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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/


Table of Contents
Languages that have voiceless alveolar affricate..................................................................................................4 Voiceless alveolar affricate......................................................................................................................................5
Contents........................................................................................................................................................................................6 [edit] Features..............................................................................................................................................................................6 [edit] Occurrence.........................................................................................................................................................................7 [edit] See also................................................................................................................................................................................8 [edit] References..........................................................................................................................................................................8 [edit] Bibliography.......................................................................................................................................................................9

A Phonetic and Phonemic Analysis of the Czech of a Native Bilingual American English Speaker............12 Towards a Lang25 Phonology .............................................................................................................................12 Merger of Voiced Alveolar Affricates and Fricatives in Japanese....................................................................12 Ling201 Phonetics..................................................................................................................................................12 Mizo Structure.......................................................................................................................................................13 II. STRUCTURE OF THE LANGUAGE:..........................................................................................................13 3.1.0 Phonology......................................................................................................................................................13
3.1.1Consonants......................................................................................................................................................................................................13

3.2.0 Morphology...................................................................................................................................................16
Nouns.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................16 Gender.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................16 Number....................................................................................................................................................................................................................18 Possessive pronouns................................................................................................................................................................................................21 Adjectives................................................................................................................................................................................................................22 Adjectives of comparison.......................................................................................................................................................................................22 Verbs........................................................................................................................................................................................................................22 Word Formation Processes....................................................................................................................................................................................26 Affixation.................................................................................................................................................................................................................26 Wednesday, September 28, 2011 Page 1 of 78

Taang Zomi Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ Suffixes.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................27 Compounding..........................................................................................................................................................................................................28 The Grammatical Structure of Mizo....................................................................................................................................................................46

Syntax......................................................................................................................................................................46
Argument Structure...............................................................................................................................................................................................46 VP Construction:....................................................................................................................................................................................................46 Subject and Object Agreement Clitics..................................................................................................................................................................47 Intransitive Verb Construction:............................................................................................................................................................................47 Transitive Verb Construction:...............................................................................................................................................................................48 Adverbial clauses in Mizo......................................................................................................................................................................................51 Adverbial Clause of Time......................................................................................................................................................................................51 Conditional Clauses................................................................................................................................................................................................52 6. Position of the Complementizer .......................................................................................................................................................................53 7. Position of Adjectives and Numerals................................................................................................................................................................53 8. Determiners.........................................................................................................................................................................................................54 9. Relative clauses in Mizo: ...................................................................................................................................................................................54 10. Genitive Marker...............................................................................................................................................................................................57 11. Position of Quantifiers......................................................................................................................................................................................57 12. pro-drop.............................................................................................................................................................................................................58 13. Agreement.........................................................................................................................................................................................................58 14. Wh-question......................................................................................................................................................................................................58 15. Yes-No questions...............................................................................................................................................................................................59 16. Tense and Aspect...............................................................................................................................................................................................59 17. Negation.............................................................................................................................................................................................................59 18. Anaphora...........................................................................................................................................................................................................60 19. Ergativity...........................................................................................................................................................................................................60 21. Passives in Mizo ...............................................................................................................................................................................................61 22. Clefts in Mizo....................................................................................................................................................................................................62 ==

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

Languages that have voiceless alveolar affricate


http://www.google.com/#hl=en&cp=48&gs_id=3&xhr=t&q=Languages+that+have+voiceless+alveolar+affricate&qe=TGFuZ3VhZ2VzIHRoYXQga GF2ZSB2b2ljZWxlc3MgYWx2ZW9sYXIgYWZmcmljYXRl&qesig=CC5v72Fy38Q87TyRGfOPvw&pkc=AFgZ2tnZJbZi1CsARnPazSNmtvdI8Cb DlhmZT4R-tvR3TfjkJY72fQ4dbfV24pfIbrO5wOPsaydwQYUbVnWDdiRRScoXzk0Wgw&pf=p&sclient=psyab&site=&source=hp&pbx=1&oq=Languages+that+have+voiceless+alveolar+affricate&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&gs_sm=&gs_upl=&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_p w.,cf.osb&fp=287cb8a321ceab01&biw=1002&bih=544 ==

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Taang Zomi http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_alveolar_affricate

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

Voiceless alveolar affricate


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Voiceless alveolar affricate

IPA number 103 (132) Encoding Entity (decimal) ʦ Unicode (hex) U+02A6 ts X-SAMPA Kirshenbaum ts Sound

view talk edit The voiceless alveolar affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ts or ts (formerly with ). The voiceless alveolar affricate occurs in such languages as German, Cantonese, Italian, Russian, Japanese and Mandarin Chinese, among many others. International auxiliary languages, such as Esperanto, Ido and Interlingua also include this sound.

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

Contents
[hide] 1 Features 2 Occurrence 3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography

[edit] Features

Where symbols appear in pairs, leftright represent the voicelessvoiced consonants This table contains phonetic symbols. They may not display correctly in some browsers (Help). IPA help IPA key audio help chart view Features of the voiceless alveolar affricate: Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence. Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal. Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds. It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only. It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides. The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

[edit] Occurrence
Language Abkhaz Ainu Word IPA [atsa] [tsuk] Meaning 'hornbeam' See Abkhaz phonology 'autumn' Page 5 of 78 Notes

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Albanian Armenian Asturian Berber Kabyle Basque Bulgarian Catalan[1] Cherokee Cantonese Chinese Mandarin Czech English Esperanto French Quebec Georgian[2] German Greek Hebrew Hungarian Italian[3] Japanese Kabardian Kiowa Latvian Maltese Nez Perce Pashto Polish[4] Portuguese Brazilian

cimbidh

Taang Zomi [tsimbi]

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

cibiea iee hotz hots potser /tsa-la-gi /cai1 /zocn co pizza ceceo petit zehn /kortsi cica grazia /tsunami ch cik zokk cickan co futsal

'tongs' (helpinfo) 'net' sa] [ibit 'stick' [itsts] 'he counts' [ots] 'cold' [ots] 'sound' sena] ['t 'price' se] [putt 'maybe' See Catalan phonology salai] [t 'Cherokee' [tsi] 'wife' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Cantonese phonology [ts tsan] 'breakfast' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Mandarin phonology [tso] 'what' See Czech phonology [pits] [tsetseo] [ptsi] [ktsi] [tsen] [koritsi] [tse va] [tsits] [rat sja] [tsunami] [ts] [ts] [tsik] [tsokk] [tsitskan] [tsalor] [ts] (helpinfo) [f'ts] 'pizza (food)' See English phonology 'tsetse fly' See Esperanto phonology 'small' See Quebec French phonology 'man' 'ten' See German phonology 'girl' See Modern Greek phonology 'color' See Modern Hebrew phonology 'kitten' See Hungarian phonology 'grace' The letter <z> may also represent /dz/. See Italian phonology 'tsunami' See Japanese phonology 'hair' 'short' 'how many' See Latvian phonology '(tree) trunk' 'blanket' 'four' 'what' See Polish phonology 'futsal' See Portuguese phonology Wednesday, September 28, 2011

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ Romanian Russian Sardinian Campidanese Serbo-Croatian Slovak Tanacross Ukrainian West Frisian Central Alaskan Yup'ik[5] Yi pre petza /cilj cudz dzeen tsiis cetaman /zy [prets] [tsar] [ptsa] [ts] [tsudzi] [tsen] [tsj] [tsis] [tstaman] [ts] 'price' 'Tsar' 'meat' 'target' 'foreign' 'day' 'this one' 'cheese' 'four' 'to plant' See Romanian phonology See Russian phonology See Serbo-Croatian phonology

See Ukrainian phonology allophone of /t/ before schwa Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms

[edit] See also


List of phonetics topics

[edit] References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ^ Recasens & Espinoza (2007:144) ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255) ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117) ^ Jassem (2003:103) ^ Jacobson (1995:2)

[edit] Bibliography
Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103107 Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2007), "An electropalatographic and acoustic study of affricates and fricatives in two Catalan dialects", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (2): 143172 Shosted, Ryan K.; Vakhtang, Chikovani (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255264 Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117121 Jacobson, Steven (1995), A Practical Grammar of the Central Alaskan Yup'ik Eskimo Language, Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center, ISBN 9781555000509

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Taang Zomi v d e International Phonetic Alphabet [show] IPA topics IPA Phonetics Special topics Encodings

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

International Phonetic Association History of the IPA Kiel convention (1989) Journal of the IPA (JIPA) Naming conventions Diacritics Segments Tone letter Place of articulation Manner of articulation Extensions to the IPA Obsolete and nonstandard symbols IPA chart for English dialects SAMPA X-SAMPA Conlang X-SAMPA Kirshenbaum TIPA Phonetic symbols in Unicode WorldBet [show] Consonants

Vo

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

This page was last modified on 8 September 2011 at 23:45. ==

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Taang Zomi http://idiom.ucsd.edu/~kbicknell/dl/czech.pdf

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

A Phonetic and Phonemic Analysis of the Czech of a Native Bilingual American English Speaker
== http://langx.org/towardsalang25ph.html

Towards a Lang25 Phonology


== http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=1575188

Merger of Voiced Alveolar Affricates and Fricatives in Japanese


== http://www.ling.ohio-state.edu/~hana/201/HO07-Phonetics.pdf

Ling201 Phonetics
==

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ http://www.lisindia.net/Mizo/Mizo_struct.html

Mizo Structure II. STRUCTURE OF THE LANGUAGE: 3.1.0 Phonology


3.1.1Consonants
/p/ /ph/ /b/ /t/ /th/ /d/ /k/ /kh/ /?/ /tl/ /tlh/ /tr/ /trh/ /ts/ /tsh/ /m/ /n/ /ng/ /l/ /r/ /f/ /v/ /s/ /z/ /h/ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A voiceless bilabial plosive voiceless bilabial aspirated plosive voiced bilabial plosive voiceless dental plosive voiceless dental aspirated plosive voiced dental plosive voiceless velar plosive voiceless velar aspirated plosive glottal plosive voiceless dental plosive released with a lateral voiceless dental aspirated plosive released with a lateral voiceless alveolar plosive released with a trill voiceless alveolar aspirated plosive released with a trill voiceless alveolar affricate voiceless alveolar aspirated affricate voiced bilabial nasal voiced dental nasal voiced velar nasal voiced dental lateral voiced alveolar trill voiceless labio-dental fricative voiced labio-dental fricative voiceless alveolar fricative voiceless alveolar fricative voiceless glottal fricative

3.1.2 Homorganic Sounds: /hm/ : A homorganic voiceless bilabial nasal released with a voiced bilabial nasal

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Taang Zomi
/hn/ /hl/ /hr/ : : :

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

A homorganic voiceless dental nasal released with a voiced dental nasal A homorganic voiceless dental lateral released with a voiced dental lateral A homorganic voiceless alveolar fricative trill released with a voiced alveolar trill

3.1.3 Sound Inventory (To be discussed in the final Draft.) 3.1.4 VOWELS Monophthongs Table: 1 Front Central High i Mid e Low a

Back u o

Diphthongs Table: 2 I u e ui iu ai au ei eu oi ou

a ia ua

Triphthongs iai, uai, uau, iau 3.1.5 Sound Inventory (To be discussed in the final Draft.)

3.2.0 Morphology
Nouns Gender
Mizo does not have any grammatical gender. There are three genders in Mizo namely, Masculine Gender, Feminine Gender, and Neuter Gender. a. Masculine and feminine genders are sometimes distinguished by different words.
For example: boy mi-pa-naupan

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/


girl For example: boih-pa boih-nu hmei-chia

b. Sometimes masculine and feminine genders are formed by affixing pa for masculine and nu for feminine.
a male slave a female slave

c. In case of non-human living beings chal is used in place of masculine marker pa with big animals, but the feminine marker for big animals is always pui.
For example: kel-chal he-goat kel-pui she-goat When the gender is not specified these markers do not occur. d. A few words are the same in both the gender (may be treated as common gender). For Example: u nao elder brother or sister younger brother or sister

e. All the proper names end in -a when they are masculine and in i when they are feminine. For example: zova zovi tluanga tluangi name name name name of of of of a a a a boy/man girl/woman boy/man girl/woman

All the names of the animals, unless specified their gender, and the names of inanimate objects are of neuter gender.

