. Minister. part 2. the decrees of councils. for the use of the schools.The Divine Comedy of Dante . who gave himself out for Dionysius the Areopagite. Who with the widow gave. Here his reputation was so great that Philip. as we could deny thee thy request. 112. under the protection of this church of Rome. drawn from the letters of the pontiffs. so much more complete than any which had been yet seen. Thomas Aquinas was his favourite pupil. brother of Louis VII. 162.] The sun. 9).” v. iii. It contains a system of scholastic theology. and in two years after resigned it. Dionysius the Areopagite. v. 11. ibid. 91. He held his bishopric only one year. being chosen bishop of Paris. 1. who anxiously. Albert of Cologne.] “The song of these spirits was ineffable. and in composing his voluminous works on divinity and natural science. 3. the fourth planet. v. 70. and studied at Paris and at Padua. v. and the generation of the second person in the Trinity. he went into France to continue his studies. cent.] In which the sun rises every day earlier after the vernal equinox.] St. at the latter of which places he entered into the Dominican order. t. v. He then taught theology in various parts of Germany. Echard and Quetif.” v. where the remainder of his life was passed in superintending the school.] “By reconciling. at Bologna. 95. Such was the song. Of Aquinum. where Peter says: “Cupiens aliquid de penuria ac tenuitate nostra cum paupercula in gazophylacium domini mittere. nor is the place of his birth in Lombardy ascertained.] This alludes to the beginning of the Liber Sententiarum.” Maclaine’s Mosheim. 105. 86. 67. 1. v. Peter.] The zodiac. To either forum.] “I was of the Dominican order. whence he afterwards proceeded to Paris. 104.” and whom Hooker terms “the greatest among the school divines. No less constrained. 6. 101. composed. His Liber Sententiarum is highly esteemed. He died in 1280. at the age of fourty-seven. a Benedictine monk belonging to the convent of St. of whom Bucer is reported to have said.] “Gratian. Storia della Lett. The absurd imputation of his having dealt in the magical art is well known. “Take but Thomas away. Thomas. Par.] “Pietro Lombardo was of obscure origin. was born of noble parents. “The famous Grecian fanatic.] Thomas Aquinas. I then. p.] The inhabitants of the sun. v. Of his spirit and of his offspring. Felix and Nabor. v. 12. c. b. and died in 1160. Lut. Paul. Gratian.” v. and who. i.] The above-mentioned intersection of the equinoctial circle and the zodiac. disciple of St. but vainly. See also Purgatory Canto XX. resigned that dignity to Pietro. an abridgment or epitome of canon law. and returned to his cell in Cologne. Where. Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum. and I will overturn the v. v. whose pupil he had been.” v. With a recommendation from the bishop of Lucca to St. and died in 1274.] The procession of the third. iii.] Solomon. 45. in Thuringia. by Quetif and Echard. Pol. 1719. 104. That taper’s radiance. endeavoured to divert him from a life of celibacy and study. Oblique. about the year 1130. 2. and the writings of the ancient doctors. Fourth family. and by birth a Tuscan.] “The rivers might as easily cease to flow towards the sea. v. 26.
The Divine Comedy of Dante - Paradise
venerable name, gave laws and instructions to those that were desirous of raising their souls above all human things in order to unite them to their great source by sublime contemplation, lived most probably in this century (the fourth), though some place him before, others after, the present period.” Maclaine’s Mosheim, v. i. cent. iv. p. 2. c. 3. 12. v. 116. That pleader.] 1n the fifth century, Paulus Orosius, “acquired a considerable degree of reputation by the History he wrote to refute the cavils of the Pagans against Christianity, and by his books against the Pelagians and Priscillianists.” Ibid. v. ii. cent. v. p. 2. c. 2. 11. A similar train of argument was pursued by Augustine, in his book De Civitate Dei. Orosius is classed by Dante, in his treatise De Vulg. Eloq. I ii c. 6. as one of his favourite authors, among those “qui usi sunt altissimas prosas,”—” who have written prose with the greatest loftiness of style.” v. 119. The eighth.] Boetius, whose book De Consolatione Philosophiae excited so much attention during the middle ages, was born, as Tiraboschi conjectures, about 470. “In 524 he was cruelly put to death by command of Theodoric, either on real or pretended suspicion of his being engaged in a conspiracy.” Della Lett. Ital. t. iii. 1. i. c. 4. v. 124. Cieldauro.] Boetius was buried at Pavia, in the monastery of St. Pietro in Ciel d’oro. v. 126. Isidore.] He was Archbishop of Seville during forty years, and died in 635. See Mariana, Hist. 1. vi. c. 7. Mosheim, whose critical opinions in general must be taken with some allowance, observes that “his grammatical theological, and historical productions, discover more learning and pedantry, than judgment and taste.” v. 127. Bede.] Bede, whose virtues obtained him the appellation of the Venerable, was born in 672 at Wearmouth and Jarrow, in the bishopric of Durham, and died in 735. Invited to Rome by Pope Sergius I., he preferred passing almost the whole of his life in the seclusion of a monastery. A catalogue of his numerous writings may be seen in Kippis’s Biographia Britannica, v. ii. v. 127. Richard.] Richard of St. Victor, a native either of Scotland or Ireland, was canon and prior of the monastery of that name at Paris and died in 1173. “He was at the head of the Mystics in this century and his treatise, entitled the Mystical Ark, which contains as it were the marrow of this kind of theology, was received with the greatest avidity.” Maclaine’s Mosheim, v. iii. cent. xii. p. 2. c. 2. 23. v. 132. Sigebert.] “A monk of the abbey of Gemblours who was in high repute at the end of the eleventh, and beginning of the twelfth century.” Dict. de Moreri. v. 131. The straw-litter’d street.] The name of a street in Paris: the “Rue du Fouarre.” v. 136. The spouse of God.] The church.
v. 1. O fond anxiety of mortal men.] Lucretius, 1. ii. 14 O miseras hominum mentes! O pectora caeca Qualibus in tenebris vitae quantisque periclis Degitur hoc aevi quodcunque est! v. 4. Aphorisms,] The study of medicine. v. 17. ‘The lustre.] The spirit of Thomas Aquinas v. 29. She.] The church. v. 34. One.] Saint Francis. v. 36. The other.] Saint Dominic. v. 40. Tupino.] A rivulet near Assisi, or Ascesi where Francis was born in 1182.
The Divine Comedy of Dante - Paradise
v. 40. The wave.] Chiascio, a stream that rises in a mountain near Agobbio, chosen by St. Ubaldo for the place of his retirement. v. 42. Heat and cold.] Cold from the snow, and heat from the reflection of the sun. v. 45. Yoke.] Vellutello understands this of the vicinity of the mountain to Nocera and Gualdo; and Venturi (as I have taken it) of the heavy impositions laid on those places by the Perugians. For GIOGO, like the Latin JUGUM, will admit of either sense. v. 50. The east.] v. 86. Innocent.] Pope Innocent III. This is the east, and Juliet is the sun. Shakespeare. v. 55. Gainst his father’s will.] In opposition to the wishes of his natural father v. 58. In his father’s sight.] The spiritual father, or bishop, in whose presence he made a profession of poverty. v. 60. Her first husband.] Christ. v. 63. Amyclas.] Lucan makes Caesar exclaim, on witnessing the secure poverty of the fisherman Amyclas: —O vite tuta facultas Pauperis, angustique lares! O munera nondum Intellecta deum! quibus hoc contingere templis, Aut potuit muris, nullo trepidare tumultu, Caesarea pulsante manu? v. 90. Honorius.] His successor Honorius III who granted certain privileges to the Franciscans. v. 93. On the hard rock.] The mountain Alverna in the Apennine. v. 100. The last signet.] Alluding to the stigmata, or marks resembling the wounds of Christ, said to have been found on the saint’s body. v. 106. His dearest lady.] Poverty. v. 113. Our Patriarch] Saint Dominic. v. 316. His flock] The Dominicans. v. 127. The planet from whence they split.] “The rule of their order, which the Dominicans neglect to observe.” Lucan Phars. 1. v. 531. v. 72. Bernard.] One of the first followers of the saint. v. 76. Egidius.] The third of his disciples, who died in 1262. His work, entitled Verba Aurea, was published in 1534, at Antwerp See Lucas Waddingus, Annales Ordinis Minoris, p. 5. v. 76. Sylvester.] Another of his earliest associates. v. 83. Pietro Bernardone.] A man in an humble station of life at Assisi.
