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Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 2 (3): 456-461 Scholarlink Research Institute Journals, 2011

1 (ISSN: 2141-7016) Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 2 (3): 456-461 (ISSN: 2141-7016) Journal of Emerging Trends in

Coherent generator based Transient Stability Analysis of the 16 machines, 330KV igeria Power System
Izuegbunam F. I., Okafor E. . C., Ogbogu S. O. E. Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri, Nigeria Corresponding Author: Izuegbunam F. I ___________________________________________________________________________
Abstract This paper assesses the transient stability analysis of the expanded 16 machines, 330KV igeria Grid System through coherent generators aggregation based on equal acceleration and velocity concept. The technique involves performing the electrical proximity test on the system generators under fault condition to select the study area generators, subjecting these generators to coherency check through inertia and damping indices conditions; and construction of dynamic equivalents representing each pair of coherent generators. The result led to reduction of 16 machines system to 13, thereby simplifying the network complexity and requires minimal computer time as well as memory space. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Keywords: transient stability, coherent generators, dynamic equivalents, expanded grid, swing curve. __________________________________________________________________________________________ I TRODUCTIO The large interconnections that constitute the present compares systems differential equations describing day power networks has further added to its change in relative machine angles from the stable complexity hence requiring a simplified but accurate equilibrium point to that of unstable equilibrium method of transient stability analysis with minimal point corresponding to the system instability computing time and memory space. The method of anticipated from the fault condition under transient stability analysis of a large power system investigation. Podmore, (1978), applied a simplified via simplified dynamic equivalents is attracting linear model of power system known as clustering increased attention by researchers across the globe Algorithm using linearized network and dynamic (Rau and Hussian, 1998). The coherent generator equations deemed clustered to determine the angular technique is an elegant and powerful tool for system deviation of the machines. simplification through construction of simplified reduced order dynamic models which can represent Al-Fuhaid, (1987), deployed the properties of the entire system without loss of system significant exponential matrix and Cayley-Hamilton theorem characteristic. The reduction is based on the impact using the state transition matrix to determine the of large disturbances in a particular area known as the linearized system dynamic equations. Rudmick, study system, while system external to study area are Patino, and Brameller, (1981), applied the principle not of direct interest in stability analysis; and are thus based on rate of change of kinetic energy, relating the represented by dynamic equivalents in recognition of power system behaviour to its potential energy and its influence on the response of the study area to kinetic energy transition. Krishnaparandhama et al., disturbances. Available literature shows that different (1981), and Sankaranarayanan et al., (1983), applied authors applied variant principles of determining coherent generators identification based on equal coherent generators. Lee and Schweppe, (Lee and acceleration principle using a linearized acceleration Schweppe, 1993), used the concepts of distance equation with the damping coefficient neglected. In measure such as admittance distance, reflection this paper, the coherent generator based transient distance and acceleration distance to identify stability analysis of the 16 machines expanded coherent generators for construction of dynamic Nigeria power system was conducted through the equivalents. Also the concept of power variation of following steps: electrical proximity test, coherent the generators at the instant of initiated fault is generator identification, construction of dynamic applied to classify the machines into inner circle equivalents of coherent generator pairs, and re(study area) machines and outer circle (external area) integration of the aggregated generators with the rest machines. Spalding, Yee, and Goudie, (Spalding et of system machines. The purpose is to assess the al., 1977), applied the principle of singular points in transient stability condition of the expanded Nigerian coherency identification. The singular points include 330KV Grid system using a technique that reduces the post-fault Stable Equilibrium Point (SEP) and the model order of the Network without altering the Unstable Equilibrium Point (UEP). This approach characteristic structure and it is justified because

Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 2 (3): 456-461 (ISSN: 2141-7016) most of the generating plants and transmission lines in this grid are still under construction, but its response to large disturbance has been simulated. A practical power network has been used to test the effectiveness of the coherent generator technique. Multimachine Power System Modeling Figure 2.1 represents a large power network 3. The network is highly reactive, while the conductances are not neglected. The above assumption simplifies equation (2.6) to, (2.7) Substituting equation (2.7) into (2.3) gives, (2.8) Let , and (2.9)

1 2

Xd1 Xd2 Xd3 Xd4

Fictitious Point E1 E2 E3 E14 En

Putting (2.9) into (2.8) gives, (2.10) Electrical proximity for any two machines depends upon their mutual admittance (Sankaranarayanan et al., 1983). As the mutual admittance between two machines becomes larger, that pair of machines is considered more close to each other (Rau and Hussian, 1998). Therefore, the mutual admittance between a pair of machines is a measure of coupling between them (Rau and Hussian, 1998), (Monticelli, 1999). Electrical Proximity index Electrical proximity index j is defined by the expression, (2.11)