Number
There are two numbers in Mizosingular and plural. However, in most of the cases nouns are not marked with any plural marker and the plurality is encoded in the modifiers or numerals that modify the noun and also in the agreement pattern. But in few cases the following plural markers are used.
They arete, ho, ho-te, zong-zong, zong-zong-te Pronouns Personal pronouns Singular First Person Plural keima/kei keimani/keini

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Taang Zomi
Second Person Third Person nangma/nang ani

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/


nangmani/nangni an-ni

Case forms In Mizo, Case markers are invariant with respect to person and number. First Person Singular Nominative Ergative Accusative Genitive Second Person Singular Nominative Ergative Accusative Genitive Third Person Singular Nominative Ergative Accusative Genitive Indefinite Pronouns eng-lo engma/engma-lo tu-ma/tu-ma-lo tu-emaw Demonstrative pronouns hei-hi kha-kha khu-khu so-so cu-cu Plural keima/kei keima-in/kei-in keima min/kei min/min keima/ka Plural nangma/nang nangma-in/nang-in nangma/nang nangma/nanga/i Plural ani ani-n ani ani something nothing none, nobody someone, somebody this (in the proximity) that (upward) that (downward) that (not in the proximity) that(not in the proximity) an-ni an-ni an-ni an-ni-n

keimani/keini kei-in-n keimani/keini min/min keimani/kan

nangmani/nangni nang-in-n nangmani/nangni nangma/nanga/in

Reflexive pronouns and their forms Mizo has the form amaah corresponding to self in English. It has a reduplicated form amaah leh amaah self and self.
First Person Second Person Third Person kei-maah nangmaah amaah leh leh leh kei-maah nangmaah amaah

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ The reduplicated reflexive form occurs in the direct or indirect object position and does not carry any case marker.

Possessive pronouns
The possessive pronouns and the subject pronominal clitics are identical in form.
First Person Second Person Third Person Interrogative pronouns tu-ng who tu-cu-nge whom tu-taa-nge whose eng-nge what en-tik-aa-nge when en-vaang-in-nge why Singular ka i a tu-emo eng-emo Plural kan in an somebody something

Adjectives
Adjectives in Mizo are placed after the nominal they modify. For example, mi Tha person good A good person When a noun is used as an adjective, it precedes the noun it modifies. For example, mao dawh-kan wood table A table made of wood

Adjectives of comparison
Comparative marker zawk is added to the positive form of the adjective to derive comparative form and affix ber is added to the positive form of the adjective to form superlative degree. For example,
Positive Tha good Comparative Tha-zawk better Superlative Tha-ber best

Verbs
All Mizo verbs undergo a process of verb conversion, where the second form is derived from the first form. This classification is based on the grammatical properties of the verbs dependent on their syntactic distribution (Lalrindiki, 1992). From II verbs occur in clefts, passives, conditionals, and other non-finite constructions. As they do not take any agreement marker they can be classified as [-Tensed] verbs. The following are a few instances of stem alternation:
Stem-I naa mhang pot veel laa Stem-II nat mhan poh velh laak Gloss to hurt to use to pull to hit to take

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Taang Zomi
aat phiat thii laai nei lou zou zoot rum muu ah phiah thih laih neih loh zoh zoh ruuk mut to to to to to to to to to to

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/


cut clean die dig keep/have pluck complete ask steal sleep

These verbs of two stems differ in their finals and tones.

Adverbs Adverbs of Time ni-tin nakina ngai ngai-lo tuna-pawh kum-tin nimina voi-in-a naktuk-a nimin-piah fo nikuma kum-ina Adverbs of Place chunga chung-lama heta saw-ta khi-ta khu-ta vel Adverbs of manner eng-tin-nge thuai/thuai-thuai zoi-zoi-in

daily at present ever never already yearly yesterday today tomorrow day before yesterday always last year this year on top above here there up there down there around how quickly slowly

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/


zawk ber vak more most with force

Affixing tak-in to an adjective form forms some adverbs. For example, Adjective Adverb dik/fei dik-tak-in/fei-tak-in accurate accurately huai huai-tak-in bold boldly eng eng-tak-in bright brightly etc. Some adjectives are used as adverbs without any change in the form. For example: Adjective Adverb ring ring loud loudly hman-hmaw hman-hmaw hurry hurriedly etc.

Word Formation Processes


Most of the Mizo words are monosyllabic in nature. There are a very few words which are non-derived polysyllabic words. Mizo uses two major devices to form words. They are affixation and compounding.

Affixation
There are very few derivational affixes in Mizo. The main morphological markers are: Prifixes ti/tih- This is a transitivizing prefix attached to an intransitive verb stem to form corresponding transitive verb.
For example: tlaa Stem-I ti-tlaa For example: kaap Stem-I in-kaap tlaak Stem-II tih-tlaak to fall to make X fall

in- This functions as a reflexive and reciprocal marker, termed as verbal reflexive in Mizo (cf. Subbarao and Lalithamurthy, 1997).
kah Stem-II in-kah to shoot to shoot each other

Suffixes
-Om- This is an adjectival marker, which is attached to verb stems to form adjectives.
For example: hlaau Stem-I hlaau-Om hlauh Stem-II hlauh-Om to be afraid/scared fearsome/scary

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Taang Zomi
mi-hlaau-Om person fearsome A scary/fearsome person

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

-na- This is a nominalizer attached to verbs to derive nominals. This suffix is always attached to the second form of the verbs and never to the first form of verbs.
For example: hmangnai Stem-I *hmangna-nai For example: Adjectives huai bold eng bright For example: dawr/dawr-kei rong-bawl nei hmangnaih Stem-II hmangnaih-na love to love

-tak-in- This is an adverbial marker attached to adjectives to derive adverbs.


Adverbs huai-tak-in boldly eng-tak-in brightly etc.

-tu- This an agentive marker attached to nouns/adjectives/verbs to form agentive nominals.


shop dawr-kei-tu to attend rong-bawl-tu to have/to keep nei-tu shopkeeper attendant owner/keeper

Compounding
As stated earlier, most of the polysyllabic words in Mizo are the result of compounding.
For example: Noun + Noun: Noun + Adjective/Verb: Noun + Verb: kee leg kam mouth thil thing + + + kor cloth tam crowd = = kekor trousers kamtam to be talkative thilpek gift

pek = to give

Basic Vocabulary 1. Body Parts Hair Head Skull Brain Face Forehead

: : : : :

sam lu luruh thluak hmai :

chal

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/


Eyebrow Eye Eyelid Eyelash Pupil Nose Nostril Cheek Cheek-bone Ear Ear-drum Mouth Lip Teeth Tongue Moustache Chin Neck Shoulder Arm Elbow Hand Palm Finger Thumb Nail Chest Breast Belly Waist Thigh Knee Ankle Toe Sole Ribs Spine Bone Lungs Stomach Liver Intestine Heart Muscles : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : mithmul mit mittlangkawm mithmul mitnote hnar hnar kua biang biangke beng : bengdar ka hmui ha lei hmuihmul khabe nghawng : dar ban kiu kut kutphah kutzungTang kutzungpui tin awm hnute pum ka malpui khup keartui kezungpui kephah nakruh hnungzangruh ruh chuaf pumpui thin : ril thinlung tha

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Taang Zomi
Veins Blood 2. Calendar Year Month Week Day : : : : : : thisenzam thisen kum thla kor ni pathian ni thawhtan ni thawhleh ni nilai ni : nilaithawtan ni zirtuep ni : inrin ni pawlkut thla : ramtuk thla vau thla Tau thla tomir thla nikir thla vawklniahzawm thla thitin thla : mimkut thla khuangchawi thla : sahmulphah thla : pawltlak thla theihai balhla serthlum kawethei : lakhuih thei dewnpawh theibuhfai ser thingphanghma theihai

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

Days of the Week: Sunday : Monday : Tuesday : Wednesday : Thursday Friday : Saturday Months of the year: January : February March : April : May : June : July : August : September October : November December 3. Fruits Mango Banana Orange Guava Pineapple Watermelon Pomegranate Lemon Papaya Pinion Fruit : : : : : : : : :

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/


4. Vegetables Onion : Cabbage : Cauliflower Garlic : Eggplant Potato : Mushroom Cucumber Mustard : 5. Flowers 6. Spices 7. Dishes 8. Cooking Terminology 9. Colours Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet White Black 10. Numerals Ordinals: First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh Eighth Ninth Tenth Eleventh Twelfth Thirteenth Fourteenth Fifteenth Sixteenth Seventeenth purunsen zikhlum : parbawr purunvar : bawkbaun aalu : pa : fanghma intam

: : : : : : : :

sen serthlum rawng eng hring pawl senduk var dum

: : : : : : : : : : :

pakhatna palnihna pathumna palina pangana parukna pasarihna pariatna pakuana sawmna : sawm pakhatna sawm palnihna : sawm pathumna : sawm palina : sawm pangana : sawm parukna :sawm pasarihna

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Taang Zomi
Eighteenth Nineteenth Twentieth Twenty first Twenty second Twenty third Twenty fourth Twenty fifth Thirtieth Thirty first Thirty second Thirty third Thirty fourth Thirty fifth .. Fortieth Forty first Forty second Forty third Forty fourth Forty fifth Fiftieth : : : : : : : : sawm pariatna sawm pakuana sawm hnihna

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

sawmhnih pakhatna sawmhnih palnihna sawmhnih pathumna sawmhnih palina sawmhnih pangana : sawmthumna : sawmthum pakhatna sawmthum palnihna : sawmthum pathumna sawmthum palina : sawmthum pangana : sawmlina : sawmli pakhatna sawmli palnihna : sawmli pathumna sawmli palina : sawmli pangana : sawmngana

: :

: :

Thus, it can be seen that na is the ordinal marker that is consistent throughout the paradigm.

Cardinals: One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen

: : : : : : : : : : : :

pakhat palnih pathum pali panga paruk pasarih pariat pakua sawm sawm pakhat sawm palnih : sawm pathum : sawm pali

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/


Fifteen : Sixteen : Seventeen Eighteen Nineteen Twenty : Twenty One : Twenty Two : Twenty Three : Twenty Four : Twenty Five : Twenty Six : Twenty Seven : Twenty Eight : Twenty Nine : Thirty : Thirty One Thirty Two Thirty Three : Thirty Four Thirty Five Thirty Six Thirty Seven : Thirty Eight : Thirty Nine Forty : Forty One Forty Two Forty Three : Forty Four Forty Five Forty Six Forty Seven : Forty Eight : Forty Nine Fifty : etc. Hundred : Two Hundreds : One Thousand : Ten Thousand : One Lakh sawm panga sawm paruk : sawm pasarih : sawm pariat : sawm pakua sawm hnih sawmhnih pakhat sawmhnih palnih sawmhnih pathum sawmhnih pali sawmhnih panga sawmhnih paruk sawmhnih pasarih sawmhnih pariat sawmhnih pakua sawmthum : sawmthum pakhat : sawmthum palnih sawmthum pathum : sawmthum pali : sawmthum panga : sawmthum paruk sawmthum pasarih sawmthum pariat : sawmthum pakua sawmli : sawmli pakhat : sawmli palnih sawmli pathum : sawmli pali : sawmli panga : sawmli paruk sawmli pasarih sawmli pariat : sawmli pakua sawmnga za zalmi sangkhat singkhat : nuai-khat

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Taang Zomi
.etc. 12. Measurement Distance Height : Weight : Volume : : hlat lam san lam rih lam tam lam

