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Gasdynamics

Chen-Ching Ting
May 15, 2005
Contents
1 Calorically gas 1
1.1 Calorically gas relations with the start condition u
0
= 0 . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Calorically gas relations with the start condition u
1
= 0 . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 Viscous ow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4 Relation between Reynolds number and Mach number in a viscous ow . . 4
1.5 Normal shock relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.5.1 Hugoniot equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.6 Oblique shock and expansion waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.6.1 Shock polar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.6.2 Prandtl-Meyer expansion waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.7 Reynolds number calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2 Transition of laminar-turbulence 9
i
Chapter 1
Calorically gas
The special heat capacity for Calorically air is =
c
p
c
v
= 1.4 (see [2] pages 17-19)
Adiabatic process: One in which no heat is added to or taken away from the system.
Reversible process: One in which no dissipative phenomena occur.
Isentropic process: One which is both adiabatic and reversible.
1.1 Calorically gas relations with the start condition
u
0
= 0
Here is for calorical gas and thermical gas (siehe [2] page 18).
c
p
c
v
= R
1
c
v
c
p
=
R
c
p
=
c
p
c
v
(1.1)
1
1

=
R
c
p
(1.2)
That means
_
_
_
c
p
=
R
1
c
v
=
R
1
(1.3)
The sound speed is
a
2
= RT (1.4)
c
p
T =
R
1
T
=
a
2
1
(1.5)
1
CHAPTER 1. CALORICALLY GAS 2
For calorically perfect gas are
_
_
_
h = c
p
T
e = c
v
T
(1.6)
Where h: enthalpy and e: interior energy are.
The results from the energy equation is showed here (see [2] pages 57-63).
h
0
= h +
u
2
2
(1.7)
c
p
T
0
= c
p
T +
u
2
2
(1.8)

a
2
0
1
=
a
2
1
+
u
2
2
, (see Gleichung(1.3)) (1.9)

a
2
0
a
2
= 1 + (
1
2
)(
u
2
a
2
) (1.10)

a
2
0
a
2
=
T
0
T
= 1 +
1
2
Ma
2
, (see Gleichung(1.4)) (1.11)
For a isentropic gas relation is
p
0
p
= (

(1.12)
= (
T
0
T
)

1
(1.13)
That means
p
0
p
= (
T
0
T
)

1
= (1 +
1
2
Ma
2
)

1
(1.14)
p
p
0
= (1 +
1
2
Ma
2
)


1
(1.15)

= (
T
0
T
)
1
1
= (1 +
1
2
Ma
2
)
1
1
(1.16)

0
= (1 +
1
2
Ma
2
)

1
1
(1.17)
The data of free stream can be calculated with known pressure p
0
, p, T
0
and = 1.4 for
air
Ma =

[(
p
0
p
)
1

1](
2
1
) (1.18)
a
0
=
_
RT
0
(1.19)
T =
T
0
1 +
1
2
Ma
2
(1.20)
a =
_
RT (1.21)
CHAPTER 1. CALORICALLY GAS 3
u = Ma a (1.22)

0
=
p
0
RT
0
(1.23)
=
0
(1 +
1
2
Ma
2
)

1
1
(1.24)
1.2 Calorically gas relations with the start condition
u
1
= 0
The results from the energy equation is showed here (see [2] pages 57-63).
h
1
+
u
2
1
2
= h
2
+
u
2
2
2
(1.25)
c
p
T
1
+
u
2
1
2
= c
p
T
2
+
u
2
2
2
(1.26)

a
2
1
1
+
u
2
1
2
=
a
2
2
1
+
u
2
2
2
, (see Gleichung(1.3)) (1.27)

a
2
1
a
2
2
= 1 + (
1
2
)(
u
2
2
a
2
2
) (
1
2
)(
u
2
1
a
2
2
)
= 1 + (
1
2
)(
u
2
2
a
2
2
) (
1
2
)(
u
2
1
a
2
1
)(
a
2
1
a
2
2
) (1.28)

_
1 + (
1
2
)(
u
2
1
a
2
1
)
_
(
a
2
1
a
2
2
) = 1 + (
1
2
)(
u
2
2
a
2
2
) (1.29)

_
1 + (
1
2
)Ma
2
1
_
(
a
2
1
a
2
2
) = 1 + (
1
2
)Ma
2
2
(1.30)

a
2
1
a
2
2
=
T
1
T
2
=
1 +
1
2
Ma
2
2
1 +
1
2
Ma
2
1
(see Gleichung(1.4)) (1.31)
For a isentropic gas relation is
p
1
p
2
= (

