CS450 Computer Networks

The slides used in class are derived from the slides available on our text book companion website: http://wps.pearsoned.com/ecs_kurose_compnetw_6/ copyright 1996-2012 J.F Kurose and K.W. Ross © 2012 Maharishi University of Management All additional course materials are copyright protected by international copyright laws and remain the property of the Maharishi University of Management. The materials are accessible only for the personal use of students enrolled in this course and only for the duration of the course. Any copying and distributing are not allowed and subject to legal action.

Introduction 1-1

CS450 Computer Networks Lesson 1 Networking Overview Life is found in layers, inside and outside

Introduction 1-2

Lesson 1 Course Overview
We follow the text book (with some rearrangement of the order and exclusion of some areas) for the first 6 chapters. You can also use the 5th edition of this textbook. 1. Networking and Internet Overview 2. Application Layer 3. Transport Layer 4. Network Layer 5. Link Layer 6. Mobile Networks

6th edition Jim Kurose, Keith Ross Addison-Wesley March 2012

Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach

Introduction 1-3

Lesson 1: introduction our goal: Overview of Computer Networking and terminology see the rationale for Network Layers approach more depth. detail follows in the course as we go through each layer course approach: use Internet as example Top-down view to understand the motivation for each layer’s services Introduction 1-4 .

throughput in networks 1. loss.Lesson 1: roadmap 1. service models Introduction 1-5 .3 network core packet switching.2 network edge end systems. circuit switching. links 1.4 delay. network structure 1.1 what is the Internet? 1.5 protocol layers. access networks.

satellite transmission rate: bandwidth Packet switches: forward packets (chunks of data) routers and switches mobile network global ISP home network regional ISP wireless links wired links router institutional network Introduction 1-6 . radio. copper.What’s the Internet: “nuts and bolts” view PC server wireless laptop smartphone billions of connected computing devices: hosts = end systems running network apps communication links fiber.

IP. Skype. TCP. receiving of msgs e.11 Internet standards RFC: Request for comments IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force home network regional ISP institutional network Introduction 1-7 . HTTP.. 802.What’s the Internet: “nuts and bolts” view Internet: “network of networks” Interconnected ISPs mobile network global ISP protocols control sending.g.

… global ISP provides programming interface to apps hooks that allow sending and receiving app programs to “connect” to Internet provides service options. games. VoIP. social nets. email.What’s the Internet: a service view mobile network Infrastructure that provides services to applications: Web. ecommerce. analogous to postal service home network regional ISP institutional network Introduction 1-8 .

or other events network protocols: machines rather than humans all communication activity in Internet governed by protocols protocols define format. order of msgs sent and received among network entities. receipt Introduction 1-9 .What’s a protocol? human protocols: “what’s the time?” “I have a question” introductions … specific msgs sent … specific actions taken when msgs received. and actions taken on msg transmission.

com/kurose-ross 2:00 time <file> Q: other human protocols? Introduction 1-10 .awl.What’s a protocol? a human protocol and a computer network protocol: Hi Hi Got the time? TCP connection request TCP connection response Get http://www.

network structure 1.Lesson 1: roadmap 1.4 delay. loss. links 1. service models Introduction 1-11 . access networks.3 network core packet switching.5 protocol layers.2 network edge end systems. throughput in networks 1. circuit switching.1 what is the Internet? 1.

physical media: wired.A closer look at network structure: network edge: hosts: clients and servers servers often in data centers mobile network global ISP access networks. wireless communication links network core: interconnected routers network of networks home network regional ISP institutional network Introduction 1-12 .

company) mobile access networks keep in mind: bandwidth (bits per second) of access network? shared or dedicated? Introduction 1-13 .Access networks and physical media Q: How to connect end systems to edge router? residential access nets institutional access networks (school.

Access net: digital subscriber line (DSL) central office telephone network DSL splitter modem DSLAM voice.5 Mbps upstream transmission rate (typically < 1 Mbps) < 24 Mbps downstream transmission rate (typically < 10 Mbps) Introduction 1-14 . data transmitted at different frequencies over dedicated line to central office ISP DSL access multiplexer use existing telephone line to central office DSLAM data over DSL phone line goes to Internet voice over DSL phone line goes to telephone net < 2.