v. 1. The blessed flame.] Thomas Aquinas
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v. 12. That voice.] The nymph Echo, transformed into the repercussion of the voice. v. 25. One.] Saint Buonaventura, general of the Franciscan order, in which he effected some reformation, and one of the most profound divines of his age. “He refused the archbishopric of York, which was offered him by Clement IV, but afterwards was prevailed on to accept the bishopric of Albano and a cardinal’s hat. He was born at Bagnoregio or Bagnorea, in Tuscany, A.D. 1221, and died in 1274.” Dict. Histor. par Chaudon et Delandine. Ed. Lyon. 1804. v. 28. The love.] By an act of mutual courtesy, Buonaventura, a Franciscan, is made to proclaim the praises of St. Dominic, as Thomas Aquinas, a Dominican, has celebrated those of St. Francis. v. 42. In that clime.] Spain. v. 48. Callaroga.] Between Osma and Aranda, in Old Castile, designated by the royal coat of arms. v. 51. The loving minion of the Christian faith.] Dominic was born April 5, 1170, and died August 6, 1221. His birthplace, Callaroga; his father and mother’s names, Felix and Joanna, his mother’s dream; his name of Dominic, given him in consequence of a vision by a noble matron, who stood sponsor to him, are all told in an anonymous life of the saint, said to be written in the thirteenth century, and published by Quetif and Echard, Scriptores Ordinis Praedicatorum. Par. 1719. fol. t 1. p. 25. These writers deny his having been an inquisitor, and indeed the establishment of the inquisition itself before the fourth Lateran council. Ibid. p. 88. v. 55. In the mother’s womb.] His mother, when pregnant with him, is said to have dreamt that she should bring forth a white and black dog, with a lighted torch in its mouth. v. 59. The dame.] His godmother’s dream was, that he had one star in his forehead, and another in the nape of his neck, from which he communicated light to the east and the west. v. 73. Felix.] Felix Gusman. v. 75. As men interpret it.] Grace or gift of the Lord. v. 77. Ostiense.] A cardinal, who explained the decretals. v. 77. Taddeo.] A physician, of Florence. v. 82. The see.] “The apostolic see, which no longer continues its wonted liberality towards the indigent and deserving; not indeed through its own fault, as its doctrines are still the same, but through the fault of the pontiff, who is seated in it.” v. 85. No dispensation.] Dominic did not ask license to compound for the use of unjust acquisitions, by dedicating a part of them to pious purposes. v. 89. In favour of that seed.] “For that seed of the divine word, from which have sprung up these four-and-twenty plants, that now environ thee.” v. 101. But the track.] “But the rule of St. Francis is already deserted and the lees of the wine are turned into mouldiness.” v. 110. Tares.] He adverts to the parable of the taxes and the wheat. v. 111. I question not.] “Some indeed might be found, who still observe the rule of the order, but such would come neither from Casale nor Acquasparta:” of the former of which places was Uberto, one master general, by whom the discipline had been relaxed; and of the latter, Matteo, another, who had enforced it with unnecessary rigour. v. 121. -Illuminato here, And Agostino.] Two among the earliest followers of St. Francis. v. 125. Hugues of St. Victor.] A Saxon of the monastery of Saint Victor at Paris, who fed ill 1142 at the age of forty-four. “A man distinguished by the fecundity of his genius, who treated in his writings of all the
together with seven stars of Arcturus Major and two of Arcturus Minor. in Normandy. is his Historia Scolastica. c. p. one within the other.D. I have looked into his writings. Oper. ix. 2. He enjoyed this dignity till his death. 23. each resembling the crown of Ariadne. may testify. v. iii . Anselmo. 131. Joachim.” 109 . 128. 14. the grammarian. 1277. then. Thou thinkest. to succeed to the archbishopric. was so many ages back discovered and brought to light by Anselm. and moving round m opposite directions.] See Hell. p.] Abbot of Flora in Calabria. Canto XXIX. 2 c. v. v. 2. where he died in 1198. cent. in 1109. especially in logic and in medicine. CANTO XIII v.” Ibid. Stor. born at Troyes. della Lett.” v. v. c. 125.] Aelius Donatus. v. v.” Maclaine’s Mosheim. where he afterwards devoted himself to a religious life.] The eloquent patriarch of Constantinople. xiv. was born at Aosta. as his books. p.The Divine Comedy of Dante . l. cent. that Adam and Christ were both endued with all the perfection of which the human nature is capable and therefore wonderest at what has been said concerning Solomon” v. Ital.] “Anselm. Ibid. Chrysostom. 134. in 1093.] “Rabanus Maurus. and found some reason for this high eulogium. Edit. Hist. are only emanations from the archetypal idea residing in the Divine mind. which I shall have occasion to cite in the Notes to XXVI. Victor at Paris. The Chiava. He relinquished these benefices to become a regular canon of St. p. cent. Lyon. Genev. A peer.] “Whoever would conceive the sight that now presented itself to me. after he had been pontiff only eight months and as many days. There is much depth and precisian in his theological works. de Esp. The work by which he is best known. is deservedly placed at the head of the Latin writers of this age. and who composed several dissertations that are not destitute of merit. iii. written in the name of Peter of Spain (by which he was known before he became Pope). One ear. xii. 29.] “Things corruptible and incorruptible. Eccl. 2. I proceed to answer the other. 1804. 2. Let him. ii. 128. must imagine to himself fifteen of the brightest stars in heaven. was canon and dean of that church.” Mosheim. and afterwards chancellor of the church of Paris. that the demonstration of the existence of God. vol. Hist.] “Petrus Comestor.Paradise branches of sacred and profane erudition that were known in his time. A. That.] Thomas Aquinas. vacant by the death of Lanfrane. v. v. and studied under Lanfrane at the monastery of Bec. of which Des Cartes is thought to be the author. 48. Archbishop of Canter bury. though it was disturbed by many dissentions with William II and Henry I respecting the immunities and investitures. Ed. 1. 130.] “Having solved one of thy questions. about 1034. Leibnitz himself makes the remark. 2. Archbishop of Mentz. 1. t. Piatro Mangiadore. Jerome.] “To Pope Adrian V succeeded John XXI a native of Lisbon a man of great genius and extraordinary acquirements. 129. or the Eater. c.” v.” Tiraboschi. v. 21. v. Donatus. 2. one of the preceptors of St. 45. His life was not much longer than that of his predecessors. 1768.] St. in the fourth century. That luminary. v. by the falling in of the roof of his chamber. in his twenty-seventh year. In three years he was made prior. ranged in two circles. v. Hist. “whom the multitude revered as a person divinely inspired and equal to the most illustrious prophets of ancient times. iv. and then abbot of that monastery! from whence he was taken. “It is an observation made by many modern writers. xiii. 33. Chaudon et Delandine Dict. v. c. 570. taken from the idea of a Supreme Being. for he was killed at Viterbo. Mariana. iii. Dominic. Raban. v. 31. 126. 2. He of Spain.
