The Rules and Practices of Extreme Programming.

Planning
• • • • • • • • • User stories are written. Release planning creates the schedule. Make frequent small releases. The Project Velocity is measured. The project is divided into iterations. Iteration planning starts each iteration. Move people around. A stand-up meeting starts each day. Fix XP when it breaks. • • • • • • • • •

Coding
The customer is always available. Code must be written to agreed standards. Code the unit test first. All production code is pair programmed. Only one pair integrates code at a time. Integrate often. Use collective code ownership. Leave optimization till last. No overtime.

Designing
• • • • • • Simplicity. Choose a system metaphor. Use CRC cards for design sessions. Create spike solutions to reduce risk. No functionality is added early. Refactor whenever and wherever possible.

Testing
1. All code must have unit tests. 2. All code must pass all unit tests before it can be released. 3. When a bug is found tests are created. 4. Acceptance tests are run often and the score is published.

User Stories
User stories serve the same purpose as use cases but are not the same. They are used to create time estimates for the release planning meeting. They are also used instead of a large requirements document. User Stories are written by the customers as things that the system needs to do for them. They are similar to usage scenarios, except that they are not limited to describing a user interface. They are in the format of about three sentences of text written by the customer in the customer’s terminology without techno-syntax. User stories also drive the creation of the acceptance tests. One or more automated acceptance tests must be created to verify the user story has been correctly implemented. One of the biggest misunderstandings with user stories is how they differ from traditional requirements specifications. The biggest difference is in the level of detail. User stories should only provide enough detail to make a reasonably low risk estimate of how long the story will take to implement. When the time comes to implement the story developers will go to the customer and receive a detailed description of the requirements face to face. Developers estimate how long the stories might take to implement. Each story will get a 1, 2 or 3 week estimate in "ideal development time". This ideal development time is how long it would take to implement the story in code if there were no distractions, no other assignments, and you knew exactly what to do. Longer than 3 weeks means you need to break the story down further. Less than 1 week and you are at too detailed a level, combine some stories. About 80 user stories plus or minus 20 is a perfect number to create a release plan during release planning. Another difference between stories and a requirements document is a focus on user needs. You should try to avoid details of specific technology, data base layout, and algorithms. You should try to keep stories focused on user needs and benefits as opposed to specifying GUI layouts.

Release Planning
A release planning meeting is used to create a release plan, which lays out the overall project. The release plan is then used to create iteration plans for each individual iteration. It is important for technical people to make the technical decisions and business people to make the business decisions. Release planning has a set of rules that allows everyone involved with the project to make their own decisions. The rules define a method to negotiate a schedule everyone can commit to. The essence of the release planning meeting is for the development team to estimate each user story in terms of ideal programming weeks. An ideal week is how long you imagine it would take to implement that story if you had absolutely nothing else to do. No dependencies, no extra work, but do include tests. The customer then decides what story is the most important or has the highest priority to be completed. User stories are printed or written on cards. Together developers and customers move the cards around on a large table to create a setof stories to be implemented as the first (or next) release. A useable, testable system that makes good business sense delivered early is desired.You may plan by time or by scope. The project velocity is used to determine either how many stories can be implemented before a given date (time) or how long a set of stories will take to finish (scope). When planning by time multiply the number of iterations by the project velocity to determine how many user stories can be completed. When planning by scope divide the total weeks of estimated user stories by the project velocity to determine how many iterations till the release is ready. Individual iterations are planned in detail just before each iteration begins and not in advance. The release planning meeting was called the planning game and the rules can be found at the Portland Pattern Repository. When the final release plan is created and is displeasing to management it is tempting to just change the estimates for the user stories. You must not do this. The estimates are valid and will be required as-is during the iteration planning