Access net: cable network cable headend … cable splitter modem V I D E O 1 V I D E O 2 V I D E O 3 V I D E O 4 V I D E O 5 V I D E O 6 D A T A 7 D A T A 8 C O N T R O L 9 Channels frequency division multiplexing: different channels transmitted in different frequency bands Introduction 1-15 .

fiber attaches homes to ISP router homes share access network to cable headend unlike DSL. 2 Mbps upstream transmission rate network of cable.Access net: cable network cable headend … cable splitter modem CMTS cable modem termination system data. which has dedicated access to central office Introduction 1-16 . TV transmitted at different frequencies over shared cable distribution network ISP HFC: hybrid fiber coax asymmetric: up to 30Mbps downstream transmission rate.

NAT wired Ethernet (100 Mbps) Introduction 1-17 .Access net: home network wireless devices to/from headend or central office often combined in single box cable or DSL modem wireless access point (54 Mbps) router. firewall.

Access net: home network Home networks – A question: What goes in/out of the cable modem? wireless devices to/from headend often combined in single box cable modem wireless access point (54 Mbps) router. firewall. NAT wired Ethernet (100 Mbps) Introduction 1-18 .

Access net: home network What goes in/out of the cable modem? • • Data Over Cable System Interface Specification (DOCSIS) DOCSIS specifies a MAC-layer protocol which is at the linklayer • wraps Ethernet packets (another link layer protocol) inside it to/from headend cable modem wireless access point (54 Mbps) router. firewall. NAT wired Ethernet (100 Mbps) Introduction 1-19 .

10Gbps transmission rates today. universities. etc 10 Mbps. 100Mbps. 1Gbps. end systems typically connect into Ethernet switch Introduction 1-20 . web servers typically used in companies.Enterprise access networks (Ethernet) institutional link to ISP (Internet) institutional router Ethernet switch institutional mail.

11b/g (WiFi): 11.Wireless access networks shared wireless access network connects end system to router via base station aka “access point” wireless LANs: within building (100 ft) 802. 10’s km between 1 and 10 Mbps 3G. 4G: LTE (long term evolution) to Internet to Internet Introduction 1-21 . 54 Mbps transmission rate wide-area wireless access provided by telco (cellular) operator.

aka link bandwidth packet transmission delay two packets. aka link capacity. of length L bits transmits packet into access network at transmission rate R link transmission rate.Host: sends packets of data host sending function: takes application message breaks into smaller chunks. L bits each 2 1 R: link transmission rate host = time needed to transmit L-bit packet into link = L (bits) R (bits/sec) 1-22 . known as packets.

radio twisted pair (TP) two insulated copper wires Category 5: 100 Mbps.g. coax unguided media: signals propagate freely. e. 1 Gpbs Ethernet Category 6: 10Gbps Introduction 1-23 .. fiber.Physical media bit: propagates between transmitter/receiver pairs physical link: what lies between transmitter & receiver guided media: signals propagate in solid media: copper.

.Physical media: coax. fiber coaxial cable: two concentric copper conductors bidirectional broadband: multiple channels on cable HFC fiber optic cable: glass fiber carrying light pulses.g. 10’s-100’s Gpbs transmission rate) low error rate: repeaters spaced far apart immune to electromagnetic noise Introduction 1-24 . each pulse a bit high-speed operation: high-speed point-to-point transmission (e.

g.. 54 Mbps wide-area (e.g. WiFi) 11Mbps. cellular) 3G cellular: ~ few Mbps satellite Kbps to 45Mbps channel (or multiple smaller channels) 270 msec end-end delay geosynchronous versus low altitude Introduction 1-25 .g.Physical media: radio signal carried in electromagnetic spectrum no physical “wire” bidirectional propagation environment effects: reflection obstruction by objects interference radio link types: terrestrial microwave e. up to 45 Mbps channels LAN (e..

links 1. service models Introduction 1-26 . access networks. throughput in networks 1. loss.2 network edge end systems.5 protocol layers. circuit switching.3 network core packet switching.4 delay.1 what is the Internet? 1. network structure 1.Lesson 1: roadmap 1.

across links on path from source to destination each packet transmitted at full link capacity Introduction 1-27 .The network core mesh of interconnected routers packet-switching: hosts break application-layer messages into packets forward packets from one router to the next.

5 Mbits R = 1.5 Mbps one-hop transmission delay = 5 sec more on delay shortly … Introduction 1-28 .Packet-switching: store-and-forward L bits per packet source 3 2 1 R bps R bps destination takes L/R seconds to transmit (push out) L-bit packet into link at R bps store and forward: entire packet must arrive at router before it can be transmitted on next link end-end delay = 2L/R (assuming zero propagation delay) one-hop numerical example: L = 7.