Villani. 1. see Diogenes Laertius. v.] A passage in the travels of Bertradon de la Brocquiere. 24. and all maist circonscrive. To more lofty bliss. 120. or to pry into the subtleties of metaphysical and mathematical science: but asked for that wisdom which might fit him for his kingly office. translated by Mr. He. v. c. 125. iii. 89. c.” v. 1. The last is also twice adduced by 2. 52. father to Alighieri.] “He who considers that the eyes of Beatrice became more radiant the higher we ascended. v. v. must not wonder that I do not except even them as I had not yet beheld them since our entrance into this planet. de Caelo. Which calls her still.] Literally translated by Chaucer.] The public clock being still within the circuit of the ancient walls. ix. 2. Sabellius. Arius. v. v. and Aristot. v. 9. The mountain. v. 53. 78. The lowest powers. Thou one two. 68. 92.] The Word: the Son of God.] Well-known heretics. —Parmenides Melissus Bryso. affording instances of false reasoning. That traveler. 684. Our greater Muse. 126. The heav’n. p. v. 2. 124. which has given some trouble to the commentators. 1. who wrote before Dante. v. Him. vi. 1.] The voice of Thomas Aquinas proceeding. and Rhet.] Solomon. v.] The cross. i. Troilus and Cresseide. iii. 81.] “He did not desire to know the number of the stars. His brightness. 55. 93. CANTO XIV v. 123. Aristotle (Anal Post. two and one Uncircumscript. will explain this allusion.The Divine Comedy of Dante .] Irrational life and brute matter. 2. v.] Angels and human souls. 88. Johnes. Scymitars. Their wax and that which moulds it.] To the planet Mars.] Cacciaguida. Who ask’d.” CANTO XV 110 . from a consideration of his present character and actions.” v. 62. His love triune with them. 26. 138. The venerable sign. 57.] The influence of the planetary bodies. 94. I am thy root. The clay.Paradise v. v. that the wandering Arabs used their scymitars as mirrors. Such was the image. v. l. New existences. 77. l. and the virtue or energy that acts on it.] Matter. and three eterne on live That raignest aie in three.] See G.] For the singular opinions entertained by the two former of these heathen philosophers.) as 3. 5. Florence.] Adam. from the circle to the centre and that of Beatrice from the centre to the circle. c.] Purgatory. The goodliest light. of whom our Poet was the great-grandson. 84. v. c. i. v.] The Holy Ghost. informs us. 1. v.] “Let not short-sighted mortals presume to decide on the future doom of any man.] Virgil Aen. Let not. iii. c. 1 and Phys. v. v.
v.] Beatrice’s smile encouraged him to proceed just as the cough of Ginevra’s female servant gave her mistress assurance to admit the freedoms of Lancelot. which was the last reached by the competitor in the annual race at Florence. resided near the entrance of that named from the Porta S. The last. v. 120. See G. not knowing him to be his ancestor. 110. 125.The Divine Comedy of Dante . from its being watered by the Po. v. Our suburban turret. 44. CANTO XVI v. near Florence. 23. c.” according to a custom introduced among the Romans in the latter times of the empire. v.] Uccellatojo. See Hell. From Mars. v.] The Emperor Conrad III who died in 1152. v. 71. 130 Valdipado. 21. iv. 101.] Through the civil wars. See G. came from Ferrara. Of Nerli and of Vecchio.] Country places near Florence.] The luxurious monarch of Assyria Juvenal is here imitated. with which it is supposed to have a congenial influence.] The Mahometans. nd Notes. who uses his name for an instance of effeminacy. 103. v. v. That these people. 102 Sardanapalus. who were left in possession of the Holy Land.Paradise v. the site of the villa Mellini. and did not expect too large a portion. a lawyer. 31.] Florence. whose family name was Aldighieri. 101. 10.] The city was divided into four compartments. The Elisei. the ancestors of Dante. v. v. be placed about 1106. 1. 1. 34. 1 vi.] That the inhabitants of the above-mentioned places had not been mixed with the citizens: nor the limits of Florence 111 . 38. There is a curious description of the simple manner in which the earlier Florentines dressed themselves in G. Whose people. of which John the Baptist was the patron saint. iv. 48. Each. through the supineness of the Pope.” now uses more ceremony. 113. with whom Dante was at variance. Sat. Piero.” Hell.] Hell. v. 136. 15.] “None fearful either of dying in banishment. v.] When the women were not married at too early an age. Canto XX. 38. Villani.] The Poet. commanding a view of Rome. married to Lito degli Alidosi of Imola: the former Lapo Salterello. 10.] Two of the most opulent families in Florence. 144. from whence that city was discovered.] “Both in the times of heathenish and of Christianity.] From the Incarnation to the birth of Cacciaguida. v. or Monte Mario. Campi and Certaldo and Fighine. The fold. therefore. Canto XVI. who had addressed the spirit. 50.] The Virgin was involved in the pains of child-birth Purgatory. v. When. Void. v.] The latter a shameless woman of the family of Tosa. v. v. or of being deserted by her husband on a scheme of battle in France. the planet Mars had returned five hundred and fifty-three times to the constellation of Leo. Montemalo ] Either an elevated spot between Rome and Viterbo. 124. called Val di Pado. v. Guinever. With greeting. Canto XIII. and calls him “You. Conrad. v. Canto V. Villani. 103. 98. with a plain “Thou. From the day. Bellincion Berti.] Cacciaguida’s wife. 131. A Salterello and Cianghella. His birth may. Mary. c. Villani.
v. The sires of those.] Baldo of Aguglione. where the vision is related. “gate. Fior. in one whereof his memory was celebrated at Florence on St. 1. 356. b. Aguglione’s hind and Signa’s. and the Guelph and Ghibelline factions had thus been prevented. Luni. The great baron. v.” -The same metaphor is found in Aeschylus. iv.] A castle dismantled by the Florentines. belonging to one of the families thus distinguished.] The Adimari.] The Marchese Ugo. Thomas’s day. Had not the people. iv. 124.] So Chaucer.] “The fortune of us. as it is conjectured. 54. 99. and Bonifazio of Signa. Simifonte. As the moon. 99 v. ii. G. 109.] Cities formerly of importance. which they do not spare. in consequence of which he sold all his possessions in Germany.] The arms of the Pigli. c. v. Canto XII. with less probability. The blind bull. that are the moon’s men doth ebb and flow like the sea. v.]Two families in the v. 1st. Chiusi and Sinigaglia. -Gualterotti dwelt And Importuni. The individual here alluded to is no longer known. 86. who no longer retained his place among the nobility. who had married a daughter of Bellincion Berti. Nic. l. The gateway. v. v. The column cloth’d with verrey. 100. 86. One. and founded seven abbeys. Ediz. See Macchiavelli. 1.] The arms of the Abbati.] The same. a.Paradise extended beyond Galluzzo and Trespiano. With them.] Giano della Bella. v. v. Th’ o’erweening brood. 69. v.] “Of the Visdomini. The bullets of bright gold.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 74. 80.] Landino refers this to the smallness of the city: Vellutello. who resided at Florence as lieutenant of the Emperor Otho III. or the Tosinghi one of which had committed a fraud in measuring out the wheat from the public granary. s.. Troilus and Cresseide. Villani. v.) was offended with his father-in-law. 1. p. v. 1 Henry IV. that Ubertino Donato. 13. 132. v. 56. The Ughi. may consult G. See G. 127.] The symbols of knighthood v. being sprung from the founders of the bishopric of Florence are the curators of its revenues.] If Rome had continued in her allegiance to the emperor. The gilded hilt and pommel. v.] Many editions read porta. the Tosinghi and the Cortigiani. c.” v. that crown your city’s poop. 38.” Shakespeare. Compare Aristotle. for giving another of his daughters in marriage to one of them.] Whoever is curious to know the habitations of these and the other ancient Florentines. Giolito. This family was so little esteemed.” 112 . 130. 110. v. nor lost the most respectable of her ancient families. Florence would not have been polluted by a race of upstarts. whenever it becomes vacant. who. 103. 113. Respect these wreaths. Supp. Villani.] Either the Chiaramontesi. 72. 2. Villani. vi. gave many of the chief families license to bear his arms. l. himself indeed derived from the same stock (see Note to Hell Canto XVI. and is there also scarce understood by the critics. Ethic. At the poop. See Purgatory. Urbisaglia. v. and had yet added to his arms a bordure or. v. For swifter course cometh thing that is of wight When it descendeth than done things light. 2. 2. 61. to the simplicity of the people in naming one of the gates after a private family. but then fallen to decay. c. 30. 91. i.