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

13. Domesticated animals Dog : ui Cat : zawhte Cow : bawng Duck : varak Chicken : ar Bull : sial Pig : vawk Goat : kel Sheep : beram 14. Wild Animals Lion : Tiger : Deer : Monkey : Elephant Crocodile Wolf : Fox : Tortoise Bear : Snake : Squirrel Eagle : Vulture : Peacock : sakeifaknei sakei sakhi zawng : sai : awle chinghnia sihal : satel savawm rul : thehlei mu mulukawlh arawn nu pa unaupa unaunu pu pi :

15. Kinship terms Mother : Father : Brother : Sister : Grandfather : Grandmother : Mothers younger brother

putea

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/


Mothers elder brother Fathers younger brother Fathers elder brother Mothers younger sister : Mothers elder sister Fathers younger sister : Fathers elder sister Son : Daughter Nephew : Niece : Stepmother : Stepfather Wife : Husband : Brother-in-law : Sister-in-law : : pu : patea : pa nutei : nu nitei : nipuii fapa : fanu vahpa vahnu nuhrawn : pahrawn nupui pasal makpa (family of the girl) mo (family of the boy)

16. Celestial Bodies etc. Sun : ni Sunset : ni tla Sunrise : ni chuak Dawn : vartian Dusk : thimhlim Day : chum Night : zan Evening : tlai Morning : zing Noon : chun lai Midnight : zanlai Stars : arsi Moon : thla Sky : van Planet : arsi Horizon : kawlkil Fire : meialh Earth : khawvel

17. Geographical Terms Land : Forest : Plain : Plateau :

ram rampnuiu phaizawl tlang zawl

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Hill Mountain Cliff Gorges Cave Peak Field Rain Thunder Lightning Hailstorm Water Ocean Sea River Lake Well Pond : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : tlang : tlang awhpang kawr thuk puk tlang chip lo ram ruah khawpui ri : kawlphe : rial tui tuifinriat tuipui lui dil tuichun chuah tuikhuah

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

The Grammatical Structure of Mizo


Mizo is a Tibeto-Burman language of the Kuki-Chin group spoken in the northeast of India. There are some speakers scattered in the adjoining hill states of Manipur and Tripura as well as along the border areas of Burma and Bangladesh. Like other Tibeto-Burman languages, Mizo, too, conforms to almost all the typological features of an SOV language. This section attempts to present some typological characteristics of Mizo. These characteristics are discussed in specific relation to word order universals.

Syntax
Mizo is a verb-final language and is left branching in the unmarked word order. It has postpositions and a post sentential complementizer occurs to the right of the embedded sentence. The auxiliary verb always follows the main verb. The very rich pattern of agreement in Mizo allows heavy pro drop. Subject normally precedes all other arguments. Locative precedes instrumental and instrumental precedes indirect object. Direct object follows the Indirect Object. As it is a split-ergative language, all the transitive subjects are marked with the ergative marker n/-in and the object with-f.

Argument Structure
Subjects normally precede all other arguments. Locatives precede instruments, which in turn precede indirect objects. Direct objects follow all other arguments. The order is: S X IO DO V Mizo is a split-ergative language: ergative-absolutive in the NPs and nominativeaccusative in the VPs. The subject NPs are marked with the ergative marker in of all transitive verbs and objects are unmarked as they are the subjects of intransitives.

VP Construction:
As it is mentioned earlier, Mizo is a split-ergative language: ergative-absolutive in the NPs and nominative-accusative in the VPs. The subject NPs are marked with the ergative marker in of all transitive verbs and objects are unmarked as they are the subjects of intransitives. The VP construction in Mizo is discussed in the next chapter. Page 26 of 78 Wednesday, September 28, 2011

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

Subject and Object Agreement Clitics


Mizo verbs are marked with subject and object agreement clitics. The agreement clitics are obligatory for all constructions except imperatives and wh-subject questions.

Intransitive Verb Construction:


The intransitive verb constructions are simpler than that of transitive verbs as the intransitive predicate does not categorizes any internal argument. The verb carries only subject agreement markers. They are given below:
Singular First Person Second Person Third Person For example, 1. ka-bual 1sg-bathe I bathe. 2. -bual 2sg-bath You bathe. 3. a-bual 3sg-bathe He/She bathes. These pronominal agreement clitics are also genitive markers in NPs. For example, 4. ka -bawng i -bawng a -bawng 1sg cow 2sg cow 3sg cow My cow Your cow His/Her cow Plural ka i a kan in an

Transitive Verb Construction:


Since transitive predicates select an internal argument, the transitive verbs are marked with object agreement markers in addition to the subject agreement markers. The paradigm for the object agreement marker is given below:
Singular First Person Second Person Third Person Plural mi/min ce mi/min ce-u

As Subbarao and Lalithamurthy (ms) point out, the order of the agreement marker affixation is determined by a person hierarchy where the first person dominates the rest and second person takes supremacy over the third person. If the object is second person then the verb carries both the markers subject agreement marker as well as object agreement marker. For example,
5. ka-tanpui-ce 1sg help 2OAM I helped you. ka-tanpui-ce-u

6.

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1sg help 2OAM I helped you all. 7. a-tanpui-ce 3sg help 2OAM He/She helped you.

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

Third person objects receive no agreement marker. 8. ka-tanpui- 1sg help OAM I helped him/her. i-tanpui- 1sg help OAM You helped him/her.

9.

Word Order 1. Mizo is a verb-final ( SOV ) language. 10. ka pa -in ka hneenah lekhabu-cu a -than ang my-father Erg 1sg Dat book DefD 3sg send Fut My father will send a book for me.

2. The Indirect Object precedes the Direct Object in the unmarked word order in Mizo. 11. zova -n zovi -hneenah lekhabu a -than Zova Erg Zovi Dat money 3sg send Zova will send a book to Zovi. -ang Fut

3. Greenbergs (1996) universal 4 states that .with overwhelmingly greater than chance frequency, languages with normal SVO-order are postpositional. Mizo conforms to his claim.
12. lekhabu dOkaan cung a- Om book table on 3sg be/exist There is a book on the table. hi leekhabu zova taam Det book Zova for This book is for Zova. a -ni 3sg be

13.

4. The marker of comparison follows the standard of comparison. The comparative marker zOk and superlative marker ber remain uniform through out the paradigm.
14. zova zovi ay-in a -fing zOk Zova Zovi than 3sg intelligent more Zova is more intelligent than Zovi.

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/


15. he lekhabu hi kha lekhabu ay-in Dem book DefD Dem book than 3sg big more This book is bigger than that book. a -liyan zOk

Adverbial clauses in Mizo


Normally in verb final languages, time adverbials precede place adverbials in unmarked word order and they occur in descending order. Like many other verb-final languages Mizo too, has the same order.

Adverbial Clause of Time


16. zovi-n hna a -thOh zOh hun-ah zova hetah aZovi Erg work 3sg finish after Loc Zova here 3sg Zova will come here after Zovi finishes her work. lo kal-ang come Fut

Adverbial Clause of Place 17. nimin -a ka -hmu hna -ah ce yesterday Loc 1sg meet place Loc 2sg time I will meet you where I met you yesterday. (Subbarao and Lalitha Murthy,ms) 18.

khaan ka -hmuh ang 1sg meet Fut 2sg

ce

nikum -ah aizOl ah mi tamtak an-kal tOh last year Loc Aizawl Loc people many 3pl go Asp Many people went to Aizawl last year. PM -cu january ni sOm thum khan lunglaei-ah a PM Def January be ten three DefD Lunglei Loc 3sg The prime minister went to Lunglei on January 30. -kal go

19.

Adverb Clause of Manner 20. i -thOh-ang ciah in kei-pOh-in he hna hi 2sg work manner Adv I also Erg DEM work DefD1sg work I also did this work like you did it. (Subbarao and Lalitha Murthy,ms)

ka -thOk Asp

-tOh

Conditional Clauses
In Mizo conditional clauses are formed by adding cuan if to the right of the verb. cuan is a subordinating conditional marker.
21. zova a lo kal cuan in Zova 3sg come if COMP We will go out if Zova comes. kan -sOm cuan in 1pl invite if They will come if 1pl kan- chuk -ang go out Fut

22.

an -lo kal -ang COMP 3pl come Fut we invite them.

6. Position of the Complementizer


Mizo has postposed Final Complementizers (FC) occuring to the right of the embedded sentence. Wednesday, September 28, 2011 Page 29 of 78

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23.

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/


a -hria

zova -n [naktuk cu colni a -ni -ang ti? ] Zova Erg tomorrow Def holiday 3sg be Fut COMP 3sg know Zova knows that tomorrow will be a holiday. [zova voin -ah a -lokal in ] ka Zova today Loc 3sg come COMP 1sg think I think zova might come today. -ring

24.

7. Position of Adjectives and Numerals


The adjectives and numerals follow the noun, which is modified. But demonstrative adjectives precede the modified noun.
25. zova mipanaupang tSa Zova boy Zova is a good boy. a -ni good 3sg be

26.

bom ah thei pasarih an - Om basket Loc fruit seven 3pl be/exist There are seven fruits in the basket.

8. Determiners
Like most of the Tibeto-Burman languages, a determiner in Mizo consists of two parts. The demonstrative occurs to the left of the modifying noun and its counterpart definite determiner occurs to the right of the modified noun. This nature of determiners is referred to as split determiners (Subbarao and Lalitha Murthy, ms).
27. heihi lekhabu heihi this book this DEM N DefD so paa so thaau tak DEM man DefD fat very 3sg That man is very fat. a be -ni

28.

9. Relative clauses in Mizo:


Apart from the simple adjectives, Mizo uses the strategy of relativization to modify the NPs. Mizo has different structures for relativizing a subject and non-subject NPs. It has Externally Headed prenominal and postnominal relative clauses. Though it does not have any relative pronoun, it has head internal relative clause that resembles Internally Headed relative clauses.
Subject relativization Externally Headed Postnominal Relative Clause 29. [[(kha) zirtirtu] [caOimaOina dong tu -tuur f ]kha (i)n ]kan sikul DEM teacher honour receive AGT Fut Def.D our school a -tlOh ang] 3sg visit Fut The teacher who will receive the honour will visit our school. Externally Headed Prenominal Relative Clause 30. [[caOimaOina dong tu -tuur f][(kha)zirtirtu] kha (i)n]kan sikul

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honour receive AGT Fut DEM teacher Def.D our a -tlOh ang] 3sg visit Fut The teacher who will receive the honour will visit our school. school

Head Internal Relative Clause 31. [[[vOin -ah [ (kha) zirtirtu][ caOimaOina dong tu -tuur f ] today Loc DEM teacher honour receive AGT Fut kha (i)n ] kan sikul a -tlOh ang] Def.D our school 3sg visit Fut The teacher who will receive the honour will visit our school today.

Like most of the Tibeto-Burman and Dravidian languages, Mizo does not have any relative pronoun and displays two different structures for the relativization of subject NP and non-subject NPs.
Non-Subject Relativization Direct Object Relativization 32. mujiem [zova-n a hmuh] cu liyaan tak a ni museum Zova Erg 3sg see DefD big very 3sg be The museum which Zova saw is very big. (Subbarao and Lalitha Murthy,ms) Indirect Object Relativization 33. nimin -a [zova n co a pek ]bOng (a) kha a-thi tOh yesterday LocZova Erg food 3sg give cow 3sg DefD 3sg die Asp The cow which Zova gave food to yesterday died. (Subbarao and Lalitha Murthy,ms) Oblique Object Relativization 34. dohkaana[lekhabu ka daah -na ] cu a liyaan table book 1sg keep INF DefD 3sg big The table on which I kept the book is big. (Subbarao and Lalitha Murthy,ms)

10. Genitive Marker


Unlike most of the Tibeto-Burman languages, Mizo does not have a genitive Postposition and possessive interpretation is contexual. However, pronominal clitics occur with the head noun to mark the genitive form.
35. zova lekhabu Zova book Zovas book ka pa 1sg. Father my father

36.

