Chemistry Assessment Task: Research notes Methods and Processes used to detect Radiation  Photographic Film  On its own

, a qualitative measure of radiation – indicates presence of Radiation, but not the amount and type  Used with plastic and metal shielding in monitors to determine amount of radiation nuclear technicians are exposed to when working – film goes dark in presence of Gamma Radiation as most of the Alpha and Beta is already blocked out by the shielding Geiger-Müller Counter  A gas-filled device comprising of two electrodes that have a consistent potential difference applied across them – Cathode is outer metallic surface, anode is the inner metallic electrode  The gas (usually Argon or other noble gases) present between the electrodes becomes ionized under the presence of radiation, which causes a discharge of electrons and ions  When a large enough voltage is applied, electrostatic attraction causes electrons to travel to the anode, whilst the positively charged ions move towards the cathode. This movement generates s a spark between both electrodes, which is then sent and recorded on a electronic counter (Units: Counts per minute)  Works best with alpha and beta emitters because of their high ionization power – but can also be used to detect gamma emissions  Better than Photographic film because it gives a quantitative measure of the amount of radiation being emitted in a room/source, but not its identity Gamma Ray cameras (or Scintillation counter)  Device that measures ionizing radiation using a crystal and a photomultiplier securely encased in a tube  Radiation enters the tube via an opening and collides with a crystal (Sodium Iodide (NaI)) which produces a “flash” of light – the greater the energy of the radiation, the flash of light is more intense  Flash is detected by a photomultiplier which amplifies them so that they can be recorded as a electrical signal (Units: Counts per minute/microentgens per hour  Used in medicine to detect Gamma ray emission from the body upon consumption of a radioisotope Ionisation Chamber  It is the simplest of all gas-filled radiation detectors - comprises of an outer metal conductor and an inner, central anode, and low potential difference across them  Utilises a principle very similar to that of the GM counter – radiation enters the chamber and ionizes either pressurized air or carbon dioxide present between the electrodes, causing a discharge of electrons and ions that move to the electrodes and generate an electric current between them, producing a reading on an attached meter  Less sensitive than a GM counter because of low Voltage, and type of gas being used  Used mainly for Gamma and X-Ray detection  Common readout unit: roentgen per hour (R/hr)

Radiation is passed through suspicious food or surgical equipment. film indicates whether there are cracks or releasing Gamma defects in the welds or joints – this will be radiation in the process 60 depicted by a higher concentration of gamma Co -> 60Ni + -1e + ϒ rays in those areas  Sterilisation of spices and certain foods.When substance tagged with Tc-99m tracer is injected into the body. which kills any live bacteria or living tissue without ionizing the rest of the substance In  Artificially produced from  Radioactive Tracer in medical diagnosis medicine: the beta decay of . or medical equipment .As this happens. brain. heart. it can pass through substances without ionizing those particles – good for both sterilization and radiography  Gamma rays have high penetration power – helps kill foreign bacteria in food and cells in medical equipment  As it is a Strong emitter.the pattern imprinted on the photographic form isotopic Nickel. it travels to and  The “m” in Tc-99m stands concentrates immediately in the for metastable.7 years  Allows same isotope it to be used over a long period of time and is low maintenance. Tc-99m is decaying. provided it is placed in a sealed container  Very short half life (6 hours) – safe for the human body as it quickly decays during this time  Various oxidation states enable it to form compounds with chemical properties that lead to concentration in the organ of interest eg. liver and bones  Emits low intensity gamma rays and low energy beta particles – makes it less damaging to human tissue. which chemicals are readily absorbed by particular 99m itself is produced in parts of the body eg.used to detect cracks and defects in welds and joints without physically damaging the  Neutron bombardment of material commonly found Cobalt. but still powerful enough to be detected by the Gamma Ray Camera . Tc -> 99Tc + ϒ allowing its path and concentration to be traced out using a Gamma Ray Camera. organ/tissue where the tagged substance is  Tc-99m naturally decays naturally absorbed to Tc-99 by emitting a . low amounts are required in order to be effectively used. Glucose by the brain. knowing that certain Technetium Molybendum-99. 99 Mo -> 99mTc + -1e + energy .Radiopharmacists. nuclear reactors from form compounds with Tc-99m to use as a Uranium-235 tracer to pinpoint the location of tumors. gamma ray in the process 99m releasing Gamma rays that can be detected. therefore more economically viable in industry applications  Long half-life – 5. lungs.Isotope In industry: Cobalt-60 How it is produced Uses  Artificially produced in a  Gamma radiography nuclear reactor . allowing examiners to successfully diagnose that part of the body Properties that complement its usage  Strong Beta and Gamma emitter –as Gamma rays have low ionization power.beams of radiation from sealed capsule pass 59 causes it to capture through inspected metal from one side and one: 59 onto a piece of photographic film on the Co + 0n -> 60Co + ϒ other side  Undergoes Beta decay to .

org/C003973F/Peace/Industry/ Loucopoulos http://www.html .epa.pdf http://www.Bibliography http://www.htm http://www.kewpid.html http://www.anl.html medicines_and_radioisotopes http://www.htm Spotlight Chemistry: HSC Volume Textbook http://www.pdf Carson P. Heffernan

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