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TRAINING AS MOTIVATIONAL TOOL FOR THE JOB SATISFACTION IN SAUDI ARABIA

BY

AMAN ALI AL-ALAWIYAT 51070069

Project Paper Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Master of Business Administration

Open University Malaysia 2010

Abstract
The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of training as a motivational tool in Saudi Arabia. It was also looking into the organizations support to any training program as well as the degree of satisfaction of the employees and lastly how employees feel about training. Six hundred individuals were approached with a specially designed questionnaire. This sample was randomly selected from the main three regions in Saudi Arabia. In addition to the email as the main way of data collection hard copies were distributed among some and personal interviews were conducted also. It was found that 75% of the sample believed that training has a positive influence on job satisfaction. Slightly higher percentage (80%) was found to have a good feeling about training and motivation. Only 73% believed that their organizations were supportive to training and using it as a motivational tool It was that the training could be used as a motivational tool which in turn reflects on the organization and the employee. This subject could benefit form further research in this area.

ACKNOWLWDGEMENTS

First of all to complete this research required the assistance, guidance and support of a number of people to whom I would like to express my deep appreciation and acknowledge them which makes this project finally seen uncomplicated. I would like to thank my supervisor Dr. Iqbal Kaundal for his guidance throughout the preparation of this study. Realizing this project would not have been achievable without his support and the encouragement of him this masterpiece would never have been completed.

RESEARCH PROPOSAL SUBMISSION FORM


Project Paper Title: TRAINING AS MOTIVATIONAL TOOL FOR THE JOB SATISFACTION IN SAUDI ARABIA Director Open University of Malaysia (OUM) Bahrain Branch Dear Sir, Attached are the following documents for evaluation and approval: Chapter I Chapter II Chapter III Chapter IV Chapter V References Appendix A : : : : : Introduction Literature review Methodology Data Analysis Conclusion and Suggestion

I have thoroughly checked my work and I am confident that this free from grammatical errors, weakness in sentence construction, spelling mistakes, referencing mistakes and others, I have checked guidelines for writing project paper and I am satisfied that the project paper proposal satisfied its requirements.

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DECLARATION
Name Student's Number : Aman Al-Alawiyat : 51070069

I hereby declare that this project paper is result of my own study based on my interest to enter into this line of business, aside from parental guidance and my friends support to enable me to establish this study, except for quotations and summaries which have been duty acknowledged.

I hereby verify this research is not submitted in substance for any other degree.

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Table of contents

Page Chapter I Introduction


Background of the Study Problem Statement Objectives of the Study Significance of the Study Limitations of the Study 1 1 1 1 1 2

Chapter II Literature review


A) Motivation Theories of Motivation Need Theories of Motivation Maslows Need Hierarchy Theory McClellands Need Theory Equity Theory Expectancy Theory Vrooms Theory Job Design Theory Herzberg two factor theory B) The importance of Training What is training? Employees Benefit Companies Benefit The link between company and employee benefit

2 2 4 4 5 5 6 7 7 8 8 11 11 12 13 13

Chapter III Methodology


Instrument Summary Description of sample used to validate instrument 6

15 15 16

Scoring the survey Calculations

18 18

Chapter IV Data Analysis A) Analysis and comments


Table l All employees question 1 answers Table1 Analysis and comments Table 2 All employees questions 2-15 answers Table 3 Organizational support for training (All employees) Table 3 Analysis and comments Table 4 Employee feeling about training (All employees) Table 4 Analysis and comments Table 5 Employee satisfaction with training (All employees) Table 5 Analysis and comments

19 19 19 20 20 22 22 22 23 23 23

B) Sub-group analysis
Age Table 6 Organizational support for training Table 6 Analysis and comments Table 7 Employee feeling about training Table 7 Analysis and comments Table 8 Employee satisfaction with training Table 8 Analysis and comments Type of organization Table 9 Organizational support for training Table 9 Analysis and comments Table 10 Employee feeling about training Table 10 Analysis and comments Table 11 Employee satisfaction with training Table 11 Analysis and comments 7

24 24 24 24 29 25 26 26 27 27 27 28 28 29 29

Position Table 12 Organizational support for training Table 12 Analysis and comments Table 13 Employee feeling about training Table 13 Analysis and comments Table 14 Employee satisfaction with training Table 14 Analysis and comments Table 15 Results Summary

30 30 30 31 31 32 32 33

Chapter V. Conclusion and suggestion References Bibliography Appendix A

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36 38 43

TRAINING AS MOTIVATIONAL TOOL AND JOB SATISFACTION IN SAUDI ARABIA

Chapter I- Introduction
Background of the study Training as a motivational tool was proven to be a good tool in the western world. Many studies indicated that in different countries in North America and Europe. The subject of training and using it as a motivational tool was not studied enough in Saudi Arabia, either because its effect is not clear or because the companies believe that it does not have the required revenue or pay back.

Problem statement The majority of governmental, private organization and international organizations are not recognizing the importance of training to increase their employee's productivity. This will lead to decrease the chance of promotions which guide to high of job turnover then increase the cost to hire new employees which low down the organizational profitability.

Objectives of the Study: 1. 2. 3. 4. To evaluate the employees opinion regarding training importance. To find the correlation between employees age group and the training importance. To find the relation between the type of organization and the training importance. To assess the relation between the job position and the training importance

Significance of the Study: There are only few studies that looked into the training and its use as a motivational tool in Saudi Arabia, despite the availability of such studies in the western world. The need was felt to have a research in this field.

Limitations of the study 1Despite the various companies and governmental organizations involved in this The health care and

research not all sector were included due to many reasons.

pharmaceuticals were the major participants. This is due to the nature of the researcher's profession. 2The geographical area covered was another factor. The research questionnaire was

distributed all over the main three cities (Riyadh, Jeddah and Dammam). With eastern province being the main contributor to data. This due to the business location of the researcher being Dammam. For the other cities, the researcher depended on personal contacts distributing and collecting the questionnaires then mail them to the researcher in Dammam. 3The initial intent was to use the internet as the main method of collecting

secondary data. This was backed up with the distribution of hard copy questionnaire through personal contacts to collect primary data. Also some interviews were carried out with key persons. Although, this helped, but the response was less the expected especially from Riyadh and Jeddah.

