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com Kyoto Protocol and Its effects on biodegradable plastics Kyoto protocol and its effects on biodegradable plastic is a correlation of the objectives set out by the Kyoto protocol and the objectives that the biodegradable plastic was made to achieve. Kyoto is a set of rules set out by the UNFCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate). Kyoto protocol was aimed at combating global warming. There has been an increased emission of dangerous gases to the atmosphere. If the emission is not stopped and lowered, there will be increased temperatures on our planed which will enhance deforestation and lead to extinction of some of the world features such as the snow on mountain tops. Global warming is the increase in the atmosphere temperature caused by the greenhouse effect. Greenhouse effect is the trapping of heat in the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases. The greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, Sulphur hexafluoride and water vapor. The main aims of Kyoto protocol Kyoto protocol is a treaty among many nations. The treaty is aimed at stabilizing the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The amount of the greenhouse gases must be minimized to prevent the dangerous effects they have on the climatic system. The major gases that are to be minimized are the human emitted gases. The treaty which was adopted in Kyoto Japan came into use in February 2005. Over 190 countries have approved the protocol. USA has not approved the treaty with Canada rejecting the contents of the protocol. The countries that have signed the treaty agree to reduction of the hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons gases. The treaty states that if the countries that have signed the treaty continue with the emission of the gases beyond the levels set out by the treaty, then the country in question has to engage in emission trading. The trading entails buying credits from another country which has approved the treaty but has lower emission than the set levels in order to offset the high level with a lower level of emission. The treaty sets out to reduce the emissions to reduce the emission of the greenhouse gases by 5.2% of the levels that existed in 1990 by the end of 2012. The figure of 5.2% does not target a single country but the cumulative totals of all the participating countries. Ratification of the Kyoto protocol Almost all countries in the world have shown support for the Kyoto protocol but few have approved the protocol. USA has refused to ratify the protocol citing on its interference with the economy of the country. Most of the industrialized countries are the main emitters of the greenhouse gases. The gases are mostly produced by the industries. Oil products are one of the major sources of the greenhouse gases when it is burned down to produce energy. USA is leading in emission of the greenhouse gases. With time, China has an increase in the emission and soon overtaking most of

the countries that were on the lead. The reason for the increase in China is the increased outsourcing of the industries that were once in USA and other countries to China in search of cheaper labor. The protocol has not seen any success as many countries that ratified the treaty are increasing the emission instead of reducing the amounts of gases emitted. Some of the major contributors of the greenhouses have not signed the treaty which reduces the impact of the treaty. Sources of greenhouse gases that are related to packaging Synthetic packaging is made from oil products, the process uses oil product as the main raw material and again as the source of energy. Some of the countries that could want to use the plastic but lack oil wells are bent to transport the oil or the finished products. When the oil or products are moved over long distances, it means that more fuel is used leading to more emission of the gases. More gases are released when the plastics get incinerated. There are other sources of emission which include energy usage whether fuel or electricity, transportation and industrial products but each action has a positive contribution towards the increase in the emission of the greenhouse gases. Role of biodegradable plastics in reduction of the greenhouse gases Biodegradable plasticscontribute immensely in the reduction of greenhouse gases. The contribution begins from the source of raw materials used. Most of the biodegradable plastics use farm produce as the main raw material unlike the synthetic plastics which use oil based raw materials. Oil products are adversely related to the emission of the greenhouse gases, avoiding the use of the oil products to use farm based resources will make a significant contribution to the reduction of the greenhouse gases. When countries that need to use packaging products lack the oil resource they can avoid it by shifting to using biodegradable plastics. Biodegradable plastics can be made from several farm materials which include wood pulp and starch from plants. Almost all countries can sustain the growth of plants that can be used to make biodegradable plastics. When the plants are used more plants can be planted. The industries that make biodegradable plastic can be installed near the source of the raw material to minimize the transportation so that the final thing that is transported if the finished products. This will significantly have an impact in the reduction of greenhouse gases. Biodegradable plasticswere created to biodegrade, the biodegradation takes place over a short duration that we can be patient and see the plastics completely biodegrading in less than a couple years. This characteristic ends the desire to burn waste from biodegradable plastics which was traditionally the case because we could not stand to see heaps of littered plastics which remain in the same spot without change in size by decomposition. The biodegradable plastics can be added to anaerobic biogas production plants to be converted to biogas which is a green source of energy. The end products of decomposition of biodegradable plastics is biomass,

the biomass is added back to the garden to improve our soil by acting as compost. In the Kyoto protocol and its effects on biodegradable plastics, the plastics contribution is not readily visible but goes a long way in its contribution to less greenhouse gas emission.