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

11. Position of Quantifiers


Normally in SOV languages the quantifiers precede the noun they modify. However, in Mizo, quantifiers follow the noun they modify.
37. in ah mi tamtak an Om house Loc. people many 3pl. be/exist There are many people at home. no - ah hnute tleem a -Om cup Loc. milk little 3sg. Be There is a little milk in the cup.

38.

12. pro-drop
Mizo has a very rich pattern of agreement. Subject as well Object pronouns are preferably dropped. However, they are recoverable via pronominal clitics that are incorporated in the verbal morphology.
39. pro ka 1sgSAM see I saw you. hmu pro 2sg OAM ce

13. Agreement
Personal pronouns in subject, direct object, indirect object and oblique object positions are dropped. But they are recoverable through pronominal clitics incorporated in verbal morphology. The subject agreement marker and the first person direct object agreement marker precede the verb stem whereas the second person direct object agreement marker follows the verb stem.
40. lekhabu-cu ka chiar book Acc 1sg read I read the book. ka hmu ce 1sgSAM see 2sg OAM I saw you.

41.

14. Wh-question
Like most of the South-Asian languages in general and Tibeto-Burman languages in particular, Mizo has wh-expression in situ. There is no obligatory wh-movement.
42. zova -n enge nilein -in a -ti Zova Erg what all day 3sg do What did zova do all the day yesterday.

15. Yes-No questions


As it is stated earlier there is no obligatory movement for the question formation in Mizo. Yes-No and tag question markers occur rightmost to the final constituent.
43. zovi sikul -ah tsangin aloh em Zovi school Loc from 3sg return y/n q-mkr Is Zovi coming from school?

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

16. Tense and Aspect


Mizo has future non-future contrast. The tense and aspect markers follow the verb stem. Mizo does not mark present and past tense.
Simple sentence/ embedded sentence mek / laay Prog. Aspect Marker ang / tur Fut marker

17. Negation
Negative element always follows the verb and occurs post verbally in Mizo. Neg in Mizo can carry agreement marker.
44. kan -hmu -lo -ce 1pl see Neg 2sg we didnt see you.

18. Anaphora
Like Dravidian languages such as Telugu, Tamil and Kannada and some of the Tibeto- Burman languages such as Hmar, Angami, Ao etc. Mizo, too, has verbal reflexives / reciprocals (VR). The VR follows the agreement marker but precedes the verb stem. When the VR occurs, the occurrence of the lexical anaphor is optional. However, when a lexical anaphor occurs in argument positions, the VR occurs obligatorily. In Mizo, the presence of the VR prohibits the occurrence of an ergative marker in/-n. Verbal Reflexives are always subject oriented.
45. zova - n ama leh ama azova Erg self and self Zova saw himself. in hmu 3sg VR see

19. Ergativity
Mizo, like some of the Tibeto-Burman languages has split ergativity in person. However, it does show consistency and in some cases the ergative marker becomes optional.
Nominative-Accusative 46. zova-n anni-cu Zova Erg they Acc 3sg Zova knows them. Ergative-Absolutive 47. zova-n min Zova Erg 1sg see Zova saw me. a know hria

hmu

20. The Position of the Plural Marker Plural markers follow the noun in simple sentences. 48. dOkan cun-ah leekhabu te anOm table on book Pl 3Pl be The books are on the table.

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Taang Zomi Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ However, when a noun phrase is modified by a clause, the plural marker occurs to the right of the complex NP followed by the definite marker.
49. nikum-a mi zong zong amerikaa kal ta te kha an last year people many America go sec pl DefD 3Pl Many people who went America last year became rich. (Subbarao and Lalitha Murthy,ms) hone lutul rich very

21. Passives in Mizo


The formation of Passive in Mizo is basically a FOCUSING operation where the logical DO or IO, which is treated as derived subject, is marked with the Focus marker cu. However there are other morphological changes that are observed.
Simple Active and Passive construction 50. zovi -n lekhabu a -ru Zovi Erg book 3sg steal Zovi stole the book. 51. zovi -n lekhabu-cu a Zovi Erg book FOC 3sg The book was stolen by Zovi. -ru steal Active

Passive

As Subbarao and Lalithmurthy (cf. 1997) point out the passive of the older generation is basically a FOCUSING operationthe passive is formed by focusing direct object or indirect object either to the left or to the right of the original sentencethe passive in younger generation is different from that of the older generationan extra sentence node with verb Om be (existential) or ni be (copula) is created. For example,
52. zovi -n lekhabu-cu a Zovi Erg book FOC 3sg The book was stolen by Zovi. -ru in steal linker a 3sg be -Om Passive

22. Clefts in Mizo


The formation of clefts in Mizo shares most of the features with the Passive. The NP, which is modified, is marked with the Focus marker cu and no other change has been observed.
53. zovi-cu cancui hre -tu Zovi FOC news know AGT 3sg It is Zovi who knows the news. a be -ni

54.

sakei-cu zova n a -tha ? a -ni tiger FOC Zova-Erg 3sg kill 3sg be This the tiger that Zova killed.

An extra node is created forni verb be which is a copula. As it is statedearlier there is not much difference between the formation of passives and that of clefts. The only difference that makes a passive different from a cleft is the occurrence of linker in in passive. The following example is illustrative.
55. sakei -cu zova-n a tha? in tiger FOC Zova Erg 3sg kill linker The/A tiger was killed by Zova. 3sg a- Om/*ni be/exist

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ To summarise, Mizo is a verb-final languages and is left branching in the unmarked word order. It has postpositions and a post sentential complementizer occurs to the right of the embedded sentence. The auxiliary verb always follows the main verb. The very rich pattern of agreement in Mizo allows heavy pro drop. Subject normally precedes all other arguments. Locative precedes instrumental and instrumental precedes indirect object. Direct object follows the Indirect Object. As it is a split-ergative language, all the transitive subjects are marked with the ergative marker n/-in and the object with-. The genitive precedes the governing noun and the marker of comparison follows the standard of comparison. Time adverbials precede place adverbials. The occurrence of elements in time as well as place adverbial phrases is in the descending order. Like many other languages of the world, Mizo, too, has the nonrestrictive relative clauses. The formation of clefts in Mizo shares most of the features with the Passive. The NP that is modified is marked with the Focus marker cu and no other change has been observed. The formation of Passive in Mizo is basically a FOCUSING operation where the logical DO or IO which is treated as derived subject is marked with the Focus marker cu. Apart from the simple adjectives Mizo uses the strategy of relativization to modify NPs. It has different structures for relativizing a subject and non-subject NPs. It has Externally Headed prenominal and postnominal relative clauses. Though it does not have any relative pronoun, it has head internal relative clause. Like most of the Tibeto-Burman languages Mizo does not have any relative pronoun. top
Copyright CIIL-India Mysore

==

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Taang Zomi == http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/wells/blog0610b.htm

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

John Wellss phonetic blog 16-31 October 2006, archived


email: j.wells@phon.ucl.ac.uk To see the phonetic symbols in the text, please ensure that you have installed a Unicode font that includes all the IPA symbols, for example Charis SIL (free download). Browsers: Some versions of Internet Explorer have bugs that prevent the proper display of certain phonetic symbols. I recommend Firefox (free) or, failing that, Opera (also free).

Tuesday 31 Degemination: the follow-up October Kensuke Nanjo reminds me that Jack Windsor Lewis, in his article Weakform words and contractions, 2006 mentions the degemination that can occur with the word some: When some occurs in a weakform immediately before a substantive beginning with /m/, there is very often DEGEMINATION of the two /m/s to only one and then OPEN SYLLABLE PREFERENCE prompts the insertion of a schwa vowel, eg /s `m/ Some more? Kensuke Nanjo And in his Reduced forms of English words Jack claims that what might be written good `eel, take `air, pry `minister and extra `tension for good `deal, take `care, prime `minister and extra at`tention are commonplace. Degemination in prime minister (as [pramnst]) is certainly widespread: I am not so convinced about take care, which doesnt feel right to me. The possible elision of /t/ in sit down, let go, whaddya want is not degemination, though it is obviously similar, and similarly lexically restricted. Jack Windsor Lewis Now to the matter of -ly. When this suffix is attached to a stem ending in /l/, there are several possibilities, partly lexically determined. (Degemination is the loss of one of two identical consonants; compression is a Page 36 of 78 Wednesday, September 28, 2011

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ reduction in the number of syllables.) A. stems ending in syllabic /l/ (or /l/) 1. degemination with compression, so that the adverb has the same number of syllables as the adjective. Examples: gentle gently, simple simply, single singly, noble nobly, able ably (and similarly for the suffix -able or -ible: possible possibly, visible visibly, reasonable reasonably, understandable understandably etc.) 2. degemination with variable compression. Sometimes compressed, sometimes pronounced with /-li/ or /-l i/. Adjectives ending in -ical, thus historic(al) historically, surgical surgically usually /-kli/. Adjectives ending in -ful, thus peaceful peacefully, beautiful beautifully. Also double doubly, special specially 3. degemination without compression. Other adjectives ending in -al, thus natural naturally, vital vitally, racial racially B. stems ending in non-syllabic /l/ 1. degemination. Example: full fully /fli/ (are there any other categorical examples?) 2. variable degemination. Examples: whole wholly, dull dully 3. no degemination Examples: pale palely /pelli/, vile vilely, cool coolly, futile futilely Does this about cover it? Monday 30 Degemination [d()] October Geminated (double) consonants are quite common in English. They are never found within a morpheme, but 2006 arise across (i) morpheme boundaries and (ii) across word boundaries, wherever one element ends in a given consonant and the following element begins with the same consonant: (i) meanness minns, guileless alls, nighttime nattam, midday mdde (ii) nice sort nas st, big girl b l, bad dog bd d Phonetically, geminated consonants are pronounced like ordinary ones but with extra duration. In the case of plosives, there is a single articulatory gesture but with a longer hold phase. same man /sem mn/ = [semn], stop pushing /stp p/ = [stp] This much is covered by our textbooks. But what I dont remember seeing much discussion of is degemination in English, the process whereby a geminate is simplified, i.e. two consonants are reduced to one. Degemination is the norm in derivational (fossilized) morphology, but the exception in inflectional (productive) morphology. So inside the lexicon there are plenty of cases of degemination such as dis + sent = dissent dsent (cf. consent), in + numerable = innumerable njumrbl abbreviate, addiction, aggregation, allocate, connotation, immigration, immature though even here we sometimes override degemination to emphasize the meaning of a prefix, as in dissuade Wednesday, September 28, 2011 Page 37 of 78

Taang Zomi

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

d(s)swed (cf. persuade), illegal (l)lil . Germanic affixes are not subject to degemination. So alongisde the Latinate innumerable we have unnecessary with geminated /nn/ and cases like meanness, guileless in (i) above. (Entombment is an interesting case: -ment, despite its Latin origin, came to be treated as an English formative (OED), which means that entombment n tummnt has geminate /mm/.) The behaviour of -ly when attached to a stem ending in /l/ is complicated: wed better leave it to another day. What got me thinking about all this was hearing a Conservative MP on the radio pronouncing the phrase a good deal better with just a single, ungeminated [d]. This option is something I drew attention to in LPD, and something I sometimes do myself, though I admit it is a minority choice and probably becoming less frequent. It is also irregular, in the sense that we dont degeminate other /dd/ sequences (good dog, bad deal).