Chapter II- Literature review


A) Motivation
How can an employee be motivated? Before answering this very important question we need to know the meaning of motivation and its theories and to know the impacts of it on the employees. According to Professor Sunil Ramlall In todays high competitive labor market, there is extensive evidence that organizations regardless of size, technological advances, market focus and other factors are facing retention challenges. Prior to the September 11 terrorist attacks, a report by the Bureau National Affairs (1998) showed that turnover rates were scoring their highest levels over the last decade at 1.3% per month. There are indeed many employee retention practices within organizations, but they are seldom developed from sound theories. Swanson (2001) emphasized that theory is required to be both scholarly in itself and validated in practice, and can be the basis of significant advances(1). He also demonstrated that The term motivation derived from the Latin 10

word movere, meaning to move (Kretiner, 1998). Motivation represents those psychological process that cause arousal, direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal oriented (Mitchel, 1982, p.81). Motivation as defined by Robbins (1993) is the willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organization goals, conditioned by the efforts ability to satisfy some individual need. (1) Edwin A. Locke and Gary P. Latham said, The concept of motivation refers to internal factors that impel action and to external factors that can act as inducement to action. The three aspects of action that motivation can affect are direction (choice), intensity (effort) and duration (persistence). Motivation can affect not only the acquisition of peoples skills and abilities but also how and to what extent they utilize their skills and abilities. (2) Robert C. Beck stated that Motivation is the aspect of psychology concerned with explaining variations in behavior, among different individuals and within the same individual from time to time. Our ideas about motivation are influenced by our views on two broad psychological issues:(a) the relation of mind to body, and (b) whether behavior is free or determined. He also added Defining motivation is made more complicated by the fact that there are different approaches to motivation. Two of these are the regulatory approach (emphasizing the bodys physiological reactions to such disruptive faces as hunger) and the purposive approach (emphasizing the goal- directed nature of behavior). These different approaches are rooted in different historical backgrounds. Freuds psychoanalytic theory is more related to the regularity approach. (3) Professor Sunil indicated Motivation theories differ on where the energy is derived and on the particular needs that the person is attempting to fulfill, but most would agree that motivation requires a desire to act, an ability to act, and having an objective (1).

According to Harry E. Wilkinson, Charles D. Orth and Robert C. Benfari Motivation theories attempt to identify the factors that influence behavior, particularly the ways in which people respond to the actions of those around them and to other stimuli in their environment (4). Its agreed with Orlando Behling and Mitchell B. Shapiro in their view that Another way of looking at the relationship between a theory of human motivation and what it 11

purports to describe is to assume that there is not one truth, but several- that is, human motivation consists of no single patter, but is strongly colored by cultural and period in which the employee lives. One theory of motivation is not better than any other. Rather, one is merely more appropriate for the particular circumstances in which the firm operates (5). Finally Robert C. indicated, Scientific theories are like maps of geographic areas, relating selecting aspects of an area (such as roads) to each other. Theories are good to the extent that they are testable, fruitful (productive), simple, and Comprehensive and he emphasizes that Motives are hierarchical. For any given individual, some motives are more important and enduring than others (3).

Theories of Motivation:
There are numerous theories of motivation; some depend on biological approaches such as: drive theory, activation theory and peripheral versus central theories. Others are more relevant and explain the respective theories of motivation and how motivation may impact employee commitments in an organization. According to Professor Sunil there are Five of explaining behavior needs, reinforcement, cognition, job characteristics, and feeling/emotions underlie the evaluation of modern theories of human motivation (Kretiner, 1998). In this motivational theory effort, the following motivation theories were selected (1) need theories, (2) equity theory, (3) expectancy theory, and (4) job design model given their emphasis and reported significance on employee retention. (1)

(1)

Need Theories of Motivation:

Professor Sunil said that Need theories attempt to pinpoint internal factors that energize behavior. Needs as defined previously are physiological or psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior. These needs can be strong or weak and are influenced by environmental factors. Thus, human needs vary over time and place (1). There are two famous theories which are :( A) Maslows need hierarchy theory and (B) McClellands need theory.

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(A) Maslows Need Hierarchy Theory:


According to professor Sunil Maslows defining work as the development of hierarchy of needs. Maslow believed that there are at least five sets of goals which can be referred to as basic needs and are physiological, safety, love, esteem, and selfactualization (1). According to Phil Hardwick Maslow proposed that once a need is met, it is no longer a motivator, and that the lowest level of unmet need is the primary motivator. Thus, the idea is to find that unmet need of the employee and offer to satisfy it. This could be different for every employee or it could be the same of an entire group. (6) Harry E. Winkinson and Charles D. Orth agreed on that and added Maslow postulated that are continuously in a motivated state but the nature of the motivation is fluctuating and complex. As one desire becomes satisfied, another takes its place, and as this desire becomes satisfied, still another replaces it. This sequence of emerging needs formed the basis of Maslows hierarchy of needs (4). Referring to Robert C. Beck Maslows theory seems to take sense in the industrial situation, where lower-level workers seem to be more motivated by money (needed for food and shelter) and are not much motivated to work creativity in their jobs. At high levels, where income is sufficient to keep the wolf from the door, self actualization seems more important. The theory is difficult to test, however, because in lower level jobs there may be no opportunity for self-expression, and workers may seek other satisfactions outside the job (3). Still for professor Sunil The implications of this theory provided useful insights for managers and other organization leaders. One of the advices was for managers to find ways of motivating employees by devising programs or practices aimed at satisfying emerging or unmet needs. (1)

(B) McClellands Need Theory: According to Phil Hardwick David McClellands work deals with achievement, affiliation, and power (6). Professor Sunil added The need for achievement was defined as the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. The need for power was defined as the need to make others behave in a way they could not have behaved otherwise. The need for affiliation was defined as the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships (1). Referring to Harry E. 13

Winkinson and Charles D. Orth Originally most concerned with his believe that the need for achievement was central to effective managerial behavior, McClelland later became convinced that the need for power was equally important, and that, in fact, the relative strength of all three needs (in effect, a motivational profile) had to be analyzed in the context of kind of organization the individual was managing. They also added By examine Maslows upper three levels in a totally different way and redefining them, they can approximate McClellands power, achievement, and affiliation needs. (4) When we deal with Maslows theory we find that the hierarchy suggestion was acceptable and matching the normal psychological needs for people, meanwhile I cannot find this type of clarity with McClellands theory. Which need to play the most important role? Which need must be satisfied first? I believe that the three needs are in the same level of importance, the only different will be in the percentage of satisfying the need according to each person.