Figure 2.1 Large power network The rotor dynamic equation for ith machine of an ngenerator system is given by, (2.1) For ith and jth generators to be coherent, (2.2) where, Pre-fault value of the difference th between the i and jth rotor angles. Linearizing equation (2.1) on the assumption that the power variation is small and that the generator coherency is independent of the magnitude of the disturbance (Podmore, 1978), gives, (2.3) Where, = the change in acceleration of the ith machine = change in the velocity of the ith machine The mechanical power input to the machine is assumed constant for a short duration of the fault, in equation (2.3) becomes zero. hence the term The change in electrical power of the ith generator due to a small change in the angle of the jth generator evaluated at the time of initiating the fault (Lee and Schweppe, 1993), gives, (2.4) (2.5)

The generators that satisfy equation (2.11) qualifies for coherency pair check with the ith machine. The modified linearized acceleration equation for ith and jth machines can be written as, (2.12) (2.13) For equal acceleration of the i and j machines, equations (2.14) and (2.15) must be satisfied. (2.14) Where,
th th

(2.15) From the equations (2.14) and (2.15) the two vital indices and for coherency check are obtained as :

(2.16) (2.6) The following assumptions are made: 1. Internal voltages of the machines are equal to 1.0 pu is within 2. The angular difference 300.

(2.17) where, = Inertia index for ith and jth machines = Damping index for ith and jth machines

Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 2 (3): 456-461 (ISSN: 2141-7016) In a situation where machines i and j are absolutely coherent, both and becomes equal to zero. But when one of the inertias tends to infinity, then both and will tend to unity (1.0), which indicates the machines deviation from each other. The tolerance values of 0.2 for and 0.5 for are found to give acceptable results (Rau and Hussian, 1998). In a situation whereby the damping coefficient is zero or the ratio D/M becomes uniform, the coherency grouping is conducted based on criterion alone. Construction of Dynamic Equivalents The concept of dynamic equivalent construction technique deployed in this text is based on the power invariance at the terminal buses and at the internal buses of the coherent machines (Kimbark, 1948), (Sankaranarayanan et al., 1983), (Hussian and Rau, 1993). When the coherent generators are not on the same bus-bar (not parallel), fictitious points are inserted between the reactance and the source of internal voltage of each generator, and the machines are tied together at that point. The parallel voltage sources are then replaced by a single source (dynamic equivalent) which is adjusted to deliver the same active and reactive power to the network as the sources it replaced. Mathematical Formulation The apparent power received by the ith terminal bus from the corresponding coherent machine and the internal voltages of ith machine are given as: (2.18) (2.19) Where, = terminal voltage of ith machine = current flowing to the terminal bus of ith machine. The sum of the powers received by p buses of the coherent group is given by, (2.20) The equivalent terminal bus of the coherent group must be such that it can receive the total power ST and current IT from the equivalent machine replacing the coherent group of machines, therefore; (2.21) Where, = the vector sum of the currents (2.22) = the number of the machine in the coherent group. The equivalent machine internal voltage, Ee is given by, (2.23) The equivalent machine transient reactance given by, is
Choose another pair of machines for coherency check No Re-evaluate Post fault -index check for coherent groups. Is j < 0.5 ? Evaluate the fault on - index check for coherent groups.

(2.24) The equivalent inertia constant, of the coherent group is the sum of the inertia constants of the individual machines, and is given by, (2.25) of the The equivalent damping coefficient, coherent group is the sum of the damping coefficients of the individual machines, and is given by, (2.26) is the sum of The equivalent mechanical power, mechanical powers required to accelerate the individual machines, and is given by, (2.27) Figure 2.2 shows the algorithm for coherency identification and construction of dynamic equivalents.

Input data for machines with more than 30% Power variation.

Perform electrical proximity test to choose coherent machines candidates: j 1.0

Perform the - index check for the coherent group candidates. j < 0.2

Yes Construct dynamic equivalents of the coherent machine groups.


Figure 2.2 Algorithm coherent generators identification and construction of dynamic equivalent (Izuegbunam, 2010).

Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 2 (3): 456-461 (ISSN: 2141-7016) RESULTS A D DISCUSSIO Figure 3.1 shows a 16 machines Nigeria 330KV Power Network. Figure 3.3 shows the swing curves for group I coherent generators, while figure 3.4 shows their equivalent swing curve after aggregation. Figure 3.5 on the other hand shows the swing curves for group II coherent generators, while figure 3.6 shows their equivalent swing curve after aggregation. Also figure 3.7 shows the swing curves for group III coherent generators, while figure 3.8 shows their equivalent swing curve after aggregation. Figure 3.9 shows the swing curves of the new network after integrating the aggregated generators to the rest of the power system, resulting to network reduction from 16 machines system to 13 machines. Hence, through coherent generators aggregation, the complexity of the original network is simplified, and the computational time for the system simulation reduced.