Are there any other cases of degemination across a word boundary? Cannot is a special case. When can and not come together the result is not can not [kn nt] but [knt] (which in spoken styles is then usually further reduced to cant). But apart from these two (and the Australian gday) I cant think of any other cases. Can anyone? Friday 27 October 2006

Pinyin
Two correspondents have reproached me for misusing the term Pinyin to refer to what should properly be called Hanyu Pinyin. The more helpful one was Victor Mair, Professor of Chinese Language and Literature at the University of Pennsylvania, who points out that Pinyin essentially just means spelling. This did not use to be much of a problem, but now there are various other PINYIN schemes, some of which are becoming increasingly conspicuous. For example, the Taiwan Ministry of Education has recently approved the use of TAILUO PINYIN for the writing of Hoklo (often called "Taiwanese"), and there will be more and more textbooks published using this romanization during the coming years. There is also a competing TONGYONG PINYIN which is *supposed* to be applicable to all the languages of Taiwan. (Read more here and here.) In any event, continues Victor, these are exciting, eventful times for romanization in Taiwan and, indeed, in mainland China. You might also be interested to read Victors demolition of the widespread belief that the Chinese word for crisis is composed of elements that mean danger and opportunity. It isnt. (I note by the way that the Page 38 of 78 Wednesday, September 28, 2011

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ website where this article appears a guide to the writing of Mandarin Chinese in romanization is called just www.pinyin.info (sic).) So: in future Ill try to remember to refer to Hanyu Pinyin (or, with tones, Hny Pnyn). In Chinese thats (simplified) or (traditional).

Aussprachewrterbuch
Yesterday I was indeed in Cologne (Kln), Germany, as a guest on a television programme that hopefully represents the absolutely last gasp of the cow dialect story. We had a live cow (trained for film work) on the set in the studio, and I chatted about the inaccuracy of media reports with the presenter Gnther Jauch. There was also the footage we filmed in London last month. I made use of the three hours between arriving at my hotel and being picked up to go to the studio by doing a little shopping. I succeeded in buying the current (6th) edition of Max Mangolds Duden Aussprachewrterbuch, the standard German pronunciation dictionary. (When compiling LPD it was the third edition that I consulted.) As well as giving authoritative IPA transcriptions of the words of German, this book is also particularly informative about the pronunciation of words from other languages, and indeed about the phonetics of other languages. It gives tabulations or summaries of reading rules for over twenty different languages, including Estonian, Lithuanian and Latvian. It offers a table of all possible Mandarin Chinese Thursday syllables, in Pinyin, Wade-Giles and IPA. 26 October The dictionary tells us about the tones not only of Chinese but also of Burmese, Japanese, Lithuanian, Serbo2006 Croatian, Swedish, Thai, and Vietnamese. It tells us nothing at all, however, about the phonetics of Arabic or Hindi a strange omission. It also has a list of other languages in which word stress is initial (Estonian, Faeroese, Finnish, Georgian, Icelandic, Latvian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian, Slovak; Czech is among the languages with detailed phonetic descriptions), antepenultimate (Macedonian), final (French, Cambodian, Persian), on a specified syllable for each word (Afghan, Bulgarian, Hebrew, Indonesian, Catalan, Lithuanian, Malagasy, Romansch, Russian, Ukrainian, Belarussian), and similar to German (Danish, English). What, I wonder, happened to penultimate (not only Polish, but also Welsh and Swahili)?

Wednesday Now that I am back I have been able to check for the source of the claim that the IPA sanctions the use of [c, ] STOP PRESS: viewers in Germ 25 October to symbolize palatoalveolar affricates (blog, 18-19 October). Here is the passage I was thinking of, from the see me tonight at 22:15 on stern 2006 1949 booklet The Principles of the International Phonetic Association, p. 14-15. Eine Meldung und ihre Gesch Wednesday, September 28, 2011 Page 39 of 78

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

Muhen Khe Dialekt?. As you the answer is Nein!

The booklet has long been out of print, and has in any case been superseded by the current Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. In the latter there is very little discussion of the symbolization of affricates: in fact the only mentions I can find are on p. 22: Affricates and double articulations kp, t etc. Eng. chief;... and on p. 27: ...letters may also be combined to make a phoneme symbol (for instance /t/, as at the beginning Page 40 of 78 Wednesday, September 28, 2011

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ and end of English church; if necessary the phonological unity of the two segments can be shown by a tie bar: /t/). In the listing of symbols and their computer coding, p. 179, it is noted that the t-esh ligature (or tesh digraph, sic Unicode) and the d-ezh ligature (dezh digraph) have been superseded by the simple sequences t and d respectively. Inasmuch as the Handbook does not mention the possible use of [c, ] for these affricates I suppose we must consider this superseded too. The specimen of Hindi (p. 100-103) uses t and d. The s-tailed t and the barred-2 seen in the extract above were withdrawn in 1976. Among the post awaiting me on my return was a package that proved to contain an advance copy of a new book sent to me by the publishers. It is the Oxford BBC Guide to Pronunciation, by Lena Olausson and Catherine Sangster (OUP 2006). At first I thought it was a new edition of Graham Pointons BBC Pronouncing Dictionary of British Names (OUP, 1990). It has the same compact format, and adopts the same practice of showing pronunciations both in IPA and in a respelling system. However the Guide is entirely new, and very different in content from Pointons dictionary. You will look in vain here for names of obscure British people and places. Rather, it covers names, words and phrases from all over the world. For example, the first three entries under G are Tuesday 24 October 2006
Ga Ghanaian language

gah

//

Gaarder, Jostein Norwegian writer (r)d(r)/ gaberdine worsted or cotton cloth

yoo-stayn gor-duhr gab-uhr-deen

/justen

/ab(r)din/

There are also page-length articles on such topics as Accents (= written marks), Clicks, French, Latin, Top ten complaints about pronunciation, and Tone. The authors work in the BBC Pronunciation Unit and the books main source is the Units own database accumulated over many years. The book is not so much a dictionary as a collection of particular pronunciations which are tricky, much debated, curious, or exotic. I look forward to many happy hours examining it in detail. Meanwhile you may like to know that for the next 48 hours at least it can be pre-ordered from amazon.co.uk at 34% off the publishers price. Publication is on Thursday.

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Im on my way back from Hong Kong. While I was there my former student Prof. Cheung Kwan-hin, who looked after me so kindly and assiduously during my visit, pointed out to me something I did not know about my laptop computer: that it already has built-in software making possible the easy inputting of Chinese characters. Having once activated this, all you have to do in order to bring a character into your document and onto the screen is to type in the Pinyin romanization of the word in question. The operating system I use is Windows XP. To activate the Chinese input method, I just had to go to Control Panel | Regional and Language Settings | Languages and check the box Install files for East Asian languages. Then go to Details and select Chinese (PRC), Add. OK my way out and wait a short while. Monday 23 Once thats done, I can select Chinese on the language bar and then type, say, shan1 and on the screen the October character (mountain) duly appears. Notice that the tone is entered as a trailing numeral (1, 2, 3 or 4) rather 2006 than as a Pinyin diacritic. (Actually, you dont always need a tone number. Just shan plus return is enough to produce .) Instead of the standard Pinyin you have to type v. So nv produces (woman), which in Pinyin would normally be written n. In Word, highlighting a character and toggling Alt-X changes it to its Unicode number, which is handy for writing HTML for this blog. All that remains for me to do is to set about actually learning Chinese. Unusual pronunciations observed recently in the mouths of native speakers of English: from a CNN newsreader, to obey someone sl//vishly. Since the point being made was the possible offensiveness of this expression towards an African-American, perhaps the speaker could not bring himself to say sl/e/vish. Or was it contamination from lavish? Compare the difference between the two meanings of slaver: slave trader with /e/, but dribble, foam at the mouth with //. from a phonologist discussing the formal interface between syntax and intonation, acoustics with /a/. Thats actually what the BBC Pronunciation Advisory Committee recommended back in the 1930s. Until now I had thought it an excellent example of the lack of influence of this committee, since despite its recommendation (I had assumed) we all say acoustics with /u:/. from the same speaker, the name of David Brazil, the guru of discourse intonation, as /brzl/. But our late colleague called himself /brzl/. from a scientist giving an academic paper at a conference, asterisk (the punctuation mark * ) with /-ks/ instead of /-sk/. Id always assumed that this contamination from Asterix (the Gaul) was either illiterate or ironic. But I dont think the speaker was being ironic.

Friday 20 October 2006

Thursday Two correspondents have commented on yesterdays posting about affricates. 19 October Wyn Roberts of Simon Fraser University in Canada queries my claim that the use of [c] for a voiceless Page 42 of 78 Wednesday, September 28, 2011

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ palatoalveolar affricate is IPA-sanctioned. Where, he asks, is this sanctioning (approval) stated? Since I am away from reference books at the moment I cant quote chapter and verse, but I am pretty sure you will find it somewhere in the 1949 Principles of the IPA booklet. I think the Council made a decision about this sometime in the 1920s or 1930s. Whether it is referred to in the current Handbook I am not sure. Biljana ubrovi of Belgrade University in Serbia writes You rightly emphasised that one of the scripts used by the Serbs, namely the Cyrillic script, is characterised by an almost perfect, one-to-one spelling to sound correspondence. In this script, all five Serbian affricates are represented by simple letters: 1. in (Serbian Latin cev,Eng. pipe) 2. in (Serbian Latin ip, Eng. chip) 3. in (Serbian Latin dip, Eng. Jeep) 4. in (Serbian Latin kua, Eng. house) 5. in (Serbian Latin lua, Eng. madder) (I should explain that Serbian can be written with either the Cyrillic alphabet or the Latin alphabet. Both orthographies are recognized.) Biljana continues, In the Latin script, only one of the five Serbian affricates is represented by a digraph (namely the voiced postalveolar affricate, or no. 3 above). I am unsure about how this 'deviation' arose, but don't think that one of the compound phonemes is indeed more complex than the other four. A possible answer may lie in the etymology of words containing this particular affricate. As a native speaker of Serbian, I see these five affricates as wholes. Another observation connected to affricates in Serbian concerns their perception. Most native speakers of Serbian recognise and appreciate the difference between the voiceless postalveolar affricate and its palatal counterpart, but fail to articulate these two correctly. The Belgrade male idler jargon, for instance, is characterised by the neutralisation of these two in favour of the postalveolar affricate. Wed better not pursue the meaning of correctly here. t, d c, ,

2006

Wednesday Someone wrote to me last week worrying about the phonetic symbolization of affricates. Unfortunately I seem 18 October to have inadvertently deleted the email before replying to it, so this public reply will have to suffice. I think the 2006 persons name was Sylvain or Sylvaine. What worried this correspondent was that the IPA allows for the representation of the palatoalveolar affricates as [c, ] instead of what s/he considers to be the correct way of writing them, namely [t, d]. Why does this provision exist? It is because there are some languages in which it doesnt seem very satisfactory to write affricates with the plosive-plus-fricative notation. A speaker of Italian, for example, was telling me the other day that he is very conscious of the difference in tongue configuration between the ordinary Italian plosive [t] and the first element of the Italian affricate spelt c(i), c(e), usually represented in IPA as [t]. He would be happier with a notation that does not imply their equivalence. That is what the IPAWednesday, September 28, 2011 Page 43 of 78