(2) Equity Theory:


Referring to professor Sunil Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amount of rewards they receive for their efforts, but also with the relationship of this amount to what others receive (1). Meanwhile according to Robert C. Beck Equity theory is a form of discrepancy theory he added The idea is that a person compares how hard he is working with what he is getting in return, and if he perceives a discrepancy he is unhappy. The discrepancy may be between the persons internal standard for what is equitable return for a certain amount of effort or it may be in comparison with some external reference.(3) Professor Sunil demonstrated that One of the prominent theories with respect to equity theory was developed through the work of J. S. Adams. Adams theory is perhaps the most rigorously developed statement of how individuals evaluate social exchange relationships (Steers, 1983). Equity Theory rests upon three main assumptions (Carrell, 1978). First, the theory holds that people develop believes about what constitutes a fair and equitable return for their contributions to their jobs.

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Second, the theory assumed that people tend to compare what they perceive to be the exchange they have with their employers. The other assumption was that when people believe that their own treatment was not equitable, relative to the exchange the perceive others to be making, they will be motivated to take actions they deem appropriate and he added The challenge therefore for organizations is to develop reward systems that are perceived to be fair and equitable and distributing the reward in accordance with employee beliefs about their own value to the organization. (1) Beside the importance of Equity theory and its impacts, there are two main drawbacks in it: (1) Salary is not the only thing pay for the employee. For example: medical insurance, incentive trips, schooling, and other benefits. (2) What are the references the employee depends on when he makes his judgment? Does the employee have enough information?

(3)Expectancy Theory:
Professor Sunil mentioned that Expectancy theory holds that people are motivated to behave in ways that produce desired combinations of expected outcomes (Kreinter and Kinki, 1999, p.227) (1). According to Robert C. Beck expectancy theory said that worker has information about the probabilities and values of success at various jobs or tasks, and uses this information to decide what choices will have the greatest expected value for him he added The expectancy theory described above is a generic approach, common to all such theories. A more specific example is Vrooms (1964) theory. (3) -Vrooms Theory: Edwin A. Lock and Gray P. Latham stated that it was not until 1964 that Vroom model first attempt to formulate an overarching theory namely, a hedonistic calculus called the valence instrumentality expectancy model. Theory building is the field of work motivation, however, has typically been more specified than Vrooms overarching model (2). Professor Sunil adds Vrooms theory assumed that Choices made by a person among alternative courses of action are lawfully related to psychological events occurring contemporaneously with behavior (Vroom, 1964, p.15).

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This basically saying that peoples behavior results from conscious among alternatives and these choices are systemically related to psychological process, particularly perception and the formation of beliefs and attitudes (Pinder, 1984). There are three mental components that are seen as instigating and directing behavior. These are referred to as Valance, Instrumentality, and Expectancy. These three factors are the reason why the expectancy theory is referred to as VIE theory. (1) Robert C. Beck mentioned two good examples to explain this issue; the first one is that A female in a male dominated organization might consider the probability of advancement to much lower than would a man in the same position. The second example is that If a person expects that hard work will not produce a high level of performance, or the high performance will not achieve the goal, the perceived instrumentality will be low and the person is not to likely work very hard. (3) Studies showed that all companies should take Equity and Expectancy theories in consideration very seriously especially when dealing with an issue that may has impact on all organizations employees. A very important example is the promoting process which may lead to dissatisfaction and demotivation for many employees. So, its the responsibility of the HR department and senior managers to assure that all employees are treated equally. This will lead to chose the best candidate and leave the impression that the right person has been promoted. Otherwise the employees will lose their commitment to the organization and I believe many of them will start looking for other companies to join. Unfortunately, this is not the way which promoting is processed in most of the local companies in Saudi Arabia and even in some of the international companies, this is a very important reason that most of people want to join an international company, according to many of them International companies have system and they are fair.

(4) Job Design Theory:


Referring to professor Sunil's statement This theoretical approach is based on the idea that the task itself is key to employee motivation. He added One of the earliest researchers in the area of job design as it affected motivation was Fredrick Herzberg (Herzberg, 1959). (1) 16

-Herzberg two factor theory:


According to Phil Hardwick Fredrick Herzbergs is known as the MotivatorHygiene Theory. He added Herzbergs theory states that hygiene factors operate independently of motivator factors. He said that preventing dissatisfaction is as important as encouraging satisfaction. Professor Sunil agreed on that and said Herzberg discovered that employees tended to describe satisfying experiences in terms of factors that were intrinsic to the content of the job itself. These factors were called motivators and included such variables as achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth. Conversely, dissatisfaction experiences called hygiene factors, largely resulted from extrinsic, non-job-related factors, such as company policies, salary, coworker relation, and supervisory styles (Steers, 1983). Herzberg argued based on these results that eliminating the causes of dissatisfaction (through hygiene factors) would not result in state of satisfaction. Instead, it would result in a neutral state. Satisfaction (and motivation) would occur only as a result of the use of motivators. (1) Harry E. Winkinson and Charles D. Orth said Herzbergs concept can be viewed as a special application of Maslow in highly complex industrialized society, in organizations tasks and people more appropriate to McGregors Theory Y (4). Robert C. Beck arguing that Herzberg repeatedly claimed that external incentives are not motivators. The distinction which Herzberg seemed to be trying to convey was between external rewards and intrinsic motivation. This distinction is certainly not unimportant, but since Herzberg did not make it clear, his resulting ideas were sometimes unusual (3). According to Thomas H. Fitzgerald Instead of thinking of employees as objects, to be manipulated by this or that theoretical approach, management must strive to effect fundamental, value oriented changes in the structure of rationalized work systems. (7) Studies showed that total agreement with David Witt and Scott Blanchard that When companies are fighting for survival, some leader question withers or not employee motivation is truly a priority. The prevailing attitude is that because employees should feel fortunate to have jobs, motivation efforts can temporarily cease. Yet, in a challenging economy, employees often become less productive and engaged especially when they may be asked to do more work because of corporate downsizing. Implementing 17

motivational best practices at this time helps employees weather the tough times and increases their willingness to make the extra efforts needed for the organization to enjoy long-term success(8). According to Thomas H. Fitzgerald Briefly, we are told that the concept of motivation is complex, but can and should be understood. Humans have basic psychological needs that must be satisfied, but these are supplemented numerous other biosocial, culturally derived needs. The individuals actual movement to satisfy his needs depends not only on their state of readiness within himself but also on the objective situation in which he moves (i.e., the field containing other actors), together with his perception of the situation, which is in turn influenced by his own past experiences-i.e., successes or failures in finding satisfaction. (7) It is good to know the motivation theories and their roots. It is really important to know how to use these motivation theories in our life, mainly in our work as we are talking about job satisfaction. The main issue here is to understand the impact of these theories and the great results of using them correctly. The successful management must utilize all these theories according to the type of business and employees; since the application is different from one organization to another. There are many levels of motivation in each organization. The senior managers and the HR department must support the motivation principle and I believe it is the responsibility of the HR department to train the manager to use the best way of motivation with their subordinate. As we have seen that motivation is the main reason for any employee to come to work, so this motivation must be continuous and with different ways. Money is always a good motivator but it is not the only one, mutual respect, empathy, understanding, rewards, and appreciation letters all are good motivators too. Finally, I need to add one important motivator which is training, learning, and development. All the humans like to learn new things and learn new ways of doing things, it is natural in the human being, so I believe that we must add training and development as a motivator that can be used to motivate and retain employees.