that we discern the simplest mathematical demonstrations. 12. 144.] See Hell. no more necessitates that future than does the image. The point. of Hell. v. to inquire of her if he were indeed the son of Apollo.” v.” as they afterwards were. 69. where the expulsion of Dante’s party from Florence was then plotting. v. The house. 27. Thou seest as clear. Near the remains of the statue of Mars. v. That mortal. See Notes to Canto XXVIII.] Nam praevisa minus laedere tela solent. Petrarca. v. The great Lombard.] “That thou mayst obtain from others a solution of any doubt that may occur to thee. 144. v. The youth. or Bartolommeo his eldest son. The Gascon. There.] “It had been well for the city.” v. Great Harry. To own thy thirst. 142. if thy ancestor had been drowned in the Ema. who came to his mother Clymene.] The divine nature. 49.] “Thou beholdest future events. v. 1. with the same clearness of evidence. and Florence had not since known the blessing of peace.” CANTO XVII v. See Ovid.] 113 . 19. v. 15.] “From the eternal sight. the view of the Deity. To Ema. Theirs. The lily.] Either Alberto della Scala. necessitate the motion of the vessel.] At Rome. 127. 135.] “Thou shalt stigmatize the faults of those who are most eminent and powerful. v. as if he had been a victim to the god. i.” v. The arrow.” v. Trionfo del Tempo v. 3. v.Paradise compartment of the city called Borgo. Ovid. born under the influence of Mars. Contingency.] The Emperor Henry VII. 80.” v. v. v. Temp’ring the sweet with bitter.The Divine Comedy of Dante . nor been changed from argent to gules. That saintly lamp. On that maim’d stone. The cry thou raisest. 43. but at this time only nine years old v.] “The arms of Florence had never hung reversed on the spear of her enemies. 1. in 1300.] “They shall be ashamed of the part they have taken aga’nst thee. 38. reflected in the sight by a ship sailing down a stream.] Pope Clement V. Buondelmonti was slain. Their coat of arms was a ladder and an eagle.] Phaeton.] Cacciaguida. 80.] Of Amidei. Canto XIII. Met. 150. in token of her defeat. From thence. when the Guelfi gained the predominance. 75. ad finem. Che piaga antiveduta assai men duole.] Can Grande della Scala. 6. 65. v. 102. CANTO XVIII v. when he crossed that stream on his way from Montebuono to Florence.] “The evidence with which we see the future portrayed in the source of all truth.
116. c. p. That volume. and his kinsman Raimbaud. under the name of Rinaldo.] Diligite justitiam qui judicatis terrarm. in 114 .] “That he may again drive out those who buy and sell in the temple. v. supposed to have been the founder of the present illustrious family of that name. 39. the fifth v.The Divine Comedy of Dante . “Love righteousness.” v. v.] See Hell. William l.] Matt.] Purgatory. The characters. 1. P. That once more. Taking the bread away. 38. The former. 126. a.” v. ed. i. The latter is better known by having been celebrated by Ariosto. 46. v. L. Duke Godfey.” Eccl. v. 26. That writest but to cancel. Normann Script. 114. 130.] The coin of Florence was stamped with the impression of John the Baptist. as the commentators have imagined.] Compare Proverbs. ye that be judges of the earth “ Wisdom of Solomon.” Vulgo canitur a joculatoribus de illo. 508. xx. 43.] Godfrey of Bouillon. b. when that Emperor obtained the kingdom for his eldest son Rodolph. i. 41. Prague. 4to. Who turn’d his compass. 124. p. of Orange.] L. Canto XXVIII. The great Maccabee. Che come diligente intese e scrisse. two of the crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon.] Rev. c.) but rather the two more celebrated heroes in the age of Charlemagne. Robert Guiscard. Of this Lucifer was a proof.Paradise Chewing the end of sweet and bitter fancy. v.] Philip IV of France. Ordericus Vitalis. See Coxe’s House of Austria. v. in Duchesne. 42. des Croisades. he would not have fallen. CANTO XIX v. 87 v. 3. xii. 12. Charlemagne. v. On this fifth lodgment of the tree. William and Renard. 12. cantilena. des Princes et Principante d’Orange. c. 108. v. i. 28. 117. 81.] Judas Maccabeus.] The eagle predicts the devastation of Bohemia by Albert. which happened soon after this time.” v. v. 98. 116. Morg. Shakespeare. To him. sed jure praeferenda est relatio authentica. c. or the interdiction of the Eucharist. after the battle of Courtrai. part 1.] “And thou.] Mars. for had he thoroughly comprehended it.] Probably not. vii 224. Magg. who writest thy ecclesiastical censures for no other purpose than to be paid for revoking them. is now employed as a weapon of warfare. v. William II of Orange.” v. which had been misrepresented in the songs of the itinerant bards. 112. Canto VI. according to Joseph de la Piser. s. 27. 37. 1302. Hist. v. Par. And Milton. viii. Pulci commends Dante for placing Charlemagne and Orlando here: Io mi confido ancor molto qui a Dante Che non sanza cagion nel ciel su misse Carlo ed Orlando in quelle croci sante. The Word] “The divine nature still remained incomprehensible. professes to give his true life. t. ed. (Maimbourg. 3. Pope Boniface. died about 808. As you Like it. v. 43. He. c. The Ethiop. 96. v. Our countryman. v. p. 12mo. Tableau de l’Hist. Albert. 1682. Hist.] “Excommunication. Hist.
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which the French were defeated by the Flemings, raised the nominal value of the coin. This king died in consequence of his horse being thrown to the ground by a wild boar, in 1314 v. 121. The English and Scot.] He adverts to the disputes between John Baliol and Edward I, the latter of whom is commended in the Purgatory, Canto VII. v. 130. v. 122. The Spaniard’s luxury.] The commentators refer this to Alonzo X of Spain. It seems probable that the allusion is to Ferdinand IV who came to the crown in 1295, and died in 1312, at the age of twenty four, in consequence, as it was supposed, of his extreme intemperance. See Mariana, Hist I. xv. c. 11. v. 123. The Bohemian.] Winceslaus II. Purgatory, Canto VII. v. v. 125. The halter of Jerusalem.] Charles II of Naples and Jerusalem who was lame. See note to Purgatory, Canto VII. v. 122, and XX. v. 78. v. 127. He.] Frederick of Sicily son of Peter III of Arragon. Purgatory, Canto VII. v. 117. The isle of fire is Sicily, where was the tomb of Anchises. v. 133. His uncle.] James, king of Majorca and Minorca, brother to Peter III. v. 133. His brother.] James II of Arragon, who died in 1327. See Purgatory, Canto VII. v. 117. v. 135. Of Portugal.] In the time of Dante, Dionysius was king of Portugal. He died in 1328, after a reign of near forty-six years, and does not seem to have deserved the stigma here fastened on him. See Mariana. and 1. xv. c. 18. Perhaps the rebellious son of Dionysius may be alluded to. v. 136. Norway.] Haquin, king of Norway, is probably meant; who, having given refuge to the mur- derers of Eric VII king of Denmark, A D. 1288, commenced a war against his successor, Erie VIII, “which continued for nine years, almost to the utter ruin and destruction of both kingdoms.” Modern Univ. Hist. v. xxxii p. 215. v. 136. -Him Of Ratza.] One of the dynasty of the house of Nemagna, which ruled the kingdom of Rassia, or Ratza, in Sclavonia, from 1161 to 1371, and whose history may be found in Mauro Orbino, Regno degli Slavi, Ediz. Pesaro. 1601. Uladislaus appears to have been the sovereign in Dante’s time, but the disgraceful forgery adverted to in the text, is not recorded by the historian v. 138. Hungary.] The kingdom of Hungary was about this time disputed by Carobert, son of Charles Martel, and Winceslaus, prince of Bohemia, son of Winceslaus II. See Coxe’s House of Austria, vol. i. p. 1. p. 86. 4to edit. v. 140. Navarre.] Navarre was now under the yoke of France. It soon after (in 1328) followed the advice of Dante and had a monarch of its own. Mariana, 1. xv. c. 19. v. 141. Mountainous girdle.] The Pyrenees. v. 143. -Famagosta’s streets And Nicosia’s.] Cities in the kingdom of Cyprus, at that time ruled by Henry II a pusillanimous prince. Vertot. Hist. des Chev. de Malte, 1. iii. vi. The meaning appears to be, that the complaints made by those cities of their weak and worthless governor, may be regarded as an earnest of his condemnation at the last doom.
v. 6. Wherein one shines.] The light of the sun, whence he supposes the other celestial bodies to derive their light v. 8. The great sign.] The eagle, the Imperial ensign. v. 34. Who.] David.