1 2 1 1 2 2 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 6 4 4 3 1 4 3 3 3 3 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 5 2 8 9 3
3 50 3

1 3 2 6 9
1 2



1 1

1 1

Figure 3.1: Expanded Nigeria 330KV Power Network (16 machines 49 bus System) (Izuegbunam, 2010). The systems response for a three - phase fault impressed on bus 3, line 3-44 evaluated through direct method as shown in figure 3.2 indicated loss of Shiroro, Geregu and Kainji generators even at clearing time of 0.16s. Beyond the critical clearing time of 0.21s and stability margin of 0.238, Omoku generator becomes unstable. Results of Generators-Coherency Check And Aggregation For A Three-Phase Fault At Bus 3 Line 3-44. The fault on power variations was carried out using the reduced bus admittance matrix, , and the generators with real power variations of less than 30% were classified as external area generators, while those with higher power variations became study area generators. Electrical proximity index check was thereafter conducted on external area machines to determine the degree of coupling among the generators which is a function of mutual admittances. The machines that satisfied the index condition qualify for coherent groups check. The and - indices checks were subsequently performed on the machines with the following generators found to reasonably form coherent groups: Group I: Delta (2) and Eyaen (16) Group II: Afam (7) and Okpai (8) Group III: Papalanto (10) and Omotosho (11)

Figure 3.2 Swing curves for fault at bus 3, line 3 44 (clearing time: 0.16s)

Figure 3.3 Swing curves for machines 2 and 6 for fault at bus 3, line 3 44

Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 2 (3): 456-461 (ISSN: 2141-7016)

Figure 3.4 Equivalent swing curve for machines 2 and 6

Figure 3.8 Equivalent swing curve for machines 10 and 11

Figure 3.5 Swing curves for machines 7 and 8 for fault at bus 3, line 3 44

Figure 3.9 Swing curves of New Network after aggregation for fault at bus 3, line 3 44/41 CO CLUSIO This paper deployed the dynamic generators aggregation technique to perform transient stability analysis of 16 machines Nigeria power system. The principle is based on rotor angle swing coherency of the candidate generators, dependent on electrical proximity test which defines the degree of coupling between two or more generators. The inertia () and damping () indices were in addition used to identify coherent generators for possible aggregation through construction of dynamic equivalents. The technique proved useful since it helped in reducing the 16 machines network to 13 machines system for a threephase fault at bus 3 (line 3-44), resulting in the reduction of network complexity, ensuring power invariance at the aggregated generators terminals before and after aggregation. REFERE CES Al-Fuhaid A. S. (1987), Coherency Identification for Power System, Inter. Jour. of Elect. Powerand Energy Sys. Vol. 9, No. 3, July, pp. 149-56. Hussian M. Y. and Rau V. G. (1993), Coherency Identification and Construction of Dynamic Equivalent for large Power System, Proceedings of 2nd Inter. Confr. on Advances in Power Sys. Control, Operation and Management, Hongkong, Dec.

Figure 3.6 Equivalent swing curve for machines 7 and 8

Figure 3.7 Swing curves for machines 10 and 11 for fault at bus 3, line 3 44

Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 2 (3): 456-461 (ISSN: 2141-7016)

Izuegbunam F. I. (2010), Transient Stability Analysis of Nigeria Power System: Multimachine Approach, Ph.D Thesis, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. Kimbark E. W. (1948), Power System Stability, vol. 1: Synchronous Machine, John Wiley & Sons. Krishnaparandhama T., Elvangovan S., and Kuppurajulu A. (1981), Method for Identifying Coherent Generators, vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 85-90, April. Lee S. T. Y. and Schweppe F.C. (1993), Distance measures and Coherency Recognition for Transient Stability Equivalents, IEEE Trans. Vol. PAS-82, Sept./Oct., pp. 1550-1557. Monticelli A. (1999), State Estimation in Electric Systems, A Generalized Approach, Kluwer Academic Publishers, USA. Podmore R. (1978), Identification of Coherent Generators for Dynamic Equivalents, IEEE Trans., vol. PAS-97, No. 4, pp. 1060-1069. Rau V. G. and Hussian M. Y. (1998), Coherent Generators, Allied Publishers Limited, New Delhi. Rudnick H., Patino R. I., and Brameller A. (1981), Power System Dynamic Equivalents: Coherency Recognition via the rate of change of Kinetic Energy, Proceedings of the IEE, vol. 128, pt. C, No. 6, pp. 325-33, Nov. Sankaranarayanan V., Venugopal M., Elangovan S., and Dharma R. N. (1983), Coherency Identification and Equivalents for Transient Stability Studies, Elect. Power Sys. Res. Vol. 6, pp. 51-60. Spalding B. D., Yee H. and Goudie D. B. (1977), Coherency Recognition for Transient Stability Studies using singular points, IEEE Trans., vol. PAS-96, pp. 1368-75.