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B) The importance of Training


The training plays an essential role in the organization; it has huge effect on job satisfaction. This effect may be indirect, but it is vital and its impacts on the employees and organization are more than expected. Training affects many important areas, i.e. productivity, quality, effectiveness, and commitment. These factors play an important role in any organizations development. In the very competitive environment we live in, the employee who knows the know how and who has the knowledge and capability to be effective and efficient is most welcomed for all companies, even some companies are trying to attract this type of employees from competitors. This knowledge is earned by training and experience. Because of these effects, it is important to discuss the training and its impacts as tools of motivation. -What is training? According to Raymond A. Noe Training refers to a planned effort by a company to facilitate employees learning of job-related competencies. These competencies include knowledge, skills, or behaviors that are critical for successful job performance (9). Steven W. Schmidt agrees with this definition and he adds Training is systematic development of the knowledge, skills, expertise required by a person to effectively perform a given task or job (Patrick, 2000). (10) Patrick L. Owens Jr. is right and it's agreed with him when he said that Researchers have explored a myriad of variables that manifest in employees and their work environments which the goal of improving overall organizational performance and individual job performance. One such variable is job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is defined the extent that the employee favors or disfavors a job, expressed emotionally and/or cognitively,1 has been linked to improved jobs performance, so focusing on an intermediary (like jobs) as a means to improvement is not a new strategy.2 If it can be

1 2

(Brief. A.P. (1998). Attitudes In And Around Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. P. 86) Wright, T. A., Cropanzano, R., Denny, P. J. and Moline, G. L. (2002). When a happy worker is a productive worker: a preliminary examination of three models. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science,34, 146-150; Hochwarter, W. A., Prerrewe, P. L., Ferris, G. R. & Brymer, R. A.

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shown that an organizations training program increases job satisfaction, then a bridge from training and improved performance can be established (11). According to Steven W. Schmidt Satisfaction with training and development is a major factor in decisions regarding peoples careers (Violino, 2001). It is a factor that prospective employees evaluate in the job-hunting process. It is cited in surveys as to why workers accept or declines jobs with certain employers and why employees leave one employer for another (What Drivers, 2001) (10). He also added Results of a 2000 survey of 271 network professionals conducted by Lucent care showed that most important factor in job satisfaction was the opportunity to learn new skills (Blum & Kaplan, 2000) (10). So, it becomes more clear that training plays significant role in job satisfaction, and we know that the ultimate goal of using any motivator is to increase job satisfaction. In this meaning we can consider training as motivator which can helps the company to keep its employees and reduce retention. It is also important to discuss the benefits of both employees and companies from training. -Employees Benefit: According to Terri Bergman The benefits to employees of education and training are increased wages and reduced unemployment. Education has a great impact on individuals earnings. The returns from training are also impressive. An econometric study found that company training leads to a 27% increase in earnings, whereas training from other sources provide 13% increase in earnings, and on-the-job training provides a 5% increase in earnings.3Training according to the same econometric study, also reduces the chance of unemployment. (12).

(1999).Job satisfaction and performance: the moderating effects of value attainment and affective diposition. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54, 296-313. 3 Lee A. Lillard and Hong W. Tan, Private Sector Training: Who gets It & What are Its effects?, Santa Monica, CA; March 1986, 148)

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-Companies Benefit: Referring to Owens Jr. and Patrick L. Research has indicated that relationships exist between turnover cognitions (i.e. thoughts of quitting, search interviews, and turnover intentions), job satisfaction, and the perception of the organizational justice as well4. He added Employees who receive training will report lower levels of turnover cognitions than those employees who do not receive training. (11) According to Terri Bergman Trainings greatest value to companies is increased productivity. Productivity increases are usually manifested as improvements in employees performance (e.g., increases skills, increased initiative, reduced absenteeism), improvements in production measures (e.g., increased run rates, decreased scrap rates, increased on-time rates), and improvements in quality and customers satisfaction. A number of companies report significant benefits from training. Motorola Inc, claims that every $1 it spends on training delivers &30 in productivity gains within three years. Motorola spent $120 million on education in 1992, 3.6 % of payroll. Since 1987, the company has cut cost by $3.3 billion- not by firing workers, but by training them to simplify process and reduce waste. Sales per employee have doubled in the last five years, and profits have increased 47 %5. (12) -The link between company and employee benefits: Referring to Terri Bergman "Obviously, the benefits of training to companies and individuals are not exclusive. In fact, company (and joint company-union) training programs serve both groups simultaneously. If training raises employee morale, company performance improves; if training helps companies to stay in business, employees can keep their jobs; and if training helps firms make money, employees incomes can rise. (12) Because of globalization, I believe that currently and in the future, , training will play an important role in the competitiveness, since training deals with and minimizes the
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Bozeman, D.P. and Perrwe, P. L. (2001) The effect of item content an organizational commitment questionnaire-turnover cognitions relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 161-173; Griffeth, R. W., Hom, P. W. & Gaertner, S. (2000).A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: update, moderate tests, and research implications for the next Millennium. Journal of Management, 26, 463-488; Aryee, S. & Chay, Y. W. (2001)Workplace justice, citizenship behavior, and turnover intensions in a union context: examining the mediating role of perceived union support and union instrumentality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 154-160. 5 Ronald Henkoff, Companies That Train Best, fortune, March 22, 1993)