The Divine Comedy of Dante - Paradise
v. 39. He.] Trajan. See Purgatory, Canto X. 68. v. 44. He next.] Hezekiah. v. 24. Of that lov’d monarch.] Saturn. Compare Hell, Canto XIV. 91. v. 50. ‘The other following.] Constantine. There is no passage in which Dante’s opinion of the evil; that had arisen from the mixture of the civil with the ecclesiastical power, is more unequivocally declared. v. 57. William.] William II, king of Sicily, at the latter part of the twelfth century He was of the Norman line of sovereigns, and obtained the appellation of “the Good” and, as the poet says his loss was as much the subject of regret in his dominions, as the presence of Charles I of Anjou and Frederick of Arragon, was of sorrow and complaint. v. 62. Trojan Ripheus.] Ripheus, justissimus unus Qui fuit in Teneris, et servantissimus aequi. Virg. Aen. 1. ii. 4—. v. 97. This.] Ripheus. v. 98. That.] Trajan. v. 103. The prayers,] The prayers of St. Gregory v. 119. The three nymphs.] Faith, Hope, and Charity. Purgatory, Canto XXIX. 116. v. 138. The pair.] Ripheus and Trajan. v. 118. Cephas.] St. Peter. CANTO XXI v. 119 The Holy Spirit’s vessel.] St. Paul. See Hell, Canto II. 30. v. 12. The seventh splendour.] The planet Saturn v. 130. Round this.] Round the spirit of Pietro Damiano. v. 13. The burning lion’s breast.] The constellation Leo. v. 56. What forbade the smile.] “Because it would have overcome thee.” v. 61. There aloft.] Where the other souls were. v. 97. A stony ridge.] The Apennine. v. 112. Pietro Damiano.] “S. Pietro Damiano obtained a great and wellmerited reputation, by the pains he took to correct the abuses among the clergy. Ravenna is supposed to have been the place of his birth, about 1007. He was employed in several important missions, and rewarded by Stephen IX with the dignity of cardinal, and the bishopric of Ostia, to which, however, he preferred his former retreat in the monastery of Fonte Aveliana, and prevailed on Alexander II to permit him to retire thither. Yet he did not long continue in this seclusion, before he was sent on other embassies. He died at Faenza in 1072. His letters throw much light on the obscure history of these times. Besides them, he has left several treatises on sacred and ecclesiastical subjects. His eloquence is worthy of a better age.” Tiraboschi, Storia della Lett Ital. t. iii. 1. iv. c. 2. v. 114. Beside the Adriatic.] At Ravenna. Some editions have FU instead of FUI, according to which reading, Pietro distinguishes himself from another Pietro, who was termed “Peccator,” the sinner. v. 117. The hat.] The cardinal’s hat. v. 21. In equal balance.] “My pleasure was as great in complying with her will as in beholding her countenance.”
The Divine Comedy of Dante - Paradise
v. 14. The vengeance.] Beatrice, it is supposed, intimates the approaching fate of Boniface VIII. See Purgatory, Canto XX. 86. v. 36. Cassino.] A castle in the Terra di Lavoro. v. 38. I it was.] “A new order of monks, which in a manner absorbed all the others that were established in the west, was instituted, A.D. 529, by Benedict of Nursis, a man of piety and reputation for the age he lived in.” Maclaine’s Mosheim, Eccles. Hist. v. ii. cent. vi. p. 2. ch. 2 - 6. v. 48. Macarius.] There are two of this name enuerated by Mosheim among the Greek theologians of the fourth century, v. i. cent. iv p. 11 ch. 2 - 9. In the following chapter, 10, it is said, “Macarius, an Egyptian monk, undoubtedly deserves the first rank among the practical matters of this time, as his works displayed, some few things excepted, the brightest and most lovely portraiture of sanctity and virtue.” v. 48. Romoaldo.] S. Romoaldo, a native of Ravenna, and the founder of the order of Camaldoli, died in 1027. He was the author of a commentary on the Psalms. v. 70. The patriarch Jacob.] So Milton, P. L. b. iii. 510: The stairs were such, as whereon Jacob saw Angels ascending and descending, bands Of guardians bright. v. 107. The sign.] The constellation of Gemini. v. 130. This globe.] So Chaucer, Troilus and Cresseide, b. v, And down from thence fast he gan avise This little spot of earth, that with the sea Embraced is, and fully gan despite
This wretched world. Compare Cicero, Somn. Scip. “Jam ipsa terra ita mihi parva visa est.” &c. Lucan, Phar 1. ix. 11; and Tasso, G. L. c. xiv. st, 9, 10, 11. v. 140. Maia and Dione.] The planets Mercury and Venus.
v. 11. That region.] Towards the south, where the course of the sun appears less rapid, than, when he is in the east or the west. v. 26. Trivia.] A name of Diana. v. 26. Th’ eternal nymphs.] The stars. v. 36. The Might.] Our Saviour v. 71. The rose.] The Virgin Mary. v. 73. The lilies.] The apostles. v. 84. Thou didst exalt thy glory.] The diving light retired upwards, to render the eyes of Dante more capable of enduring the spectacle which now presented itself. v. 86. The name of that fair flower.] The name of the Virgin. v. 92. A cresset.] The angel Gabriel. v. 98. That lyre.] By synecdoche, the lyre is put for the angel v. 99. The goodliest sapphire.] The Virgin v. 126. Those rich-laden coffers.] Those spirits who, having sown the seed of good works on earth, now contain the fruit of their pious endeavours.
I lifted up. 28. 65.” So in Boccaccio. That Worthy. translated by Dr. 1.” v. v. But let Dante have leave to explain his own meaning. From Egypt to Jerusalem. 82. who after all. Bas. 40. Such folds. Sine meritis enim aliquid sperare non spes. while Benson argues against it. G.] Florence. 39. Faith. 13. The fair sheep-fold. Iii.” for that John came first to the sepulchre.1. Cxxi. The second flame. 59. N. hospitals for the reception of the pilgrims. T.” v.] Quel Baron. E delle non visioili argomento. is obliged to leave the question undecided.” Ps. 1793. So Marino.] During their abode in this world.] “The answer thou hast made is right. v. sed praesumptio. whose shrine was at Compostella.The Divine Comedy of Dante . Eloy afterwards (the precise time is not known).] “I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills. 124. videns allum discipulum cunctantem ad ostium. built. v. ed. 1. 6. 114. v.] From the lower world to heaven. 26. v. 67. 133.] For the sake of that faith. The learned and candid Michaelis contends very forcibly for its having been written by James the Elder. 1. along the whole read. v. in many places.] St. St. with the other holy men of the Old and New testament.” Pet. V. 10. Cambridge. “En el tiempo.] Venturi insists that the Poet has here. from whence cometh my help.] The Epistle of St. vi. 2. Lomb. v. Dist.] St. the devotion for that place extended itself not only over all Spain. 26. in Galicia. Galicia throng’d with visitants. in one of his sonnets. whence he was banished. by the roughness and barrenness of those parts.” Opere de Dante. but even round about to foreign nations. James is here attributed to the elder apostle of that name. c. v. 91. with a desire of remedying these evils. “made a slip.] In the transfiguration on Mount Tabor.Paradise v. 118 . ii. xi. which calls Divozioni: Fede e sustanza di sperate cose. The ancient bond and new. iv. c. but let me know if thy inward persuasion is conformable to thy profession. As Jesus. v.] Pindar has the same bold image: On which Hayne strangely remarks: Ad ambitus stropharum vldetur. Many others were deterred by the difficulty for the journey. v. In the Babylonian exile. In the next Canto. 35.] This is from the Sentences of Petrus Lombardus. v. 3. 1. Ed.] The Old and New Testament. Lardner rejects that opinion as absurd. we find “Baron Messer Santo Antonio. Who. v. beatitudinem aeternam. 31. Ven. Hope. As to outstrip. Current. in a passage from his third book De Monarchia: “Dicit etiam Johannes ipsum (scilicet Petrum) introiisse SUBITO.” &c. CANTO XXIV v. Multitudes from all parts of the world came to visit it. See his Introduction to the New Testament. 1793. dici potest. The canons of St. Which of the two was the author of it is yet doubtful. Hist. and by the incursions of the Moors. James.] See Mariana. . 129. Sent.] Hebrews. 13. cum venit in monumentum. Marsh. 146. Peter. xi. James was discovered. P. qua spiritualia et aeterna bona speratam. CANTO XXV v. but is well answered by Michaelis. 20. which reached as far as to France. James is called “Barone. For its sake.” v. “At the time that the sepulchre of the apostle St. though Peter was the first to enter it. id est. “Est autem spes virtus. He. who made captives many of the pilgrims.