5 Mb/s D E queue of packets waiting for output link queuing and loss: If arrival rate (in bits) to link exceeds transmission rate of link for a period of time: packets will queue. wait to be transmitted on link packets can be dropped (lost) if memory (buffer) fills up Introduction 1-29 .Packet Switching: queueing delay. loss A B R = 100 Mb/s C R = 1.

Two key network-core functions routing: determines sourcedestination route taken by packets routing algorithms routing algorithm forwarding: move packets from router’s input to appropriate router output local forwarding table header value output link 0100 0101 0111 1001 3 2 2 1 1 3 2 dest address in arriving packet’s header Network Layer 4-30 .

dedicated resources: no sharing circuit-like (guaranteed) performance circuit segment idle if not used by call (no sharing) Commonly used in traditional telephone networks Introduction 1-31 . reserved for “call” between source & dest: In diagram.Alternative core: circuit switching end-end resources allocated to. each link has four circuits. call gets 2nd circuit in top link and 1st circuit in right link.

Circuit switching: FDM versus TDM Example: FDM 4 users frequency time TDM frequency time Introduction 1-32 .

0004 * Q: how did we get value 0.Packet switching versus circuit switching packet switching allows more users to use network! example: 1 Mb/s link each user: • 100 kb/s when “active” • active 10% of time N users 1 Mbps link circuit-switching: 10 users packet switching: with 35 users. probability > 10 active at same time is less than .0004? Q: what happens if > 35 users ? * Check out the online interactive exercises for more examples Introduction 1-33 .

congestion control Q: How to provide circuit-like behavior? bandwidth guarantees needed for audio/video apps still an unsolved problem (chapter 7) Q: human analogies of reserved resources (circuit switching) versus on-demand allocation (packet-switching)? Introduction 1-34 . no call setup excessive congestion possible: packet delay and loss protocols needed for reliable data transfer.Packet switching versus circuit switching is packet switching a “slam dunk winner?” great for bursty data resource sharing simpler.

Internet structure: network of networks End systems connect to Internet via access ISPs (Internet Service Providers) Residential. company and university ISPs Access ISPs in turn must be interconnected. So that any two hosts can send packets to each other Resulting network of networks is very complex Evolution was driven by economics and national policies Let’s take a stepwise approach to describe current Internet structure .

Internet structure: network of networks Question: given millions of access ISPs. how to connect them together? access net access net access net access net access net access net access net access net access net access net access net access net access net access net access net access net .

access net access net access net access net access net access net access net access net .Internet structure: network of networks Option: connect each access ISP to every other access ISP? access net access net access net access net access net access net access net access net connecting each access ISP to each other directly doesn’t scale: O(N2) connections.

Internet structure: network of networks Option: connect each access ISP to a global transit ISP? Customer and provider ISPs have economic agreement. access net access net access net access net access net access net access net access net global ISP access net access net access net access net access net access net access net access net .

there will be competitors …. access net access net access net access net access net access net access net ISP A access net ISP B ISP C access net access net access net access net access net access net access net access net .Internet structure: network of networks But if one global ISP is viable business.

there will be competitors …. which must be interconnected Internet exchange point access access access net access net access net net net access net IXP ISP A IXP access net access net ISP B access net access net ISP C access net access net peering link access net access net access net access net .Internet structure: network of networks But if one global ISP is viable business.

Internet structure: network of networks … and regional networks may arise to connect access nets to ISPS access net access net access net access net access net access net IXP ISP A IXP access net access net ISP B access net access net ISP C access net access net access net regional net access net access net access net .

to bring services. content close to end users access net access net access net access net access net access net IXP ISP A access net Content provider network access net IXP ISP B access net access net ISP B access net access net access net regional net access net access net access net . Akamai ) may run their own network. Microsoft.Internet structure: network of networks … and content provider networks (e..g. Google.

regional ISPs Introduction 1-43 ..Internet structure: network of networks Tier 1 ISP IXP Regional ISP Tier 1 ISP IXP Regional ISP Google IXP access ISP access ISP access ISP access ISP access ISP access ISP access ISP access ISP at center: small # of well-connected large networks “tier-1” commercial ISPs (e. Level 3. Google): private network that connects it data centers to Internet. often bypassing tier-1. Sprint.g. national & international coverage content provider network (e. AT&T.g. NTT).

Sprint POP: point-of-presence to/from backbone peering … … … … to/from customers … Introduction 1-44 .Tier-1 ISP: e..g.

access networks.1 what is the Internet? 1.5 protocol layers. links 1.2 network edge end systems. throughput in networks 1. service models Introduction 1-45 . network structure 1.3 network core packet switching.4 delay. circuit switching. loss.Lesson 1: roadmap 1.