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

sanctioned use of [c] for the affricate provides. (You can only do this, of course, in a language in which you do not need to symbolize a voiceless palatal plosive, which is the default general-phonetic meaning of [c].) Another such language is Hindi, in which the affricates very obviously pattern as single units, not as sequences. Many linguists use the symbols [, ] for these affricates, although they do not have the approval of the IPA. In ordinary orthography, although the Latin alphabet offers no way to write affricates without using diacritics or digraphs, other alphabets do: for example, in Cyrillic the voiceless palatoalveolar affricate is written and the voiced one (in Serbian) as . There is clearly a perceived need for a unitary way of writing these affricates. Returning to the two-symbol notation, my correspondent also assumed that the correct way to write them is with a tie bar: [t, d]. Personally I normally omit the tie bar, and write just [t, d]. That is what you find in most pronunciation dictionaries and textbooks, too. It does involve the convention that a sequence of plosive plus fricative that does NOT form an affricate must be written some other way. Daniel Jones does this with a hyphen (see his article The hyphen as a phonetic sign, 1955, Zeitschrift fr Phonetik 9), thus [t-, d-]. This enables us to show the difference in the Polish minimal pair trzy [t-] vs. czy [t]. In English any such sequence must straddle a syllable boundary, so you can show it using a full stop, as in Wiltshire /wlt./ vs. vulture /vlt./ (if you think I am right about English syllabification) or /vl.t/ (if you dont). Another way is to use the ligatured symbols [, ] for the affricates, leaving the separated [t, d] for the nonaffricate plosive plus fricative sequences. Tuesday 17 Each of the universities we are assessing here in Hong Kong has been asked to produce a statement of its October research strategy. Some of them have generated prime examples of gobbledegook. 2006 [] our research policy [] nurtures a culture for innovation development and technology transfer where the University is in the early stages of development [] I cant even parse this. What might innovation development be? What is the antecedent of where the university is in the early stages of development? Is it a restrictive relative clause or a non-restrictive one? Perhaps the whole thing has been badly translated from a Chinese original that was clear in Chinese. Perhaps the sentence is simply short of punctuation, as in Eats shoots and leaves, and the reference was meant to be to [] innovation, development, and technology transfer [] with an afterthought admitting that the institution is only just starting to address the matter of technology transfer. Fortunately we are not being asked to make any kind of judgment on these statements. I say fortunately, because they are couched in the style of corporate management-speech that can be seen as both on the one hand ludicrous and on the other obscurely threatening. Here is a fragment of what one higher education institution says. The research policy has been implemented using the following key strategies: Page 44 of 78 Wednesday, September 28, 2011

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ [] Encouraging academic staff to develop research initiatives that are directly related to the mission and strategic plans of [name of institution] and its Faculties and Departments [] Is this to be read as implying that the institution discourages its academic staff from developing research initiatives that do not fit exactly into its master plan? How does that square with academic freedom? Compare another institution we have to assess, which claims [] to provide and maintain a vibrant environment for new and important research areas to emerge [] which might seem to imply precisely the opposite aim, with everyone being encouraged to search out quite new and perhaps unforeseen research areas. I wonder if this difference in claimed research strategy leads to any difference in practice. I suspect that it doesnt; but if it does,
I \know which institution \/I would prefer to work for.

Monday 16 This is the first blog entry to come to you direct from vibrant Hong Kong, where I am working on a Hong October Kong universities Research Assessment Exercise and will then have a brief holiday. 2006 Tami Date has been in touch again about the empty word things (blog, 10 October). He offers the following counter-examples, in which things receives the nucleus.
(1) A: B: A: B: (2) A: B: A: B: Mary, Im sorry to hear about your father. Thank you, John. | It was 'one of those \things. When did he pass away? He was buried on December 20th. What Hes Does Yes, does your father do for a living? into 'many \things. (= jobs) he have a major line of work or...? hes a waste material dealer.

(3) 'Get your \things. (= belongings) Youll be leaving with the police! (4) Well drive out right after dinner | and 'get your \things.(ditto)

Numbers (1), (3) and (4) are clear: we have to accent things. You could consider just one of those things an idiom, and exempt things belongings from the category of empty words. It seems to me that (2), though, could go either way: the nucleus can go on things or, alternatively, on many, given that the speaker can imply that jobs is given (= predictable from the context). There are similar difficulties with people. Although we say
(5) I 'want to \meet people. (6) I 'want to com\municate with people.

(because a nucleus on people might suggest a contrast with, say, machines or even animals), we nevertheless say Wednesday, September 28, 2011 Page 45 of 78

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

(7) There were a 'lot of \people in the room.

Archived from previous months: 1-15 October 2006 September 2006 August 2006 July 2006 June 2006 May 2006 April 2006 March 2006 ==

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ == http://www.casl.umd.edu/sites/default/files/bls34_handout.pdf

Phonetics vs. phonology in loanword adaptation


==

Wednesday, September 28, 2011

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

== http://www.khmer-language.com/dictionary/ipa-consonant-sounds.htm

Home

Consonant symbols and sounds in the International Phonetic Alphabet


Hear sound The bilabial nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is m, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is m. The bilabial nasal occurs in English, and it is the sound represented by "m" in map and rum. It occurs nearly universally, and few languages (e.g., Mohawk) are known to lack this sound.

Hear sound The voiceless bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is p, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is p. The voiceless bilabial plosive in English is spelled with 'p', as in pit or speed. [p] is missing from about 10% of languages that have a [b]. (See voiced velar plosive for another such gap.) This is an areal feature of the "circumSaharan zone" (Africa north of the equator, including the Arabian peninsula). It is not known how old this areal feature is, and whether it might be a recent phenomenon due to Arabic as a prestige language (Arabic lost its /p/ in prehistoric times), or whether Arabic was itself affected by a more ancient areal pattern. It is found in other areas as well; for example, in Europe, Proto-Celtic and Old Basque are both reconstructed as having [b] but no [p]. Nonetheless, the [p] sound is very common cross-linguistically. Most languages have at least a plain [p], and some distinguish more than one variety. Many Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindi, have a two-way contrast between the aspirated [p] and the plain [p] (transcribed as [p] in extensions to the IPA).

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ Hear sound The voiced bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is b, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is b. The voiced bilabial plosive occurs in English, and it is the sound denoted by the letter b in boy. Many Indian languages, such as Hindi, have a two-way contrast between breathy voiced /b/ and plain /b/.

Hear sound The voiceless bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is .

Hear sound

The voiced bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is B. The symbol is the Greek letter beta. This symbol is also sometimes used to represent the bilabial approximant, though that is more clearly written with the lowering diacritic, . The bilabial fricative is diachronically unstable and is likely to shift to [v]. In the English language, this sound is not used, but can be made by approximating the normal "v" sound between the two lips.

Hear sound The bilabial trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is B\. In many of the languages where the bilabial trill occurs, it only occurs as part of a prenasalised bilabial stop with trilled release, [mb]. This Wednesday, September 28, 2011 Page 49 of 78

Taang Zomi Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ developed historically from a prenasalized stop before a relatively high back vowel, such as [mbu]. In such instances, these sounds are usually still limited to the environment of a following [u]. There is also a very rare voiceless alveolar bilabially trilled affricate, [t] (occasionally written "tp") reported from Pirah and from a few words in the Chapacuran languages, Wari and Oro Win. The sound also appears as an allophone of the labialized voiceless alveolar plosive /t/ of Abkhaz and Ubykh, but in those languages it is more often realised by a doubly articulated stop [tp]. In the Chapacuran languages, [t] is reported almost exclusively before rounded vowels such as [o] and [y].

Hear sound The labiodental nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is . The IPA symbol is a lowercase letter m with a leftward hook protruding from the lower right of the letter. Occasionally it is instead transcribed as an with a dental diacritic: [m]. It is pronounced very similarly to the bilabial nasal [m], except instead of the lips touching each other, the lower lip touches the upper teeth. The position of the lips and teeth is generally the same as for the production of the other labiodental consonants, like [f] and [v], though closure is obviously incomplete for the fricatives. Although commonly appearing in languages, it is overwhelmingly present non-phonemically, largely restricted to appear before labiodental consonants like [f] and [v]. A phonemic // has been reported for the Kukuya (Kukwa) dialect of Teke, where it contrasts with /m, mpf, mbv/ and is "accompanied by strong protrusion of both lips". It is [] before /a/ and [] before /i/ and /e/, perhaps because labialization is constrained by the spread front vowels; it does not occur before back (rounded) vowels. However, there is some doubt that a true stop can be made by this gesture due to gaps between the incisors, which for many speakers would allow air to flow during the occlusion; this is particularly pertinent considering that one of the words with this consonant, //, means a 'gap between filed incisors,' a practice of the Teke people. Nevertheless, it is common phonetically, as it is a typical allophone of /m/ and /n/ before the labiodental fricatives [f] and [v], as in English comfort, circumvent, infinitive, or invent. In Angami, it occurs as an allophone of /m/ before //.

Hear sound The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is f, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is f.

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ Hear sound The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is v, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is v. Although this is a familiar sound to most European listeners, it is cross-linguistically a fairly uncommon sound, being only a quarter as frequent as [w]. The presence of [v] and absence of [w], along with the presence of otherwise unknown front rounded vowels [y, , ], is a very distinctive areal feature of European languages and those of adjacent areas of Siberia and Central Asia. Speakers of East Asian languages which lack this sound like Mandarin tend to pronounce [v] as [p], Japanese as [b], and Cantonese as [w], thus failing to distinguish the English words "very" and "berry".

Hear sound The labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is P or v\.

Hear sound The labiodental flap is a speech sound found primarily in languages of Central Africa, such as Kera and Mangbetu. It has also been reported in the Austronesian language Sika. It is one of the few non-rhotic flaps. The sound begins with the lower lip placed behind the upper teeth. The lower lip is then flipped outward, striking the upper teeth in passing. The [] glyph, which resembles izhitsa (), is used to represent this sound in the International Phonetic Alphabet.

Hear sound The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in numerous spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar nasals is n, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is n. The vast majority of languages have either an alveolar or dental nasal. There are a few languages that lack either sound but have [m] (e.g., Samoan). There are some languages (e.g., Rotokas) that Wednesday, September 28, 2011 Page 51 of 78

Taang Zomi lack both m and n.

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

Hear sound

The voiceless alveolar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiceless dental, alveolar, and postalveolar plosives is t, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is t. The dental version can be distinguished with the underbridge diacritic (t; see voiceless dental plosive), and the Extensions to the IPA have a double underline diacritic which can be used to explicitly specify an alveolar pronunciation (t). The [t] sound is a very common sound cross-linguistically; the most common consonant phonemes of the world's languages are [t], [k] and [p]. Most languages have at least a plain [t], and some distinguish more than one variety. Some languages without a [t] are Hawaiian (outside of Niihau; Hawaiian uses a voiceless velar plosive when adopting loanwords with

[t]), colloquial Samoan (which also lacks an [n]), and Nu used in South Africa.
Hear sound The voiced alveolar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiced dental, alveolar, and postalveolar plosives is d (although the symbol d can be used to distinguish the dental version, see voiceless dental plosive), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d.

Hear sound The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. It is familiar to English speakers as the 'th' in thing. Though rather rare as a phoneme in the world's inventory of languages, it is encountered in some of the most widespread and influential (see below). The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is T. The IPA Page 52 of 78 Wednesday, September 28, 2011

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ symbol is the Greek letter theta, which is used for this sound in Greek, and the sound is thus often referred to as "theta". The dental fricatives are often called "interdental" because they are often produced with the tongue between the upper and lower teeth, and not just against the back of the teeth, as they are with other dental consonants. Among the more than 60 languages with over 10 million speakers, only English, Standard Arabic, Castilian Spanish (i.e., as spoken in Spain only), Burmese, and Greek have the voiceless dental fricative. Speakers of languages and dialects without the sound sometimes have difficulty producing or distinguishing it from similar sounds, especially if they have had no chance to acquire it in childhood, and typically replace it with a voiceless alveolar fricative, voiceless dental plosive, or a voiceless labiodental fricative (known respectively as th-alveolarization, th-stopping, and th-fronting.) The sound is known to have disappeared from a number of languages, e.g. from most of the Germanic languages or dialects, where it is retained only in English and Icelandic.

Hear sound The voiced dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound, eth, is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is D. The symbol was taken from the Old English letter eth, which could stand for either a voiced or unvoiced interdental fricative. This symbol is also sometimes used to represent the dental approximant, a similar sound not known to contrast with a dental fricative in any language, though that is more clearly written with the lowering diacritic, . The dental fricatives are often called "interdental" because they are often produced with the tongue between the upper and lower teeth, and not just against the back of the teeth, as they are with other dental consonants. It is familiar to English speakers as the th sound in then. This sound, and its unvoiced counterpart, are rare phonemes.The great majority of European and Asian languages, such as German, French, Persian, Japanese, and Chinese, lack this sound. Native speakers of those languages in which the sound is not present often have difficulty enunciating or distinguishing it, and replace it with a voiced alveolar fricative, a voiced dental plosive, or a voiced labiodental fricative (known respectively as th-alveolarization, thstopping, and th-fronting). As for Europe, there seems to be a great arc where this sound (and/or the unvoiced variant) is present. Most of mainland Europe lacks the sound; however, the "periphery" languages of Welsh, Elfdalian, English, Danish, Arabic, some Italian dialects, Greek, and Albanian have this phoneme in their consonant inventories. Within Turkic languages, Bashkir and Turkmen have both voiced and voiceless dental fricatives among their consonants.