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risks of global challenges, quality challenges, social challenges, and high-performance work systems challenges. The most important question now is what is the most effective training program? According to Jenifer Wilson To implement an effective programs, firms must go beyond simply establishing a list of courses. They must make training a part of the firms culture (13). She added There are several keys to successful training program. Many agree that firms must do the following: 1- Approve training and learning budget. Many firms budget about 2% of annual revenue to training. 2- Offer options. Options range from hands-on-training to Web-based seminars. 3- Provide soft skills training. 4- Train to retain. Dale Potter, president of Premier Computing Technology, a Microsoft Business Solutions reseller, said, The main reason people enjoy their jobs and stay with an organization is because they like learning all the time. (13) And according to Lloyd L. Byars and Leslie W. Rue The steps to a successful training program include the following: 1- Perform job analysis. 2- Perform needs assessment. 3- Establish training objectives. 4- Conduct training program. 5- Evaluate training outcomes. (14) It's important that the HR departments role is a corner stone in any successful organization. I totally agree with Jack J. Philips that HR is moving away from the transactional, paper-pushing, hiring/firing support function it has been and is becoming a bottom-line decision maker. (15). Training and development is one of the essential roles of HR department. The training programs must include all employees of the company (i.e., new employees, managers, and even expatriates). The continuation of training is vital for organizations survival and development. It is the job of the HR department to design and/or chose the most appropriate training for each group of employees to achieve the organizations goals. It is also very important to have feedback not only from the results and impacts of the training but also about the 22

training itself, the trainer, the material used, and the time/duration of training, in order to avoid any mistakes and to adjust the future programs to gain the maximum benefit of them and depending on that the principle of accountability must be applied to the HR department and the heart of accountability is measurement and evaluation as Jack Phillips said that An important tent of continuous process improvement (CPI) is nothing improves until it is measured(15).

Chapter IV- Methodology


In this research a specially designed questionnaire was distributed among the sample over the three main regions of Saudi Arabia. The other method which was used in this research is the interview. However, this was not widely used for two main reasons. The first being the time required to perform these interviews and secondly is the need for prior arrangement with each subject of the sample.

A sample of 600 individuals was randomly selected from companies and government organizations in three cities in the Kingdom (Dammam, Riyadh and Jeddah). The questionnaire was sent to the subjects in the nongovernmental organizations by email through the Chamber of Commerce, Sabic and Saudi aramco. governmental organizations were accessed through the Ministry of Health. However, the

Instrument Summary: The Training as Motivational Tool and Job Satisfaction Survey is a 24-question. Demographic are 9 questions, one arrange items, and 15 questions rating items with five choices ranging from "Totally disagree to "Totally agree. A website link and hard copies have been used to distribute the survey, since the survey covers all regions of Saudi Arabia. Many companies have different training programs for different types of employees. Is the HR department doing this training in the right way? Does the employee needs 23

these trainings? Can the employee implement what he learned? What is the employee feeling about the training? The survey is trying to answer these questions by assessing three subjects: (1) Organizational support for training. (2) Employee's feelings about Training. (3) Employee's satisfaction with training.

Description of sample used to validate instrument: Following are the demographic statistics regarding the sample used to validate the: Training as Motivational Tool and Job Satisfaction in Saudi Arabia - Instrument validation sample size= 294 - Gender: Number of responses to question = 294 Frequency Percent Male 272 93.2 Female 20 6.8 Missing 2

- Age: Number of responses to question = 294 Frequency Between 20-30 135 More than 30 157 Missing 2

Percent 46.2 53.8

- The organization which you are working for is: Number of responses to question =294 Frequency Percent Governmental organization 21 7.2 Local privet organization 89 30.5 International privet organization 182 62.3 Missing 2

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- Your experience with your current organization is: Number of responses to question =294 Frequency Percent Less than 4 years 133 45.5 More than 4 years 159 55.5 Missing 2

- Your current position is: Number of responses to question =294 Frequency Managerial position 123 Non managerial position 169 Missing 2

Percent 42.1 57.9

- Your average monthly income is: Number of responses to question =294 Frequency Less than 1500 $ 95 More than 1500 $ 197 Missing 2

Percent 32.5 67.5

- Number of employee in your organization is: Number of responses to question =294 Frequency Percent 100 employees or less 88 30.1 More than 100 employees 204 69.9 Missing 2

- Your highest educational degree is: Number of responses to question =294 Frequency High school 1 Diploma 11 University degree 239 Postgraduate degree 41 Missing 2

Percent 0.3 3.8 81.8 14

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Scoring the survey:


Question 1 rating the importance of training for the employee, the highest score is 4 and the lowest score is 1. Questions 2 15 written in each direction positive and negative. Responses can be converted to numeric scores using the following scale: TDA DA IDK A TA Totally disagree Disagree I do not know Agree Totally agree 1 2 3 4 5

Using the conversion chart above, scores can range as follows: Number of questions 5 4 Scoring Range 1 25 1 20

Subscale Organizational support for training Employee feeling about training

Employee satisfaction with training 5 1 25 ________________________________________________________________________ Total Training Satisfaction Questions 14 14 75 As noted above, scores for job training satisfaction can range from 14 75. Calculations Mean value has been calculated for each question and each group of questions to

determine the scores. Standard deviation has been calculated for each group of questions to assure the

distribution of the answers. T-test (Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances) has been calculated to determine

the significance between different groups of respondents. - P-value: A measure of probability that a difference between groups during an experiment happened by chance. For example, a p-value of 0.01 (p=0.01) means that there is a 1 in 100 chance the result occurred by chance. The lower the pvalue, the more likely it is that the difference between groups was caused by treatment.. 26

Chapter IV- Data Analysis and comments A) Analysis and comments


In this chapter we will take a look at the results of the survey regarding the three subjects mentioned before, but at the first I will discuss the results of question 1 in the survey (Table 1). Table 1
Number of responses= 286 Missing = 8

Beside the income, arrange the following items according to its importance in the job you prefer? ( 1 is the most important and 4 is the least important) Answer Options Career path and promotion possibility Training and self development Stability and low work pressure Size and reputation of the organization 1 179 100 76 61 2 51 99 85 59 3 36 64 60 61 4 20 23 65 105 Response Count 286(85%) 286(78%) 286(66%) 286(58%) 286 8

answered question skipped question

27

Analysis and comments: - Training and self development was not the most important factor after the income; it was the second choice for most of the respondents. This represents the importance of training for the employees in spite of the demographic changes between them. - The result is matching with the literature and the concept that training is very Important, and support the idea (assumption) that can be used as motivational factor to increase job satisfaction. Table 2
Number of responses = 263 Missing = 31

Please indicate to which extent you agree/ disagree with the followings: Answer Options -My department provides training opportunities to meet the changing needs of the workplace. -In my department, training is planned and not accidental. -In my department, people are interested in both personal and professional development. -In my organization, training options are not only class room training (e.g. coaching on job). -Training and development are encouraged in my department. -I am proactive in seeking ways to improve what I do. -I seek out learning opportunities rather than waiting to be sent training. -I have learning goals to enhance my current work assignment and prepare me for future. -I have already involved in development courses on my account. -Overall, the training I receive is applicable to my job. -Overall, the training I receive meets my needs. -Overall, I am satisfied with the amount of training I receive on the job. -I am generally able to use what I learn from training in my job. -Training can help me getting new opportunities. Totally Agree 58 58 57 67 53 118 102 90 73 69 38 23 64 127 Agree 125 108 122 106 118 105 106 134 86 134 130 89 163 109 I don't know 14 37 43 33 42 20 24 20 24 29 30 46 20 14 Disagree 49 41 33 48 42 17 29 15 68 25 56 79 12 9 Totally Disagree 17 19 8 9 8 3 2 4 12 6 9 26 4 4 Resp. Count 263 263 263 263 263 263 263 263 263 263 263 263 263 263 263 31

answered question skipped question

28

29

Table 3 Organizational support for training: Question -My department provides training opportunities to meet
-In my department, training is planned and not accidental -In my department, people are interested in both personal