from Limbo. v. James. 19. v. 62. videlicet El. being the eldest.] St.” v. Thy brother. 74. EL] Some read UN.] Psalm ix. Par. having had his doubts raised by that saying of our saviour’s: “If I will. Paul. v. had said. Eloq. 10. 133. 17.] “I remained in the terrestrial Paradise only tothe seventh hour. 2. v. This. 1. John were present there in body. v. Canto II. Peter. 36. x. v. 9.Paradise 1486. which followed the death of Christ.” In the Historia Scolastica of Petrus Comestor. and. See Hell. who. 10. in the last Canto but one. 127. Poet.] Exodus.] “If a luminary.] Who. c. v. 107. John v. Op. 112. by putting his hand on St. Isaias ] Chap. i. vii. it is said of our first parents: Quidam tradunt eos fuisse in Paradiso septem horae. v. cap. “Primum apud Hebraeos Dei nomen El dicitur.] St.] That is. c. The eagle of our Lord. that he tarry till I come what is that to thee. 51. Others have understood it of Aristotle. viro sanae mentis in promptu esse non dubito ipsum fuisse quod Deus est. like that which now appeared. Ars. Four torches. All my life.” v. 13. The beamy flame.” v. John in the Revelation. c. Whence.] Christ and Mary. 1. 62. Isidore in the Origines. CANTO XXVI v.] He looked so earnestly. 1. 138. 135. Ananias’ hand. 1. 4.] Created beings. 9. 53. 11. &c. That. The two. Bip. St. v. 90. restored his sight. and Adam. From him. is the cause to us of the greatest goods “ Plat. Winter’s month. 94. Peter’ who looked as the planet Jupiter would.] St. John.] Some suppose that Plato is here meant.] St. but is himself enlightened and comprehended by none. So I.” instead of EL: but the latter of these readings is confirmed by a passage from Dante’s Treatise De Vulg.” St. if it 119 . “Quod prius vox primi loquentis sonaverit. Adam says that 5232 years elapsed from his creation to the time of his deliverance.] From Horace. i. ix. St. ed. vii. in his Banquet. were to shine throughout the month following the winter solstice during which the constellation Cancer appears in the east at the setting of the sun. and to whose charge Jesus recommended his mother. v. v. 121. 101.The Divine Comedy of Dante .] St.] Adam. 117. 40.] John. 82. makes Phaedrus say: “Love is confessedly amongst the eldest of beings. v. ed. who reclined on the bosom of our Saviour. and others. His anthem. 177. 1513. Parhelion. Areopagite. Use. “One.” I. 1. Acts. or in spirit only. v. there would be no interruption to the light. as rising above his sight. The leaves. whom he has described. At the outset.] St. xxxiii. c. c. v. p. 4to.] Who enlightens and comprehends all things. of the writer who goes by the name of Dionysius the CANTO XXVII v. to descry whether St. v. John. John. I will make. Fol. referred to in the twenty-eighth Canto. 42. but the whole month would be as a single day. lxi. v. t. The first living soul.
Paradise assumed the sanguine appearance of liars. “are the roots. and a quarter of the heaven. where Europa. that January shall be no more a winter month. a native of Cahors.] Compare Milton. bishops of the same see. 63. Ovid. the daughter of Agenor mounted on the back of Jupiter. 37. v.. such colour. which he vainly hoped would follow on the arrival of the Emperor Henry VII. or that my figure (the seal of St. 93. as has been before said. after it had been two years vacant. 72. The sun. L. Pius. Castor and Pollux. 20.] “From the Gemini. into which it is divided. 131. 51. of whom see Hell. 112. which are drops in the reckoning of every year. v. 135. 78. and the others. b. v. Peter) should serve as a mark to authorize iniquitous grants and privileges.] “Here. v. in his shape of a bull. iii. shall amount to so large a portion of time. 26.) he perceived that he had passed from the meridian circle to the eastern horizon.” And she then breaks out into an exclamation on the degeneracy of human nature. Canto XIX. the half of our hemisphere. Canto XXVI. None. as appears from the mention that is made of John XXII. terms the day. it cannot be denied but the conjecture is probable.] “Before many ages are past. 80. when we consider that this Canto was not finished till after the death of Henry.” thus called.] See Hell. 120 . Did Sextus.] Since he had last looked (see Canto XXII. P. 508. in Italy. &c. “child of the sun. v. therefore. such a thing will happen before a thousand years are over when we mean. and Note. in the fourth century. The fair child of him. part of those two constellations. Time’s roots.” says Beatrice. 106 v. 53. From the hour. Cahorsines and Gascons. 86.] The former two.] Qui color infectis adversi solis ab ietu Nubibus esse solet. from whence time springs: for the parts. 129.] Because. 42. and the sun in Aries. 76. v. v. it will happen soon. the shepherds are become wolves. who filled the papal chair in 1316. before those fractions. The shore. Lombardi refers the prognostication to Can Grande della Scala: and.] Boniface VIII. 1.” as we say familiarly.] When the sun is in Capricorn.] So she calls human nature. v.” v. v. and Callixtus bleed And Urban. Of Linus and of Cletus.” By this periphrasis is meant “ in a short time. 126. The fair nest of Leda.The Divine Comedy of Dante . No purpose was of ours. v. v.] Dante was in the constellation Gemini. The she-goat. v. and the whole of Taurus.] He alludes to Jacques d’Ossa. v. which does not lift itself to the contemplation of divine things. Met.] “We did not intend that our successors should take any part in the political divisions among Christians. and to Clement V. the other heavens must be considered. There was. 40.] The commentators in general suppose that our Poet here augurs that great reform. Pindar by a more easy figure.] Bishops of Rome in the first century. 184. From Gades. because Leda was the mother of the twins. v. in the second. xii. and assumed the name of John XXII. Fortune shall be fain. Wolves. between them.” v. v. Before the date. aut purpureae Aurorae.] Phoenicia. He. a Gascon.
1. 524.] He seems to mean that spiritual beings. as Dante thinks. v. the more they approximate to the central point. by the influence of autumn. brute matter. Heav’n. 124. not in process of before or aft. b. that the orbits of the latter are more swift. 596. For. virtutes. 82. corresponds to the ninth sphere. Dionysius. Hom. and so went on doubling to the end of the account. xii. progeny of light. Pent. v. that of the cherubim. The seeming contradiction is thus accounted for by Beatrice. “From that beginning depend heaven and nature.] The Areopagite. 22. 43. above referred to. domination’s. 38. which is God. testante sacro eloquio. that of the seraphim. the circles are more excellent and powerful. f. 125. 70. were produced at once. cherubin atque seraphin. v. Thrones. Paul. virtues. for the third. v. v. 36. v. otestates. the greater is the good of which it is capable supposing all the parts to be equally perfect. The sturdy north. Canto XXXIV. was the production of a later age. It is almost unnecessary to add. xxxiv. scimus: Angelos.] The sparkles exceeded the number which would be produced by the sixty-four squares of a chess-board. 30. as the sun and moon are in changing hemispheres. when they are opposite to one another. 601. which goes under his name. the third. and the other under that of Libra. Jerome had described the angels as created before the rest of the universe: an opinion which Thomas Aquinas controverted.] Not injured. v.] See Hell. and in like manner throughout the two other trines of circles and spheres. He had learnt. 126. and the latter. Such diff’rence. that the book. But in the intelligential world. to the seventh sphere. v. or circle of thrones. till the creation of the world. 1518. b. 119. fol. Thus the first circle. Dominations.] Dionysius. Gregory. v.] Compare Homer. CANTO XXIX v. dominationae. thronos. or planet of Saturn. P. Par. quia videlicet esse. the second. and the intermediate part of the creation. Milton.The Divine Comedy of Dante .] [GREEK HERE] Aristot. On Jerome’s pages. Fearless of bruising from the nightly ram. he says. or heaven of fixed stars. the one under the sign of Aries. 110. “Novem vero angelorum ordines diximus.” v. two. In the material world. principatus. to the eighth sphere. if for the first we reckoned one.] Gregory the Great. of time. had Scripture on his side.] As short a space. L. In number. Orb within orb Milton. that is. Metaph. when the constellation Aries rises at sunset. v. or primum mobile. P. powers. v. which participates both of spirit and matter. 105. v. like the productions of our spring. II. and all nature. 121 . archangelos. for the next. His threefold operation. the more ample the body is.] The material world and the intelligential (the copy and the pattern) appear to Dante to differ in this respect. c. In orbs Of circuit inexpressible they stood. had learnt from St.” no distinction. v. princedoms.” Divi Gregorii. hangs upon that point. the nearer they are to the centre. and both hang for a moment. whereas the contrary is the case with the orbits of the former. v. four.] There was neither “before nor after. No longer.] St. noised as it were in the hand of the zenith. 106. L. ed. in his book De Caelesti Hierarchia. 1. 7. b.Paradise CANTO XXVIII v.] Hear all ye angels. 51.