Hear sound The voiceless alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents these sounds depends on whether a sibilant or non-sibilant fricative is being described. The symbol for the alveolar sibilant is s, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is s. The IPA symbol [s] is not normally used for dental or postalveolar sibilants unless modified by a diacritic ([s] and [s] respectively). The IPA symbol for the alveolar non-sibilant fricative is derived by means of diacritics; it can be or , or it can be [], using the alveolar diacritic from the Extended Wednesday, September 28, 2011 Page 53 of 78

Taang Zomi IPA

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

Hear sound The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents these sounds depends on whether a sibilant or non-sibilant fricative is being described. The symbol for the alveolar sibilant is z, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is z. The IPA symbol [z] is not normally used for dental or postalveolar sibilants unless modified by a diacritic ([z] and [z] respectively). The IPA symbol for the alveolar non-sibilant fricative is derived by means of diacritics; it can be or .

Hear sound The voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar fricative (IPA ) is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound occurs in many languages, and, as in English, French and Italian, it may have simultaneous lip rounding (), although this is rarely indicate

Hear sound The voiced palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is Z. An alternative symbol used in some older and American linguistic literature is , a z with a hek. The sound occurs in many languages and, as in English and French, may have simultaneous lip rounding ([]), although this is rarely indicated in transcription.

Hear sound The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents alveolar and postalveolar approximants is , a lowercase letter r rotated 180 degrees; the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r\. For ease Page 54 of 78 Wednesday, September 28, 2011

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ of typesetting, some phonemic transcriptions use the symbol r instead of , even though the former symbol technically represents the alveolar trill.

Hear sound The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar trills is [r], and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r. It is commonly called the rolled R or rolling R. Quite often, /r/ is used in phonemic transcriptions (especially those found in dictionaries) of languages like English and German that have rhotic consonants that are not an alveolar trill. This is partly due to ease of typesetting and partly because r is often the symbol used for the orthographies of such languages. In the majority of Indo-European languages, this sound is at least occasionally allophonic with an alveolar tap [], particularly in unstressed positions. Exceptions to this include Catalan, Spanish, and Albanian, which treat them as separate phonemes.

Hear sound The alveolar flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar flaps is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is 4.

Hear sound

The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiceless dental, alveolar, and postalveolar fricatives is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is K. The symbol is called "belted l" and should not be confused with "l with tilde", [], which corresponds to a different sound, the velarized alveolar lateral approximant. It should also be distinguished from a voiceless alveolar lateral approximant, although the fricative is sometimes incorrectly described as a "voiceless l", a description fitting only of the approximant. Although the sound is rare among European languages outside the Caucasus (being found notably in Welsh, where it is written "ll"), it is fairly common among Native American languages such as Navajo and Caucasian languages such as Avar, and is found in African languages like Zulu and Asian languages like Chukchi and Taishanese. Wednesday, September 28, 2011 Page 55 of 78

Taang Zomi Hear sound

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

The voiced alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiced dental, alveolar, and postalveolar lateral fricatives is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is K\.

Hear sound The alveolar lateral approximant, also known as clear l, is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar lateral approximants is l, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is l. As a sonorant, lateral approximants are nearly always voiced. Voiceless lateral approximants are common in Tibeto-Burman languages, but uncommon elsewhere. In such cases, voicing typically starts about halfway through the hold of the consonant.

Hear sound

The alveolar lateral flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , a fusion of a rotated lowercase letter r with a letter l. Some languages which are described as having a lateral flap, such as Japanese, actually have a flap which is indeterminant as to centrality, and may surface as either central or lateral, either depending on surrounding vowels or in free variation.

Hear sound The retroflex nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is n`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward Page 56 of 78 Wednesday, September 28, 2011

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ pointing hook extending from the bottom of the symbol used for the equivalent alveolar consonant, in this case the alveolar nasal which has the symbol n. The IPA symbol is thus a lowercase letter n with a rightward tail protruding from the bottom of the right stem of the letter. Compare n and

. The symbol should not be confused with , the symbol for the palatal nasal, which has a leftward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of
the left stem, or with , the symbol for the velar nasal, which has a leftward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the right stem.

Hear sound The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is J. The IPA symbol is a lowercase letter n with a leftward-pointing tail protruding from the bottom of the left stem of the letter. Compare n and . The symbol is similar to , the symbol for the retroflex nasal, which has a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the right stem, and with , the symbol for the velar nasal, which has a leftward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the right stem. Palatal nasals are more common than palatal stops [c] or []. In Spanish and languages whose writing systems are influenced by Spanish orthography, this sound is represented with the letter ee ().

Hear sound The velar nasal is the sound of ng in English sing. It is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is N. As a phoneme, the velar nasal does not occur in many of the indigenous languages of the Americas, nor in a large number of European or Middle Eastern languages, though it is extremely common in Australian Aboriginal languages. While almost all languages have /m/ and /n/, // is rarer. Only half of the 469 languages surveyed in Anderson (2008) had a velar nasal phoneme; as a further peculiarity, a large proportion of them disallow it from occurring word-initially. As with the voiced velar plosive, the relative rarity of the velar nasal is because the small oral cavity used to produce velar consonants makes it more difficult for voicing to be sustained. It also makes it much more difficult to allow air to escape through the nose as is required for a nasal consonant. In many languages that do not have the velar nasal as a phoneme, it occurs as an allophone of other nasals before velar consonants.

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Taang Zomi Hear sound

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

The uvular nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is . In many languages that do not have the velar nasal as a phoneme, it occurs as an allophone of other nasals before velar consonants.

Hear sound

The voiceless retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is t`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the symbol used for the equivalent alveolar consonant, in this case the voiceless alveolar plosive which has the symbol t. If lowercase letter t in the font used already has a rightward-pointing hook, then is distinguished from t by extending the rightward-pointing hook below the baseline as a descender. Compare t and . In many languages that do not have the velar nasal as a phoneme, it occurs as an allophone of other nasals before velar consonants.

Hear sound The voiced retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d`. The IPA symbol is a lowercase letter d with a rightward-pointing tail protruding from the lower right of the letter. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward pointing hook extending from the bottom of the symbol used for the equivalent alveolar consonant, in this case the voiced alveolar plosive which has the symbol d. Compare d and . Many Indian languages, such as Hindi, have a two-way contrast between aspirated and plain [].

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ Hear sound The voiceless palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is c, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is c. It is similar to a voiceless postalveolar affricate [t] (as in English chip), and because it is difficult to get the tongue to touch just the hard palate without also touching the back part of the alveolar ridge,[c] is less common than [t]. It is common for the symbol c to represent [t] or other similar affricates, for example in the Indic languages. This may be considered appropriate when the place of articulation needs to be specified, but the distinction between stop and affricate is not contrastive, and therefore of secondary importance.

Hear sound

The voiced palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , a rotated lowercase letter f, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is J\. The sound does not exist as a phoneme in English, but is perhaps most similar to a voiced postalveolar affricate [d], as in English jump (although it is a stop, not an affricate; the most similar stop phoneme to this sound in English is [], as in get), and because it is difficult to get the tongue to touch just the hard palate without also touching the back part of the alveolar ridge, [] is a less common sound worldwide than [d]. It is also common for the symbol // to be used to represent a palatalized voiced velar plosive, or other similar affricates, for example in the Indic languages. This may be considered appropriate when the place of articulation needs to be specified and the distinction between stop and affricate is not contrastive, and therefore of secondary importance.

Hear sound The voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is k, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is k. The [k] sound is a very common sound cross-linguistically. Most languages have at least a plain [k], and some distinguish more than one variety. Wednesday, September 28, 2011 Page 59 of 78

Taang Zomi

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

Many Indian languages, such as Hindi and Bengali, have a two-way contrast between aspirated and plain [k].

Hear sound The voiced velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is g. Strictly, the IPA symbol is the so-called "opentail G" , though the "looptail G" is considered an acceptable alternative. The Unicode character "Latin small letter G" (U+0067) renders as either an opentail G or a looptail G depending on font, while the character "Latin small letter script G" (U+0261) is always an opentail G, but is generally available only in fonts with the IPA Extensions character block. Of the six plosives that would be expected from the most common pattern world-widethat is, three places of articulation plus voicing ([p b, t d, k ])[p] and [] are the most frequently missing, being absent in about 10% of languages that otherwise have this pattern. The former is an areal feature (see Voiceless bilabial plosive). Missing [], on the other hand, is widely scattered around the world. (A few languages are missing both. [example needed]) It seems that [] is somewhat more difficult to articulate than the other basic plosives. Ian Maddieson speculates that this may be due to a physical difficulty in voicing velars: Voicing requires that air flow into the mouth cavity, and the relatively small space allowed by the position of velar consonants means that it will fill up with air quickly, making voicing difficult to maintain in [] for as long as it is in [d] or [b]. This could have two effects: [] and [k] might become confused, and the distinction is lost, or perhaps a [] never develops when a language first starts making voicing distinctions. (with uvulars, where there is even less space between the glottis and tongue for airflow, the imbalance is more extreme: Voiced [] is much rarer than voiceless [q]). Many Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindustani, have a two-way contrast between aspirated and plain

[g].
Hear sound The voiceless uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It is pronounced like [k], except that the tongue makes contact not on the soft palate but on the uvula. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is q, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is q.

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ Hear sound The voiced uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is G\. [] is a rare sound, even compared to other uvulars.

Hear sound The voiceless retroflex fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is s`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward pointing hook extending from the bottom of the symbol used for the equivalent alveolar consonant, in this case the voiceless alveolar fricative which has the symbol s. The IPA symbol is thus a lowercase letter s with a rightward tail protruding from the lower left of the letter. Compare s and . Although a distinction can be made between laminal, apical, and sub-apical articulations, no language makes such a contrast.

Hear sound The voiced retroflex fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is z`.Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward pointing hook extending from the bottom of the symbol used for the equivalent alveolar consonant, in this case the voiced alveolar fricative which has the symbol z. The IPA symbol is thus a lowercase letter z with a rightward tail protruding from the lower right of the letter. Compare z and .

Hear sound The voiceless palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that Wednesday, September 28, 2011 Page 61 of 78

Taang Zomi

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is C. The symbol is the letter c with a cedilla, as used to spell French words, such as faade, although the sound represented by the letter in French and English orthography is not a voiceless palatal fricative but /s/, the voiceless alveolar fricative. Palatal fricatives are rare phonemes, and only 5% of the world's languages have // as a phoneme. However, it also tends to occur as an allophone of /x/ or /h/ in the vicinity of front vowels, and many English dialects are no exception.

Hear sound

The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is (crossed-tail j), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is j\. The voiced palatal fricative is a very rare sound, occurring in only seven of the 317 languages surveyed by the original UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database. In only three of the languages (Komi, Margi, Belgian Standard Dutch) this sound occurs along with its voiceless counterpart.

Hear sound

The palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is j. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is j, or equivalently, i_^, and in the Americanist phonetic notation it is y. In the writing systems used for most of the languages of Central, Northern and Eastern Europe, the letter j denotes the palatal approximant, as in German Jahr 'year'; in other languages, the letters y or i may be used. In linguistics, the palatal approximant is sometimes called after the Semitic letter yod, as in the phonological history terms yod-dropping and yod-coalescence. In Ancient Greek grammar, the palatal approximant, which was lost early in the history of Greek, is sometimes written as (iota with the inverted breve below, the non-syllabic diacritic or marker of a semivowel).