Mean
3.60 3.55 3.71 3.66 3.63

-In my organization, training options are not only classroom


-Training and development are encouraged in my department

3.63 Analysis and comments: - According to the employees who were surveyed they tend to agree that their organizations have interests in training and these organizations support the training. - The training in these organizations is well planed and has different types. - About 16% of the respondents answered both questions 3 and 5I dont know. I believe the main reason of this is due to the organization is not showing and demonstrating the positive effects of training.(The company may organize programs without the right follow up or just to show that it is doing training), so the employees cannot decide. This is an important issue and the company must resolve it as we have agreed that the training can be used as a motivational tool. Table 4 Employee feeling about training: Question -I am proactive in seeking ways to improve what I do
-I seek out learning opportunities rather than waiting -I have learning goals to enhance mu current work -I have already involved in development courses on

Mean
4.21 4.05 4.11 3.53

3.98 30

Analysis and comments: - The employees, most of them, have learning goals to follow.
- The employees trying to seek and involve in courses to develop themselves.

- The employees believe in training importance and its impacts on their career pathway. - More than 25% of the respondents answered question 4Dissagree. This may be due to their believes that the company is required to do that and they need to stick to the company training policy, if any. Table 5 Employee satisfaction with training: Question -Overall the training I receive is applicable to my job
-Overall, the training I receive meets my need -Overall I am satisfied with the amount of training I -I am generally able to use what I learn from training -Training can help me getting new opportunities

Mean
3.89 3.50 3.02 4.03 4.32

3.75 Analysis and comments: -The employees receive the right training and they can use these learning in their jobs. -The employees cannot tell if they receive enough amount of training, this is may be because there is no benchmark for that or because, still, they believe that there are other trainings they should have. -About 30% of the respondents answered question 3Disgreemeanwile about 17.5% answered I dont know. I believe the company must make a clear documentation for the requirements of each level of employees and survey if there is any needs from the employees themselves. -Again, most of the employees believe that training has positive impact on their career pathway and training opens new doors for them.

31

B) Sub-group analysis
In this section I am going deeper through the demographic groups to have more details regarding the three subjects mentioned before. I will discuss the effect of age, type of organization and position on the respondents answers. 1- Age: (A)Between 20-30Y (B)More than 30Y Table 6 Organizational support for training: Question -My department provides training opportunities to meet
-In my department, training is planned and not accidental -In my department, people are interested in both personal

Answered 136 157

Skipped 12 18

Mean
Between 20-30Y 3.48 3.51 3.68 3.60 3.50 More than 30Y 3.71 3.59 3.74 3.72 3.75

-In my organization, training options are not only classroom


-Training and development are encouraged in my department **Standard deviation of group A: 1.151 **Standard deviation of group B: 1.111 **P-value: 0.016

3.55

3.70

Analysis and comments: - The age plays a role in determining the employees responses and there is significance in their responses regarding organizational support for training. - The older employees believe that the organizations support the training more than the younger employees. - The older employees say that the training is planned and not accidental meanwhile the younger ones cannot decide. This may be due to lack of experience in the work itself or in the organization, or maybe the older employees had bad experience with training department before and the training issue has been taken adjusted later on.

32

- Both groups agree that organizations have interested in both personal and professional development, and training in their organizations had happened in different ways, I believe that this is due to coaching from the direct supervisor. - The older employees believed that their organizations encourage the training and development more than the younger employees. Table 7 Employee feeling about training: Question -I am proactive in seeking ways to improve what I do
-I seek out learning opportunities rather than waiting -I have learning goals to enhance my current work -I have already involved in development courses on **Standard deviation of group A: 1.138 **Standard deviation of group B: 0.971 **P-value: 0.001

Mean
Between 20-30Y 4.10 3.98 4.10 3.28 More than 30Y 4.31 4.12 4.12 3.76

3.87

4.08

Analysis and comments: - The age plays a role in determining the employees responses and there is significance in their responses regarding their feeling about training. - The older employees are more proactive in seeking ways to improve what they do and learning opportunities rather than waiting to be sent to training. - Both of young and old employees have learning goals, but the older are more proactive in involving in development courses. - I believe the difference is due to many reasons: the older may have more money to spend on extra training, or because they have more experience that make them ready for promotion faster than the young employees, or the older employees are improving themselves so they can have better opportunities, even, in different organizations.

33

Table 8 Employee satisfaction with training: Question -Overall the training I receive is applicable to my job
-Overall, the training I receive meets my need -Overall I am satisfied with the amount of training I -I am generally able to use what I learn from training -Training can help me getting new opportunities **Standard deviation of group A: 1.105 **Standard deviation of group B: 1.062 **P-value: 0.033

Mean
Between 20-30Y 3.73 3.39 3.04 4.00 4.26 More than 30Y 4.04 3.60 2.99 4.06 4.37

3.68

3.81

Analysis and comments: - The age plays a role in determining the employees responses and there is significance in their responses regarding their satisfaction with training. - According to the older employees the training is more applicable to their jobs more than the younger employees, and the training they receive seems to meet their needs more than the younger employees. - Both old and young employees are not satisfied with the amount of training they receive. This could be alarming signal that the organization is not providing enough training or the employees feel that they should have more training; the organization must clarify this issue to have the best solution, either by increasing the right training courses or to explain to its employees that they have received enough training according to their role in the organization. - Beside the differences, both older and younger, believe that training can help those getting new opportunities.