2
)

(1.32)
= (
T
1
T
2
)

1
(1.33)
That means
p
1
p
2
= (
T
1
T
2
)

1
=
_
1 +
1
2
Ma
2
2
1 +
1
2
Ma
2
1
_

1
(1.34)

p
2
p
1
=
_
1 +
1
2
Ma
2
2
1 +
1
2
Ma
2
1
_


1
(1.35)

2
= (
T
1
T
2
)
1
1
=
_
1 +
1
2
Ma
2
2
1 +
1
2
Ma
2
1
_ 1
1
(1.36)

1
=
_
1 +
1
2
Ma
2
2
1 +
1
2
Ma
2
1
_

1
1
(1.37)
CHAPTER 1. CALORICALLY GAS 4
1.3 Viscous ow
The most commonly used expression for is Sutherlands law(see [1], page 242).

ref
= (
T
T
ref
)
3/2
T
ref
+ S
T + S
(1.38)
where for air
_

ref
= 1.789 10
5
kg/ms
T
ref
= 288K
S = 110K
1.4 Relation between Reynolds number and Mach
number in a viscous ow
Here is used for iteration with Mach number. The Steps are used follow. To calculate the
data of AIA trisonics wind tunnel use the program ma-re01.c and ma-re02.c.
1. Dene Mach number from 0 to 3 with step 0.01.
2. Temperature will be got from the Mach number.
T =
T
0
1 +
1

Ma
2
(1.39)
If T
0
is dened as a value. e.g. T
0
= 293.15K
3. The sound speed (a) and Mach number are dened as follow:
a =
_
RT (1.40)
Ma =
v
a
(1.41)
The velocity of ow is solved by Ma and a.
4. Here can use the gas state function to solve density.
p
0
=
0
RT
0
(1.42)

0
=
p
0
RT
0
(1.43)
=
0
(1 +
1

Ma
2
)

1
1
(1.44)
If p
0
is dened as a value. e.g. p
0
= 1000bar.
5. The Reynolds number will be solved by this form:
Re =
vL

(1.45)
L is the length of model and is become from Sutherlands law (see chapter 1.3).
CHAPTER 1. CALORICALLY GAS 5
1.5 Normal shock relations
The isentropic one dimensional stream for calorically gas is valid
_

1
u
1
=
2
u
2
(continuity)
p
1
+
1
u
2
1
= p
2
+
2
u
2
2
(momentum)
h
1
+
u
2
1
2
= h
2
+
u
2
2
2
(energy)
(1.46)
The data behind the normal shock wave with known Mach number of free stream (Ma
1
)
for = 1.4 is valid (see [2] pages 64-73)
Ma
2
=

_
1 + (
1
2
)Ma
2
1
Ma
2
1

1
2
(1.47)

1
=
( + 1)Ma
2
1
2 + ( 1)Ma
2
1
(1.48)
p
2
p
1
= 1 +
2
+ 1
(Ma
2
1
1) (1.49)
T
2
T
1
=
_
1 +
2
+ 1
(Ma
2
1
1)
__
2 + ( 1)Ma
2
1
( + 1)Ma
2
1
_
(1.50)
1.5.1 Hugoniot equation
e
2
e
1
=
p
1
+ p
2
2
(v
1
v
2
) (1.51)
Where e: interior energy, v: velocity and p: static pressure are.
For calorically perfect gas is e = c
v
T and T =
pv
R
. The Hugoniot equation equation(1.51)
become
e
2
e
1
=
p
1
+ p
2
2
(v
1
v
2
) (1.52)
c
v
(T
2
T
1
) =
p
1
+ p
2
2
(v
1
v
2
) (1.53)

c
v
R
(p
2
v
2
p
1
v
1
) =
p
1
+ p
2
2
(v
1
v
2
) (1.54)

1
1
(p
2
v
2
p
1
v
1
) =
p
1
+ p
2
2
(v
1
v
2
), (see equation(1.3)) (1.55)

1
1
(p
2
v
2
p
1
v
1
) =
p
1
2
(v
1
v
2
) +
p
2
2
(v
1
v
2
) (1.56)

1
1
[(
p
2
p
1
)v
2
v
1
] =
1
2
(v
1
v
2
) +
1
2
(
p
2
p
1
)(v
1
v
2
) (1.57)