Hear sound

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ The retroflex approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r\`. The IPA symbol is a turned lowercase letter r with a rightward hook protruding from the lower right of the letter.

Hear sound The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The [x] sound was part of the consonant inventory of Old English and can still be found in some dialects of English, most notably in Scottish English. It is not to be confused with the voiceless uvular fricative (IPA , X-SAMPA X).

Hear sound The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages. It is not found in English today, but did exist in Old English. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is (a variant of the Greek letter , gamma, which is used for this sound in Modern Greek), also graphically similar to , the IPA symbol for a close-mid back unrounded vowel), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is G. The symbol is also sometimes used to represent the velar approximant, though that is more accurately written with the lowering diacritic: [] or []. The IPA also provides a dedicated symbol for a velar approximant, [], though there can be stylistic reasons to not use it in phonetic transcription.

Hear sound The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is X. The sound is represented by x (x with underdot) in Americanist phonetic notation. It is not to be confused with the voiceless velar fricative (IPA x, X-SAMPA x).

Wednesday, September 28, 2011

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Taang Zomi Hear sound

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

The voiced uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , a rotated small uppercase letter R, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is R. This consonant is one of several collectively called guttural R when found in European languages. Because the IPA symbol stands for both the uvular fricative and the uvular approximant, the fricative nature of this sound may be specified by adding the uptack to the letter, []. (The approximant can be specified by adding the downtack, []

Hear sound The uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is [], a small capital R. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is R\. This consonant is one of several collectively called guttural R. Within Europe, the uvular trill seems to have originated in Standard French around the seventeenth century, spreading to standard varieties of German, Danish, as well as in parts of Dutch, Norwegian and Swedish; it is also present in other areas of Europe, but it's not all that clear if such pronunciations are due to French influence. In most cases, varieties have shifted this to a uvular fricative ([]). See guttural R for more information.

Hear sound The velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is M\. It is the semivocalic counterpart of the close back unrounded vowel [] The IPA symbol , which otherwise signifies a voiced velar fricative, is sometimes used for the velar approximant as well (with a lowering diacritic when specificity is required).

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ Hear sound The retroflex flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r`. Toda has a retroflex trill, which is transcribed with the same IPA symbol.

Hear sound

The retroflex lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is l`.

Hear sound

The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , a rotated lowercase letter y (not to be confused with lowercase lambda, ), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is L.

Hear sound The velar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is L\.

Wednesday, September 28, 2011

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Taang Zomi Hear sound

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is h-bar (), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is X\.

Hear sound The voiceless epiglottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is H\.

Hear sound The voiceless glottal transition, commonly called a "fricative", is a type of sound used in some spoken languages which often behaves like a fricative, but sometimes behaves more like an approximant or is indeterminate in its behavior. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is h, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is h. Although [h] has been described as a voiceless vowel, because in many languages it lacks the place and manner of articulation of a prototypical consonant, it also lacks the height and backness of a prototypical vowel: [h and ] have been described as voiceless or breathy voiced counterparts of the vowels that follow them [but] the shape of the vocal tract [] is often simply that of the surrounding sounds. [] Accordingly, in such cases it is more appropriate to regard h and as segments that have only a laryngeal specification, and are unmarked for all other features. There are other languages [such as Hebrew and Arabic] which show a more definite displacement of the formant frequencies for h, suggesting it has a [glottal] constriction associated with its production.

Hear sound The breathy-voiced glottal transition, commonly called a voiced glottal fricative, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages which often Page 66 of 78 Wednesday, September 28, 2011

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ behaves like a consonant, but sometimes behaves more like a vowel, or is indeterminate in its behavior. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is h\. Although [] has been described as a breathy-voiced counterpart of the following vowel because of its lack of place and manner of articulation in many languages, it may have glottal constriction in a number of languages (such as Finnish), making it a fricative.

Hear sound The glottal stop, or more fully, the voiceless glottal plosive, is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. In English the feature is represented for example by the hyphen in uh-oh! and by the apostrophe or okina in Hawaii among those using a preservative pronunciation of that name. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is . It is called the glottal stop because the technical term for the gap between the vocal folds, which is closed up in the production of this sound, is the glottis.

Hear sound The voiced pharyngeal approximant/fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents it is , and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is ?\. Although traditionally placed in the fricative row of the IPA chart, [] is usually an approximant. The IPA symbol itself is ambiguous, but no language is known to have a distinct fricative and approximant at this place of articulation.

Hear sound The voiced epiglottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is . Although traditionally placed in the fricative row of the IPA chart, [] is usually an approximant. The IPA symbol itself is ambiguous, but no Wednesday, September 28, 2011 Page 67 of 78

Taang Zomi Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ language has a distinct fricative and approximant at this place of articulation. Sometimes the lowering diacritic is used to specify that the manner is approximant: []. Home ________________________________
Gryffyn Mckee 1301 Wyandotte Avenue, Kansas City, MO, USA 64105

==

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ == http://www.ielanguages.com/linguist.html

Linguistics 101: An Introduction to the Study of Language


==

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Taang Zomi == http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/phonlab/users/ohala/papers/nasal93.pdf

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

THE PHONETICS OF NASAL PHONOLOGY: THEOREMS AND DATA


==

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ == http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=15&ved=0CDMQFjAEOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fciteseerx.ist.psu.edu%2Fviewdoc %2Fdownload%3Fdoi%3D10.1.1.87.9686%26rep%3Drep1%26type%3Dpdf&rct=j&q=Burmese%20Phonology%3A%20voiceless%20alveolar %20affricate&ei=PuuQTv6zDIa4twewvYSnDA&usg=AFQjCNHoGsaanv7DJy1B7ckcgID0DwYh4w&sig2=ETUpVZWDQf93F0GKO2S4wA&ca d=rja http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.87...rep...

Universals, their violation and the notion of phonologically peculiar


==

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Taang Zomi

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

== http://www.akha.org/content/aboutakhalife/ethnographicnotesontheakhasvol1.pdf

ETHNO GRAPHIC NOTES ON THE AKHAS OF BURMA This section


==

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ == http://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4740&context=etd_theses&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Furl %3Fsa%3Dt%26source%3Dweb%26cd%3D20%26ved%3D0CF4QFjAJOAo%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fscholarworks.sjsu.edu%252Fcgi %252Fviewcontent.cgi%253Farticle%253D4740%2526context%253Detd_theses%26rct%3Dj%26q%3DBurmese%2520Phonology%253A %2520voiceless%2520alveolar%2520affricate%26ei%3DPuuQTv6zDIa4twewvYSnDA%26usg %3DAFQjCNEPwaH2c6O5WpxnxsKxXLnFWAyNYg%26sig2%3DXpD7BfTAay8-Y2PUPgJL3A%26cad%3Drja#search=%22Burmese %20Phonology%3A%20voiceless%20alveolar%20affricate%22 http://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4740&context...

A Phonetic, Phonological, and Morphosyntactic Analysis of the Mara


==

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Taang Zomi == http://www.haskins.yale.edu/sr/sr091/SR091_13.pdf

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

Patterns of Sounds. Cambridge:


==

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Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ == http://www.akha.org/upload/akhabooks/englishtoakhahandbook.pdf

English Akha Handbook


== http://www.akha.org/upload/akhabooks/reader/akhareaderpart1.pdf == http://www.hani-akha.net/mpcd/hani-akha/language.html

Akha Language
== http://www.omniglot.com/writing/newakha.php http://skyknowledge.com/newakha-details.htm

New Akha Alphabet


== http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=19&ved=0CFsQFjAIOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fkyoto-seas.org%2Fpdf %2F8%2F1%2F080102.pdf&rct=j&q=akha%20language&ei=dgeRTrfEDMSBtget-o2bDA&usg=AFQjCNHwQvf2BNkewojuqgPVvEsBRWSlA&sig2=LeQeid2NzYJAtLWIzJpiVA&cad=rja http://kyoto-seas.org/pdf/8/1/080102.pdf

An Outline of the Structure of the Akha Language


==

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Taang Zomi Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=29&ved=0CFQQFjAIOBQ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.lc.mahidol.ac.th %2Fthaistudies2011%2Farchive%2FTHS2011-Boonyasaranai_Writing-System-Development.ppt&rct=j&q=akha %20language&ei=cwiRTuevLs2WtweLz52RDA&usg=AFQjCNGCUEAz3wSw4lnX3816hQ9NQekgag&sig2=N5n7p0Tfp59FBfZBVwRSIQ&cad= rja http://www.lc.mahidol.ac.th/.../THS2011-Boonyasaranai_Writing-System

Not in our language, not in our world: The Complexity of ...


== http://sealang.net/sala/archives/pdf4/phillips2000west.pdf

WestCentral Thailand Pwo Karen Phonology


== http://books.google.com/books/download/Outline_grammar_of_the_Ang%C4%81mi_N%C4%81g%C4%81_la.pdf? id=Oq8eT9RNIqEC&hl=en&capid=AFLRE7254_FoS6_kcWMJxVfW52YvOe8jLGAsjO5fAtE4ivD4X-TZi0sgySVwvMnNaqesP5XpS2SCHotKJZ-5OYGUAHXxSJn3Q&continue=http://books.google.com/books/download/Outline_grammar_of_the_Ang %25C4%2581mi_N%25C4%2581g%25C4%2581_la.pdf%3Fid%3DOq8eT9RNIqEC%26output%3Dpdf%26hl%3Den

Outline grammar of the Angmi Ng language, with a vocabulary and ...


By R. B. McCabe == http://books.google.com/books/download/Phrases_in_English_and_Angami_Naga.pdf?id=MBEAQAAIAAJ&hl=en&capid=AFLRE73mYoi0oAo0cRQOw9khQvUljfsYCaPdntqVNeOfENSZsL5-uZfMmu0LAbfmCIMQwVZHseRbgwPN_FgovU-OXdv1jctw&continue=http://books.google.com/books/download/Phrases_in_English_and_Angami_Naga.pdf%3Fid%3DM-BEAQAAIAAJ %26output%3Dpdf%26hl%3Den

Phrases in English and Angami Naga


By S. W. Rivenburg Page 76 of 78 Wednesday, September 28, 2011

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/ == http://ia600508.us.archive.org/1/items/rosettaproject_mya_phon-3/rosettaproject_mya_phon-3.pdf

Burmese Phonology (1987)


== http://sealang.net/sala/archives/pdf4/sprigg1963comparison.pdf

A COMPARISON OF ARAKANESE AND BURMESE BASED ON ...


== http://terpconnect.umd.edu/~cbchang/papers/Chang_MAthesis03.pdf

High-Interest Loans: The Phonology of English Loanword


== http://roa.rutgers.edu/files/551-1002/551-1002-GREEN-0-1.PDF

WORD, FOOT, AND SYLLABLE STRUCTURE IN BURMESE*


== http://humanities.uchicago.edu/orgs/cls/45abs/GruberJ.pdf

The Composition of Phonological Tone in Burmese James Gruber ...


== http://www.jseals.org/seals17/Chang_SEALSXVIIabstract_Burmese_loanwords.pdf

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Taang Zomi

Voiceless Alveolar Affricate /ts/

Paper title: Phonological Scansion in Loanword Adaptation ...


== http://elanguage.net/journals/index.php/bls/article/viewFile/2188/2155

Phonological Convergence Between Languages in Contact: Mon ...


== http://www.sil.org/~hopplep/Nominalization_Template.pdf

THE NOMINALIZATION TEMPLATE


== http://ia600202.us.archive.org/0/items/rosettaproject_mya_phon-1/rosettaproject_mya_phon-1.pdf

Burmese Phonology
== http://www.assta.org/sst/SST-90/cache/SST-90-Chapter14-p26.pdf

The Domain of Tones in Burmese


=== http://www.ling.upenn.edu/Events/PLC/plc32/abstracts/11951109316601.pdf

On the Influence of Phonetics, Phonology, and UG in Loanword ...


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