34

2-Type of organization: (A) Governmental organization (B) Local organization (C) International organization Answered 17 76 170 Skipped 4 13 13

Table 9 Organizational support for training: Question Group (A) -My department provides training opportunities to meet
-In my department, training is planned and not accidental -In my department, people are interested in both personal 3.76 3.41 3.06 3.35 3.59

Mean Group (B) Group (C)


3.43 3.32 3.61 3.39 3.30 3.66 3.67 3.82 3.81 3.78

-In my organization, training options are not only classroom


-Training and development are encouraged in my department **Standard deviation of group A: 1.358 **Standard deviation of group B: 1.180 **Standard deviation of group C: 1.068 **P-value (Group A & B): 0.877 **P-value (Group A & C): 0.041

3.43

3.41

3.75

Analysis and comments: - The type of organization plays a role in the respondents answers regarding their organizational support for training. - The employees in the international organizations demonstrate that their organizations are more supportive for training than both governmental and local organizations (no significance between the governmental and local). This may be due to that the international organizations have systems including training as essential part, or the other organizations cannot see the positive reflection of the right training on their employees (why to spend money on training?). - I believe that the governmental and local organizations must rethink again about the cost benefit ratio of training and the huge positives of the right training on their employees and, of course, the impact on the organization.

35

Table 10 Employee feeling about training: Question Group (A) -I am proactive in seeking ways to improve what I do
-I seek out learning opportunities rather than waiting -I have learning goals to enhance mu current work -I have already involved in development courses on **Standard deviation of group A: 1.350 **Standard deviation of group B: 1.083 **Standard deviation of group C: 0.998 **P-value (Group A & B): 0.569 **P-value (Group A & C): 0.030 3.94 3.82 3.94 3.12

Mean Group (B) Group (C)


3.93 4.04 3.95 3.30 4.36 4.08 4.19 3.68

3.71

3.81

4.08

Analysis and comments: - According to the respondents there is significance in their feeling about the training. - The employees in the international organizations are more proactive in seeking new opportunities, improving themselves, and involving in development courses than the employees in governmental or local organizations (no significance between the governmental and local organizations.

36

Table 11 Employee satisfaction with training: Question -Overall the training I receive is applicable to my job
-Overall, the training I receive meets my need -Overall I am satisfied with the amount of training I -I am generally able to use what I learn from training -Training can help me getting new opportunities **Standard deviation of group A: 1.255 **Standard deviation of group B: 1.040 **Standard deviation of group C: 1.084 **P-value (Group A & B): 0.169 **P-value (Group A & C): 0.312

Mean Group (A) Group (B) Group (C)


3.59 3.47 3.24 3.76 3.94 3.80 3.80 3.22 4.04 4.14 3.96 3.37 2.90 4.05 4.43

3.60

3.80

3.74

Analysis and comments: - There is no significance about the employee satisfaction with training. - Even the employees in the international organizations demonstrate that they receive applicable training and that training can help them getting new opportunities more than the employees in governmental and local organizations, but they are less satisfied with the amount of training they receive. This may be due to either the organization is not giving enough training or the employees have their own picture about the training they need to have. The organization must explain to all employees the training requirements for each level of employees to do their job well.

37

3-Position:
(A) Managerial (B) Non-Managerial Answered 109 154 Skipped 14 16

Table 12 Organizational support for training: Question -My department provides training opportunities to meet
-In my department, training is planned and not accidental -In my department, people are interested in both personal

Mean
Managerial 3.81 3.72 3.85 4.01 3.83 Non-Managerial 3.45 3.44 3.61 3.52 3.49

-In my organization, training options are not only classroom


-Training and development are encouraged in my department **Standard deviation of group A: 1.043 **Standard deviation of group B: 1.174 **P-value: less than 0.0001

3.84

3.50

Analysis and comments: - There is significance in the responses between the managerial and non-managerial employees regarding the organizational support for training. - The managers are more confident than the non-managers employees that the organization is supportive for training. This difference is related to many reasons: the managers have more information about the different functions of the organization or simply because they can see and touch the organizational support for them.

38

Table 13 Employee feeling about training: Question -I am proactive in seeking ways to improve what I do
-I seek out learning opportunities rather than waiting -I have learning goals to enhance mu current work -I have already involved in development courses on Managerial 4.35 4.18 4.16 3.90

Mean
Non-Managerial 4.11 3.96 4.07 4.27

4.15
**Standard deviation of group A: 0.916 **Standard deviation of group B: 1.133 **P-value: less than 0.0001

3.85

Analysis and comments: - There is significance in the responses between the managerial and non-managerial employees regarding their feeling about training. - The managers are more proactive in seeking ways to improve what they do and learning opportunities more than the non-manages. I believe the reason for that is the type of their role in the organization and they believe that the organization is very supportive to the training. - The non-managers are more involved in development courses more than the managers, either because the managers have enough training or they do not have time for more training.

39

Table 14 Employee satisfaction with training: Question -Overall the training I receive is applicable to my job
-Overall, the training I receive meets my need -Overall I am satisfied with the amount of training I -I am generally able to use what I learn from training -Training can help me getting new opportunities **Standard deviation of group A: 0.996 **Standard deviation of group B: 1.128 **P-value: less than 0.0001 Managerial 4.04 3.75 3.23 4.13 4.44

Mean
Non-Managerial 3.79 3.32 2.86 3.97 4.23

3.92

3.63

Analysis and comments: - There is significance in the responses between the managerial and non-managerial employees regarding their satisfaction with training. - The managers demonstrate more satisfaction with training than the non-managers employees. I believe this is true, at least in Saudi Arabia, and the organization must be able to clarify that for its employees. - The organizations give more attention to the managers regarding training and development more than the other employees; this may affect the relationship of the employees with their mangers and the organization. Again the organization must not do this on purpose and must explain to the non-managerial employees the training amounts they need to have and the differences in the types of training for each level in the organization according to their job description.

40

Table 15 Results Summary


Organizational support Age group 20Y- 30Y More than 30Y Governmental Local private International private Managerial Non-managerial 3.55 3.7 3.43 3.41 3.75 3.84 3.5 71% 74% 69% 68% 75% 77% 70% Employee's feeling 3.87 4.08 3.71 3.81 4.08 4.15 3.85 77% 82% 74% 76% 82% 83% 77% Employee's satisfaction 3.68 3.81 3.6 3.8 3.74 3.9 3.63 74% 76% 72% 76% 75% 78% 73%

Position

Organizational types

Table 15 summarizes the results based on the subjects at the beginning of the project. At a glance it could be seen that the highest score (83%) was for the feelings towards training from managers. However, the lowest was (68%) for the local organizational support to training.

41

Chapter V- Conclusion and suggestion:


It was found that 75% of the sample believed that training has a positive influence on job satisfaction. Slightly higher percentage (80%) was found to have a good feeling about training and motivation. Only 73% believed that their organizations were supportive to training and using it as a motivational tool. From the analysis it can be said confidently that in spite of the differences the majority of employees are seeking for developing themselves because they believe that training is very essential and can help them in both current role and to find new opportunities. It is the role of the organization to do the right training for each employee, group of employees, not only to increase the productivity but also to keep its employees motivated and committed to the organization.