How do loss and delay occur? packets queue in router buffers packet arrival rate to link (temporarily) exceeds output link capacity packets queue. wait for turn packet being transmitted (delay) A B packets queueing (delay) free (available) buffers: arriving packets dropped (loss) if no free buffers Introduction 1-46 .

Four sources of packet delay transmission A B nodal processing propagation queueing dnodal = dproc + dqueue + dtrans + dprop dproc: nodal processing check bit errors determine output link typically < msec dqueue: queueing delay time waiting at output link for transmission depends on congestion level of router Introduction 1-47 .

prop delay .Four sources of packet delay transmission A B nodal processing propagation queueing dnodal = dproc + dqueue + dtrans + dprop dtrans: transmission delay: L: packet length (bits) R: link bandwidth (bps) dtrans = L/R dtrans and dprop very different dprop: propagation delay: d: length of physical link s: propagation speed in medium (~2x108 m/sec) dprop = d/s Introduction 1-48 * Check out the Java applet for an interactive animation on trans vs.

html .pearsoncmg. Propagation Delay Check out companion web site: http://wps.com/ecs_kurose_compnetw_6/ Applet for transmission delay vs.com/aw/aw_kurose_network_2/appl ets/transmission/delay.pearsoned. propagation delay: http://media.Transmission Delay vs.

Caravan analogy 100 km ten-car caravan toll booth toll booth 100 km cars “propagate” at 100 km/hr toll booth takes 12 sec to service car (bit transmission time) car~bit. caravan ~ packet Q: How long until caravan is lined up before 2nd toll booth? time to “push” entire caravan through toll booth onto highway = 12*10 = 120 sec time for last car to propagate from 1st to 2nd toll both: 100km/(100km/hr)= 1 hr A: 62 minutes Introduction 1-50 .

1st car arrives at second booth.Caravan analogy (more) 100 km ten-car caravan toll booth toll booth 100 km suppose cars now “propagate” at 1000 km/hr and suppose toll booth now takes one min to service a car Q: Will cars arrive to 2nd booth before all cars serviced at first booth? A: Yes! after 7 min. Introduction 1-51 . three cars still at 1st booth.

average delay infinite! * Check out the Java applet for an interactive animation on queuing and loss La/R ~ 0 La/R -> 1 Introduction 1-52 . queueing delay large La/R > 1: more “work” arriving than can be serviced.Queueing delay (revisited) R: link bandwidth (bps) L: packet length (bits) a: average packet arrival rate average queueing delay traffic intensity = La/R La/R ~ 0: avg. queueing delay small La/R -> 1: avg.

“Real” Internet delays and routes what do “real” Internet delay & loss look like? traceroute program: provides delay measurement from source to router along endend Internet path towards destination. For all i: sends three packets that will reach router i on path towards destination router i will return packets to sender sender times interval between transmission and reply. 3 probes 3 probes 3 probes Introduction 1-53 .

“Real” Internet delays, routes
traceroute: gaia.cs.umass.edu to www.eurecom.fr
3 delay measurements from gaia.cs.umass.edu to cs-gw.cs.umass.edu
1 cs-gw (128.119.240.254) 1 ms 1 ms 2 ms 2 border1-rt-fa5-1-0.gw.umass.edu (128.119.3.145) 1 ms 1 ms 2 ms 3 cht-vbns.gw.umass.edu (128.119.3.130) 6 ms 5 ms 5 ms 4 jn1-at1-0-0-19.wor.vbns.net (204.147.132.129) 16 ms 11 ms 13 ms 5 jn1-so7-0-0-0.wae.vbns.net (204.147.136.136) 21 ms 18 ms 18 ms 6 abilene-vbns.abilene.ucaid.edu (198.32.11.9) 22 ms 18 ms 22 ms 7 nycm-wash.abilene.ucaid.edu (198.32.8.46) 22 ms 22 ms 22 ms trans-oceanic 8 62.40.103.253 (62.40.103.253) 104 ms 109 ms 106 ms link 9 de2-1.de1.de.geant.net (62.40.96.129) 109 ms 102 ms 104 ms 10 de.fr1.fr.geant.net (62.40.96.50) 113 ms 121 ms 114 ms 11 renater-gw.fr1.fr.geant.net (62.40.103.54) 112 ms 114 ms 112 ms 12 nio-n2.cssi.renater.fr (193.51.206.13) 111 ms 114 ms 116 ms 13 nice.cssi.renater.fr (195.220.98.102) 123 ms 125 ms 124 ms 14 r3t2-nice.cssi.renater.fr (195.220.98.110) 126 ms 126 ms 124 ms 15 eurecom-valbonne.r3t2.ft.net (193.48.50.54) 135 ms 128 ms 133 ms 16 194.214.211.25 (194.214.211.25) 126 ms 128 ms 126 ms 17 * * * * means no response (probe lost, router not replying) 18 * * * 19 fantasia.eurecom.fr (193.55.113.142) 132 ms 128 ms 136 ms
* Do some traceroutes from exotic countries at www.traceroute.org
Introduction 1-54