v. 135.] On the sale of these blessings. 39. The preacher. swoln with wind and the rank mist they draw. is about to disappear. Shadowy of the truth. Life is a vision shadowy of truth. v. Milton. Fattens with this his swine. v. v. Boniface VIII. they obtained the dignity and privileges of an independent congregation. History in Dr. 80. My view with ease. 108. s. P. Anthony. v. 491. Of Bindi and of Lapi. 2.” See Mosheim’s Eccles. and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him.] “appearing to be encompassed by these angelic bands. 3. 2. from whom. 121. who died in 1313. clear as crystal. P. I. The sheep. vii. ii.” Rev. But. v. 140. that remained faithful. a. The hungry sheep look up and are not fed.] He compares the vanishing of the vision to the fading away of the stars at dawn. This turn hath made amends. b. Of the great Harry. Forth. —underneath a bright sea flow’d Of jasper.] Questa vice. As some cliff. Rot inwardly. Hence perhaps Milton. and of beatified souls. b. 122 . Milton. 10. v. Engirt. Saint Anthony. L. 112. v. formed by the earth over the part of it inhabited by the Poet. the brothers of St. 131. “in 1297.” Dan. v. ‘Tis pitiful To court a grin. —the eves Of mine eyelids. 406. iv. . c. l. From behind the swine of St.] A lake That to the fringed bank with myrtle crown’d Her crystal mirror holds. proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb. the latter in that form which they will have at the last day. p. which are in reality encompassed by it. Either mighty host. v. b. 88. iii. 44.] Common names of men at Florence v. Task.28. Maclaine’s Translation. v. Anthony supported themselves and their paramours. Daniel.The Divine Comedy of Dante .” v. ii. 111.] Son di lor vero ombriferi prefazii. cxxii. when it is noon-day six thousand miles off. Light flowing. This turn. 1. in his Religious Musings. our Poet levels a blow at the object of his inveterate enmity. when you should woo a soul.] The Emperor Henry VII. 518. So Mr. L.] Of angels. P. But all sunshine. Six thousand miles. and the shadow.” Macbeth. viii. c. &c. P.] Thus Shakespeare calls the eyelids “penthouse lids. v. or of liquid pearl. 61. cent. Lycidas. b. 1. 263. 13.] So Milton. v. Milton. xi. v. CANTO XXX v.] From the ninth sphere to the empyrean. which is more light. nor shade.] Thus Cowper. L.] Far and wide his eye commands For sight no obstacle found here. 18.] “And he showed me a pure river of water of life.] “Thousand thousands ministered unto him. b. 118. Coleridge. 616. iii.Paradise v.
Him.] Eve. It is uncertain whether they were not delivered originally in the French tongue. 3 . v. Canto II. iii. See Ovid. Maclaine’s Mosheim. 123.] Menage on this word quotes the Roman des Royau End Paradise. 145. Argo’s shadow] Quae simul ac rostro ventosnm proscidit aequor. v. ii. 89. 118. de l’Hist. 92. 141. then preserved at Rome. “chefs~d’oeuvres de sentiment et de force. on which the countenance of our Saviour was supposed to have been imprest. v. v. iii. Iliad. I. or Bootes. fab. 87. changed into the constellations of the Greater Bear and Arctophylax.19. v. xxv. in his sixtythird year. Oriflamme est une banniere De cendal roujoyant et simple Sans portraiture d’autre affaire. p. as it supposed her being honoured with a privilegewhich belonged to Christ Alone Dr. v.] See Hell. 108.] Callisto. 1. Bees. 93. Aen. 109. De Nupt. the venerable abbot of Clairvaux. ii. “Light of Light.] Compare Homer. Three orbs of triple hue. 119.] The Virgin Mary. and opposed the doctrine itself with the greatest vigour.] Virg.Paradise v. —Iignages of Guillaume Ghyart. xii. 768. c. Catullus. Bernard. She. 101. 22. 29. 63. They have even been preferred to al1 the productions of the ancients. v. Aen. In holy scripture. 95. Lucia. That circling. 15.] Ruth. Our Veronica ] The holy handkerchief. The queen. when we consider that he severely censured the new festival established in honour of the Immaculate Conception of the virgin. the ancestress of David. One moment. CANTO XXXII v. v.The Divine Comedy of Dante . 445. ii. vi. 6. That the part he acts in the present Poem should be assigned to him appears somewhat remarkable. 3. c. L. when they had resolved on their expedition.] The Trinity. v.D. P. v.] The second of the circles. and the great promoter of the second crusade.] “A moment seems to me more tedious. v. 1153. 60. v. Tortaque remigio spumis incanduit unda.] St. v. Met. 430. The Sybil’s sentence. 8. 53. clipt in one bound. than fiveand-twenty ages would have appeared to the Argonauts. 1145. cent.] Pope Clement V. and her son Arcas. l. Oriflamb. Pel. He. Emersere feri candenti e gurgite vultus Aequoreae monstrum Nereides admirantes.] Pope Boniface VIII. Hell.] Gen.] St. Bernard. Bernard. de Fr. 97. Canto XIX. v. Helice. Ancestress. v. 123 . See Canto XXVII. Virg. et Thet. CANTO XXXIII v. and the author has been termed the last of the fathers of the church.” Abrege Chron. Alagna’s priest. 79. b.” in which he dimly beheld the mystery of the incarnation. and Milton. CANTO XXXI v. His sermons are called by Henault. v. who died A.
dies. D. Instead of a Life of my Author. XI. Purg. III. Of his own ancestry he speaks in the Paradise. C. the poet. C. the poet. C. Since that period. Pope Adrian V. 97. king of Naples and Sicily. To those. Buonaventura dies. Purg. XII. XXXII. XX. Gianni de’ Soldanieri heads the populace in that city. that their judgment should not be formed on a comparison with any single text of my Author. H. C. XXVII. “The Purgatory” and “The Paradise. 104.” in the first place. X. Our Poet first sees Beatrice. who shall be at the trouble of examining into the degree of accuracy with which the task has been executed.” was begun long before the first.” which I have adopted. executed. during which (to use the eloquent language of Mr. 95. of England is succeeded by Edward I. and XVI. H. Two of the Frati Godenti chosen arbitrators of the differences at Florence. I do not regard those hours as the least happy of my life. Giotto. C. C. XI. XXIV. Canto XV. and lulled to sleep amid the music of nobler thoughts. even in the present version of it. two impressions of the whole of the Divina Commedia. Purg. termed it simply “The Comedy. C. 129. 1274. VII.” Dante himself. Guido Novello of Polenta obtains the sovereignty of Ravenna. a view not only of the principal events which befell him. which has familiarized me with one of the sublimest efforts of the human invention. presented by different editions and commentators. C. Purg. in chronological order. 1275. owing to many interruptions. I have subjoined. C. of France. and becomes King of Naples. Coleridge) “my individual recollections have been suspended. in Italian. 1265. Guittone d’Arezzo. I have had to make my choice out of a variety of readings and interpretations. because the story (if story it may be called) ends happily. XXIII. Par. C. secretary to Philip III. Thomas Aquinas dies. I believe. Pierre de la Brosse. 1276. C. Purg. and as early as the year 1797. and Par. 110. have made their appearance in this country. Charles of Anjou puts Conradine to death. C. is defeated and slain by Charles of Anjou. C. In the same year. by turning to the passages referred to in the Poem and Notes. Guido Guinicelli. 1266. Fra. 56. in more instances than I have noticed. 83. I published the first part of the following translation. because the style was of the middle kind: and in the next. XIX. On a retrospect of the time and exertions that have been thus employed. since. 1272.” nor that study as misapplied. H. but. is born. Henry III. VI. Hell. is born at Florence. son of Alighieri degli Alighieri and Bella. Purg. Purg. may not be without interest for the mere English reader. January. dies. XXVIII.Appendixes PREFACE In the years 1805 and 1806. 1814 A CHRONOLOGICAL VIEW OF THE AGE OF DANTE A. 38. C. XX. 96. 25. 67. XXVI. 118. 23. as more conformable to the genius of our language than that of “The Divine Comedy. and C. H. 66. And Purgatory. daughter of Folco Portinari. 16 and Purg C. It is not necessary that I should add a third: and I am induced to hope that the Poem. dies. The translation of the second and third parts. Dante. C. with the text of the original. 124 . not concluded till the summer before last. 1268. but of the chief public occurrences that happened in his time: concerning both of which the reader may obtain further information. 13. XXVIII. Manfredi. In one or two of those editions is to be found the title of “The Vision. the painter. I may be allowed to suggest. 96.