1
1
(
p
2
p
1
)v
2

1
2
(
p
2
p
1
)(v
1
v
2
) =
1
2
(v
1
v
2
) +
1
1
v
1
(1.58)
(
p
2
p
1
)[
1
1
v
2

1
2
(v
1
v
2
)] =
1
2
(v
1
v
2
) +
1
1
v
1
(1.59)

p
2
p
1
=
(
+1
1
)
v
1
v
2
1
+1
1

v
1
v
2
(1.60)
CHAPTER 1. CALORICALLY GAS 6
1.6 Oblique shock and expansion waves
1.6.1 Shock polar

p
2
p
1
relation
This shock polar can show the relation between wedge angle and proportion of pressure
in front of shock wave and behind shock wave.
V
x
V
y
relation (hodograph plane)
This shock polar can show the relation between X-component and X-component of ow
velocity. (see [2] pages 115-119)
1.6.2 Prandtl-Meyer expansion waves
(see [2] pages 130-146)
1. Mach-Zahl der freie Anstromung M
1
ist bekannt (siehe Gleichung(1.18)).
2. Anhand Tabelle A.5 (nach [2] pages 637-639) mit M
1
sind (M
1
) und (M
1
) bekannt.
Oder direkt rechnen mit der folgen Formel.
From [2] pages 130-134 is the dierential equation for Prandtl-Meyer ow:
(Ma) = sin
1
1
Ma
(1.61)
D.h.
(Ma
1
) = sin
1
1
Ma
1
(1.62)
Die wird mit folgen Formel berechnet.
d =

Ma
2
1
dV
V
(1.63)

2
_

1
d =
Ma
2
_
Ma
1

Ma
2
1
dV
V
(1.64)

2
_

1
d =
2
0, (
1
= 0)
= (Ma
2
) (Ma
1
) (1.65)
Hier wird (Ma) mit der folgen Formel berechnet.
(Ma) =

+ 1
1
tan
1

1
+ 1
(Ma
2
1) tan
1

Ma
2
1 (1.66)
D.h.
(Ma
1
) =

+ 1
1
tan
1

1
+ 1
(Ma
2
1
1) tan
1
_
Ma
2
1
1 (1.67)
CHAPTER 1. CALORICALLY GAS 7
3.
2
ist bekannt. Da Anstellwinkel von Keil wird gegeben werden.
4. Anhand
2
= (Ma
2
) (Ma
1
) ist (Ma
2
) bekannt.
D.h.
(Ma
2
) =
2
+ (Ma
1
) (1.68)
5. Anhand Tabelle A.5 (nach [2] pages 637-639) mit (Ma
2
) sind Ma
2
und (Ma
2
)
bekannt. Oder berechnet direkt mit der Iteration von Ma
2
, um (Ma
2
) zur uck
anzupassen.
D.h. einsetzen z.B. Ma
2
von 1.0005 bis 4 mit step von 0.0001. Danach zur uck
zu rechnen die (Ma
2
) Werte und bis die (Ma
2
) ist gleich (Ma
2
) =
2
+(Ma
1
).
Hier ist die Ma
2
Werte gesuchte Mach-Zahl, die hinter der Expansion ist.
6. Temperaturverhaltnis und Druckverhaltnis werden durch isentropic ow und bekan-
nte Ma
1
und Ma
2
berechnet (siehe Gleichung(1.31),(1.35),(1.37)).
1.7 Reynolds number calculation
The pitot tube will be used to calculate the Reynolds number.
1. To measure the statistical pressure will be used the pitot tube.
p = p
a
+
w
g h
1
(1.69)
where are:
_

_
p : Measured statistical pressure
p
a
: Pressure of the atmosphere

w
: Density of water
h
1
: Measured dierence of water height by measurement
2. From gas state equation:

a
=
p
R T
(1.70)
where are:
_

_
p : Measured statistical pressure

a
: Density of air
T : Measured temperature of free stream
3. Measurement of the pressure of stagnant point:
p
s
= p +
1
2

a
v
2
(1.71)
p
s
p =
1
2

a
v
2
(1.72)
=
w
g h
2
(1.73)
v =

2
w
g h
2

a
(1.74)
CHAPTER 1. CALORICALLY GAS 8
where are: where are:
_
_
_
p
s
: Total pressure in stagnant point on pitot tube
h
2
: Measured dierence for the total and statistical pressure of the water height.
4. The viscosity of air will be calculated with sutherlands law:
=
ref
(
T
T
ref
)
3/2
(
T
ref
+ S
T + S
) (1.75)
5. Reynolds number:
Re =
v d

(1.76)
Chapter 2
Transition of laminar-turbulence
9
Bibliography
[1] Anderson, J. D. Hypersonic and high temperature gas dynamics. McGraw-Hill, New
York, 1989.
[2] Anderson, J. D. Modern Compressible Flow. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990.
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