Training and self development (87.3%) was not the most important factor after the income (85%); it was the second choice for most of the respondents. This represents the importance of training for the employees in spite of the demographic changes between them. About 16% of the respondents answered both questions 3 and 5I dont know. I think the main reason of this is due to the organization is not showing and demonstrating the positive effects of training.(The company may organize programs without the right follow up or just to show that it is doing training), so the employees cannot decide. This is an important issue and the company must resolve it as we have agreed that the training can be used as a motivational tool.

The age plays a role in determining the employees responses and there is significance in their responses regarding organizational support for training. The older employees (74%) believe that the organizations support the training more than the younger employees (71%).

42

The employees in the international organizations demonstrate that their organizations are more supportive for training than both governmental and local organizations (no significance between the governmental 69% and local 68%). This may be due to that the international organizations have systems including training as essential part, or the other organizations cannot see the positive reflection of the right training on their employees (why to spend money on training?).

There is significance in the responses between the managerial (77%) and nonmanagerial employees (70%) regarding the organizational support for training.

The managers are more confident than the non-managers employees that the organization is supportive for training. This difference is related to many reasons: the managers have more information about the different functions of the organization or simply because they can see and touch the organizational support for them.

There is significance in the responses between the managerial (83%) and nonmanagerial employees (77%) regarding their feeling about training.The managers are more proactive in seeking ways to improve what they do and learning opportunities more than the non-manages. I believe the reason for that is the type of their role in the organization and they believe that the organization is very supportive to the training.

About 30% of the respondents answered question 3Disgreemeanwile about 17.5% answered I dont know. I think the company must make a clear documentation for the requirements of each level of employees and survey if there is any needs from the employees themselves.

There is significance in the responses between the managerial and non-managerial employees regarding their satisfaction with training. The managers demonstrate more satisfaction with training (78%) than the non-managers employees (73%). it considers this is true, at least in Saudi Arabia, and the organization must be able to clarify that for its employees. 43

References:
1- Ramlall, Sunil (2004). A review of Employee Motivation Theories and their implications for Employee retention within Organization. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge; vol.5 Issue , P 52-63.

2- Lock, Edwin A. and Latham, Gary P. (2004). What Should be doing about Motivation theory? Six recommendations for the twenty-first Century. Academy of Management Review; Vol.29 Issue 3, P 388-403. 3- Robert C. Beck (1990). Motivation Theories and principles.3rd ed.

4- Winkinson, Harry E. Orth, Charles D. and Benfari, Robert C. (1986). Motivation theories: An Integrated Operational Model. SAM Advanced Management Journal, vol.51 Issue 4, P 24.

5- Orlando Behling and Mitchil B. Shapiro (1974). Motivation Theory: source of solution or part of problem? Business Horizons, Vol. 17 Issue 1, P 59-66.

6- Hardwick, Phi (2009). Getting a handle on What motivates employees. Mississippi Business Journal, Vol.31 Issue 10, P 7.

7- Fitzgerald, Thomas H. (1971). Why Motivation theory doesnt work. Harvard Review, Vol. 49 Issue 4, P 37-44.

8- Blanchard, Scott and Witt, David (2009). Proper Motivation. Manufacturing Today, Vol. 9 Issue 3, P 12-13.

9- Rymond A. Noe (1998). Employee Training and Development.

44

10- Schmidt, Steven W. (2007). The relationship between satisfaction with work place training and overall job satisfaction. Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol. 18 Issue 4, P 481-498.

11- Owens Jr., Patrick L. (2006). One More Reason Not to Cut Your Training Budget: The Relationship Between Training and Organizational Outcomes. Public Personnel Management. Vol. 35 Issue 2, P 163-172.

12- Bergman, Terri (1994/1995). Training: The case for increased investment. Employment Relations Today, Vol. 21 Issue 4, P 381-391.

13- Wilson, Jennifer (2005). Developing A Training Culture. Accounting Technology, P17. 14- Lloyd L. Byars and Leslie W. Rue (2008). Human Resource Management.9th ed.

15- Philips, Jack J. (1996). Accountability in Human Resource Management.

45

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Open University Malaysia


Kingdom of Bahrain

Master of Business Administration

Appendix A
Questionnaire survey on Training as Motivational Tool for the Job Satisfaction in Saudi Arabia

BY

AMAN ALI AL-ALAWIYAT


51070069

51

Questionnaire survey on Training as Motivational Tool for the Job Satisfaction in Saudi Arabia

Dear Respondent, Thank you for taking time to fill in this questionnaire. The following questionnaire is very important to complete this research on Training as Motivational Tool for the Job Satisfaction in S.A.. This questionnaire is designed such that it will not take more than 5 minutes of your valuable time to complete. The collected data will be kept confidential. None of the respondents will know about the others responses.

Demographic Data
1. Gender: Male Female 2. Age: Between 20-30 years More than 30 years 3. The organization you are working for is a: Governmental organization Local private organization International private organization 4. Years of experience with your current employer: Less than 4 years More than 4 years 5- Your current position is in: A managerial level A non-managerial level

6. Your average monthly income: Less than $ 1500 More than $1500 7. Number of employees in your organization: Less than 100 employees More than 100 employees

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8. Your highest educational degree is: High school Diploma University degree Postgraduate study 9. Your Nationality is: Saudi Jordanian Palestinian Egyptian Other Arab Nationality Non Arab Nationality

53

Q1. Beside the income, arrange the following items according to its importance in the job you prefer? (1 is the most important and 4 is the least important) Career path and promotion possibility Training and self development Stability and low work pressure Size and reputation of the organization
Totally Agree I don't know Disagree Totally Disagree

Please indicate to which extent you agree /do not agree with the followinf: Q2. My department provides training opportunities to meet the changing needs of the workplace Q3. In my department, training is planned and not accidental

Agree

Q4. In my department, people are interested in both personal and professional development Q5. In my organization, training options are not only class room training ( e.g. coaching, on job) Q6. Training and development are encouraged in my department Q7. I am proactive in seeking ways to improve what I do

Q8. I seek out learning opportunities rather than waiting to be sent to training Q9. I have learning goals to enhance my current work assignment and prepare me for future Q10. I have already involved in development courses on my account Q11. Overall, the training I receive is applicable to my job

Q12. Overall, the training I receive job meets my needs Q13. Overall, I am satisfied with the amount of training I receive on the job Q14. I am generally able to use what I learn in the on job training in my job. Q15. Training can help me for getting new opportunities

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