Packet loss
queue (aka buffer) preceding link in buffer has finite capacity packet arriving to full queue dropped (aka lost) lost packet may be retransmitted by previous node, by source end system, or not at all
buffer (waiting area)

A B

packet being transmitted

packet arriving to full buffer is lost
* Check out the Java applet for an interactive animation on queuing and loss
Introduction 1-55

Queuing and Packet Loss
Check out applets on our companion web site: http://wps.pearsoned.com/ecs_kurose_compnetw_6/ Applet for queuing and packet loss: http://media.pearsoncmg.com/aw/aw_kurose_network_2/appl ets/queuing/queuing.html

with server sends bits file of F bits (fluid) into pipe to send to client linkpipe that can carry capacity Rs bits/secat rate fluid Rs bits/sec) linkpipe that can carry capacity Rc bits/secat rate fluid Rc bits/sec) Introduction 1-57 .Throughput throughput: rate (bits/time unit) at which bits transferred between sender/receiver instantaneous: rate at given point in time average: rate over longer period of time server.

Throughput (more) Rs < Rc What is average end-end throughput? Rs bits/sec Rc bits/sec Rs > Rc What is average end-end throughput? Rs bits/sec Rc bits/sec bottleneck link link on end-end path that constrains end-end throughput Introduction 1-58 .

Throughput: Internet scenario per-connection endend throughput: min(Rc.Rs.R/10) in practice: Rc or Rs is often bottleneck Rs Rs R Rc Rc Rc Rs 10 connections (fairly) share backbone bottleneck link R bits/sec Introduction 1-59 .

1 what is the Internet? 1. links 1. loss.2 network edge end systems.4 delay.5 protocol layers. network structure 1. circuit switching. throughput in networks 1. service models Introduction 1-60 .Lesson 1: roadmap 1. access networks.3 network core packet switching.

with many “pieces”: hosts routers links of various media applications protocols hardware.Protocol “layers” Networks are complex. software Question: is there any hope of organizing structure of network? …. or at least our discussion of networks? Introduction 1-61 .

Organization of air travel ticket (purchase) baggage (check) gates (load) runway takeoff airplane routing airplane routing ticket (complain) baggage (claim) gates (unload) runway landing airplane routing a series of steps Introduction 1-62 .

Layering of airline functionality ticket (purchase) baggage (check) gates (load) runway (takeoff) airplane routing departure airport ticket (complain) baggage (claim gates (unload) runway (land) airplane routing airplane routing airplane routing arrival airport ticket baggage gate takeoff/landing airplane routing intermediate air-traffic control centers layers: each layer implements a service via its own internal-layer actions relying on services provided by layer below Introduction 1-63 .

change in gate procedure doesn’t affect rest of system layering considered harmful? Introduction 1-64 . updating of system change of implementation of layer’s service transparent to rest of system e.. relationship of complex system’s pieces layered reference model for discussion modularization eases maintenance.Why layering? dealing with complex systems: explicit structure allows identification.g.

Internet protocol stack application: supporting network applications FTP. UDP network: routing of datagrams from source to destination IP. 802. PPP physical: bits “on the wire” Introduction 1-65 . HTTP application transport network link physical transport: process-process data transfer TCP. SMTP.111 (WiFi). routing protocols link: data transfer between neighboring network elements Ethernet.

e. machine-specific conventions session: synchronization. compression. recovery of data exchange Internet stack “missing” these layers! these services. must be implemented in application needed? application presentation session transport network link physical Introduction 1-66 .. encryption. if needed. checkpointing.ISO/OSI reference model presentation: allow applications to interpret meaning of data.g.

source message segment frame Ht M M M M datagram Hn Ht Hl Hn Ht application transport network link physical Encapsulation link physical switch destination M Ht Hn Ht Hl Hn Ht M M M Hn Ht Hl Hn Ht M M application transport network link physical network link physical Hn Ht M router Introduction 1-67 .

throughput layering. service models Introduction 1-68 . core.Introduction: summary Internet overview what’s a protocol? network edge. delay. access network packet-switching versus circuit-switching Internet structure performance: loss.

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