dies. XXVII. Count Ugolino de’ Gherardeschi dies of famine. XX. Charles I. 98. 144. of Arragon dies. H. 57. James. and XXVII. XIX.” 1288. XIX. and is present at the surrender of Caprona in the autumn. The Bianca and Nera parties take their rise in Pistoia. and condemned to two years’ banishment. Forese. VII. H. 44. XII. XVII. Purg. The Emperor Rodolph dies. C. of Arragon. This is the year in which he supposes himself to see his Vision. C. dies. and continues in office from June 15 to August 15. Guido dalle Colonne (mentioned by Dante in his De Vulgari Eloquio) writes “The War of Troy. 133. 1294. He serves in the war waged by the Florentines upon the Pisans. of Arragon. C. January 27. VI. dies. VIII. the companion of Dante. dies. H. or first of the Priors of Florence. 104. Purg. 1301. Can Grande della Scala is born. C. Par. C. H. C. Frederick. H. Charles Martel. XXXII. Dante is mulcted by his fellow-citizens in the sum of 8000 lire. 1285. H. C. Purg. the most beloved of our Poet’s friends. Guido Cavalcanti. Pope Boniface VIII. 1291. 135. C. king of Norway. XX. 16. XIX 71. Purg. 1296. 61. XIX. king of Hungary. Cimabue. C. His preceptor. 60. The Sicilian vespers. makes war on Denmark. dies. The French defeated by the people of Forli. H. 90. Albertus Magnus dies. dies. V. C. XI. Par. C. C. Pope Martin IV. Purg. The Bianca party expels the Nera from Pistoia. XXXII. By this marriage he had five sons and a daughter. C. VII. XIX. 14. 119. 135. to be burned. dies. C. XXXIII. 28. Tribaldello de’ Manfredi betrays the city of Faenza. C. III. Purg. 127. of Arragon. C. becomes king of Sicily. Purg. XX. During his absence at Rome. Purg. C. 86. Brunetto Latini. 92. He is sentenced. Par. dies. 1282. Beatrice dies. Purg. H. 55. and Peter III. Par. C. Dante is in the battle of Campaldino. XXI. 125 . where the Florentines defeat the people of Arezzo. of France. 113. 1. die. VII. XIX. Henry II. and Purg C. and XXI. 117. Par. 23. Purg. X. 126. 1279. 41. 1281. Ottocar. 75. and Par. 59. Dante studies at the universities of Bologna and Padua. 1300. with whom he lives unhappily. comes to the throne. Pope John XXI. Purg. 1302. Haquin. C. 67.Appendixes 1277. 133. 1289. Fulcieri de’ Calboli commits great atrocities on certain of the Ghibelline party. John D’Acre. 1295. 47. Purg. C. 56. H. The French vanquished in the battle of Courtrai. 1278. Pope Nicholas III. XX. and Par. C. dies. XXIV. VIII. 135. 78. C. C. I. C. 1287. 84. 111. Dionysius succeeds to the throne of Portugal. XXIV. He marries Gemma de’ Donati. I. 101 and 110. C. king of Naples. XXXII. and is succeeded by James II. Par. Par. king of Majorca and Minorca. H. king of Cyprus. H. abdicates the papal chair. 1280. C. H. Prince Charles of Anjou is defeated and made prisoner by Rugiez de Lauria. king of Bohemia. March 10. March 9. Alonzo III. H. H. 1284. in Valdarno. 142. to the Florentines. C. H. 95. C. 109. VII. 2. Dante writes his Vita Nuova. XIX. X. XIV. 91. C. C. XI. XXVII. dies. C. C. C. 1290. visits Florence. C. Carlino de’ Pazzi betrays the castle di Piano Travigne. admiral to Peter III. VII. 97. Purg. Par. C. Philip III. C. XV. 80. if taken. 93. Purg. XXXIII. 1303. June 11. and dies in the same year. 96. dies. Par. C. son of Peter III. XIX. C. The renegade Christians assist the Saracens to recover St. C. and VII. Purg. C. C. XXXII. Purg. Clement V. C. XXXII. the painter. He is chosen chief magistrate.
108. 80. and Par. for his patron Guido Novello da Polenta. 1310. Dante visits Padua. Corso Donati. 141. C. XIX 123. dies. Philip IV. 86. XXVIII. and Par. C. C. Petrarch. C. XIX. Purg. 61.htm If you wish to download more copies of Dante’s works. C. C. C. Par. 1308. 1314. Purg. Par. VI.edu/faculty/jmanis/ jimspdf. king of Naples. The bridge over the Arno breaks down during a representation of the infernal torments exhibited on that river. C. and Par. He takes refuge at Ravenna with Guido Novello da Polenta. Par. If you wish to download more Electronic Classics Series electronic books. 9. 114. He wanders. dies. Dolcino. whose father had been banished two years before from Florence. C. C. C. dies. He appears to have been much dissatisfied with his colleagues. The Order of the Templars abolished. 81. 99. C. C. elected Pope. the fanatic. under Alessandro da Romena. XIX. The Emperor Henry of Luxemburg. Purg. C. 122. XIX. Purg.Appendixes 146. 20. 1321. 1306. as one of the early commentators reports. C. XVII. 1304. 98. Pope Clement V. C. His obsequies are sumptuously performed at Ravenna by Guido. and XXX. Dante’s political enemy. is burned. Ferdinand IV. about this time. and Par. dies. 53. C. 69. 9. H. dies. VII. C. and Par. 94. Purg. 135. XVII. John XXII. Purg. VII. under the roof of the Signori della Scala. 45. July 20. C. H. slain. 53. He seeks an asylum at Verona. He is in Lunigiana with the Marchese Marcello Malaspina. H. XVII. 1307. He joins with the exiles in an unsuccessful attack on the city of Florence. 133. XIX.htm 126 . 140.psu.edu/faculty/jmanis/ dante. and XXX. XIX. May. of a complaint brought on by disappointment at his failure in a negotiation which he had been conducting with the Venetians. 1316. 53.hn. and. C. Par.psu. XXIV. XXVII. H. Giacopo da Carrara defeated by Can Grande. king of Bohemia. The other exiles appoint Dante one of a council of twelve. is born at Arezzo. XXVI. 1305. return to http://www2. Par. 125. XIX. XXVII. by whom he had hoped to be restored to Florence. XXVII. The Emperor Albert I. 1309. over various parts of Italy. return to http://www2. of Spain. Dante dies at Ravenna. C. He is at Paris twice. Charles II. at Oxford. murdered. C. and C. Winceslaus II. Par. VIII. 1313. who himself died in the ensuing year. XXVI. IX. See his Convito. 117. July. Par. A conflagration happens at Florence.hn. XX. of France dies.
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