You are on page 1of 15


India -758078, E-mail:

BHANWAR SINGH CHOUDHARY Assistant Professor, Department of Mining, Indian school of Mines Dhanbad, India826004, E-mail:

The tailings produced in milling process have traditionally been disposed of in tailing ponds creating a waste disposal and environmental problems in terms of land degradation, air and water pollution. The problem of storage and disposal of the mill tailings create a considerable pressure on land availability. This disposal practice is more acute in the metal milling industry where the fine grinding, required for value liberation, results in the production of very fine tailings in large percentage. Mill tailing is a fine sandy silt size non cohesive, non-plastic material and it often considered a natural pozzolanic material due to the presence of silica and calcium oxide and therefore its engineering behavior can be improved by addition of cement, fly ash, waste glass or lime. This paper includes discussions on the effectiveness of different paste mixes with varying cement contents in a paste backfilling operation. The chemical composition, mineralogy, specific gravity, particle size distribution, slump test, flow ability test, setting test, direct shear test, and the uniaxial compressive tests have been presented. A number of paste samples were prepared from mill tailings and tested at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days for uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) at different cement percent. 18 samples prepared from mill tailings were tested at 28 days for uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) at different pulp density. And 24 samples were tested for uniaxial compressive strength with varying composition of binder with superplasticizer for 28 and 90 days curing for enhancement of strength. Key words: Mill tailing, slum test, flow ability test, Superplasticizer. 1. Introduction Filling of the mine voids has multiple reasons such as, a simple method of tailings disposal, or as a void filler, in a few cases it is followed as an economic method for supporting the weak wall rocks, permit maximum ore recovery, safe and selection extraction of ore deposits without loss of ore and encountering dilution problems and lastly, for creating a working platform in a few stoping operations. Based on the specific purpose of backfilling, the composition of backfill material has been varied. According to Barrett et al., 1 the purpose of the backfill is not to transmit the rock stresses, but to reduce the relaxation of the rock mass so the rock itself will retain a load carrying capacity and will improve load shedding to crown pillars and abutments. This leads to less deterioration in ground conditions in the mine, improving operations and safety. 1

Cemented backfill became popular when it is taken as a means to support the weak wall rock. However, the high price of Portland cement has thrown open the challenge of economic viability. The consequence is that the researchers have tried to look for binder alternatives which have eventually resulted in the application of high density slurry and paste backfill materials that have improved backfill mechanical strength response, reduced cement consumption and water disposal. The placement of backfill underground directly reduces the quantity to be disposed on surface. This has direct operating and capital cost benefits and reductions in future rehabilitation costs. There are two main types of Cemented Mill Tailing as Backfill: Hydraulic Fill, and Paste Backfill. An adequate uniaxial compressive strength for a backfill in a typical mine is 0.72 MPa (100300 Psi), and common strength specification is 1 MPa after 28 days, 2. Hydraulic fills are slurry fills having a pulp density in the range of 5575% solids weight for weight, Amaratunga et at. 3 and Viles et al. 4 state that as much as 30% of the total initial fills volume is lost by dewatering. Hydraulic fills consist of classified coarse tailings along with a binder. The fine tailings are usually excluded from the fill because their removal improves flow characteristics provides better fill consolidation and subsequent water drainage, the high water content allows the slurry to be transported by gravity or pumping at relatively high placement rates through boreholes and pipelines. Level preparation and clean-up can be very timeconsuming with this type of fill. The high binder dosage needed to create a hydraulic fill with good strength properties can be expensive. Paste fill, on the other hand, has high solids content, usually with a pulp density in the range of 7588% solids weight for weight, 3. Paste backfill is cheap as comparison to rock fill or hydraulic fill,5. This type of filling usually contains fine material. According to Archibald et al.,6 and Slater, 7 as the concentration of fine particle (below 20m) increases, viscous stresses also increases, and paste become non-Newtonian in nature. And it promote just like Bingham flow conditions. This viscous character is a dynamic property of paste. When the paste is stationary, the attractive forces between particles or agglomerates form a three- dimensional structure, which extends to wall of the pipe. The shear stress required to rupture this structure and initiate flow, is called the yield stress. Below this stress the material behaves like an elastic solid. As shear stresses and shear rates increases, the agglomerates gradually reorientate and disintegrate, resulting in a decrease in the viscosity of the backfill material. This process is known as shear thinning. At very high shear stresses and shear rates, the reorientation and disintegration process reaches equilibrium, and the viscosity becomes constant. Paste fills have gained popularity in the past few years due to several operational and environmental benefits due to following achievement. The water solid ratio for the paste fill is low, producing greater strength gain per unit volume of cement added to consolidate the fill. So strengths approaching rock fill can be achieved, while using less cement than hydraulic fills; Facilitates a rapid mining sequence because strength is achieved earlier compared with hydraulic fill; Allows the use of waste rock and slag as well as the fine fraction of tailings, thereby reducing surface tailings impoundment requirements; so reduced the environmental costs of the mine; A uniform graded backfill is capable of generating greater compressive strength due to fewer voids; Paste fill has higher stiffness than hydraulic sand fill because of reduced porosity; Decant water from the fill is virtually eliminated, reducing costs and problems associated with barricade set-up/level clean-up and wear on mine dewatering pumps; The present bore-hold delivery systems of slurry fills can be used; 2

In saturated condition within the paste backfill the ingress of oxygen, so limiting the potential for generation of acid mine drainage. Due to these advantages the use of paste technology has been accepted worldwide in the modern mining industry of today. A superplasticizer is one of type of admixtures called water reducers that are used to reduction in water requirement of mill tailings. Water reduction results in undesirable effect on setting, bleeding, segregation and hardening characteristics. Superplasticizer is chemically different from normal water-reducers, and is capable of reducing water contents by about 30%. The transportation of cemented mill tailings in the form of paste through pipelines is one of the main stages of paste backfill operations. One of the data-sets used for pipeline design purposes are those correlating the yield stress of fluid material changes with changes in friction loss and the diameter of pipes ,8, 9 and its used in the design of pumping energy requirements for the transportation of paste backfills through pipelines,8, 10. 2. Characteristics of Cemented Mill Tailing Backfill The addition of cement to cohesionless mill tailings backfill results in material which provides high strength and elasticity with time, 4, 11, 12. The presence of sulpher in mill tailings reduces the strength of backfill after certain time due to the production of hydrogen ions causing an sulphate attack that dissolves the calcium hydroxide found in hydrating cement and the precipitation of gypsum, ettringite and monoaliminate sulphate by the reaction of aluminates in the cement the mineral species have low molar densities compared to the cement components they replace, 6, 5, 13, 14, and thus, cause expansion in cements. The addition of cement to tailings also decreases the permeability of tailings with finer materials experiencing a greater percentage decrease, 13. The effect of cementing reactions is to reduce the porosity of the fill and block drainage paths. Pulp density is vital role play in cemented mill tailings backfill for strength and Flowability purpose. For strength purpose a high pulp density is ideal, 3, 14. Researchers 15, 16 shows that the solubilities of silica and alumina are greatly decreased at reduce the pH levels, which can lead to a decrease in pozzolanic reactions as well as decreased cation exchange capacity. They suggested that the high pH causes silica from the clay minerals to dissolve and, in combination with Ca++, to form calcium silicate. This reaction will continue as long as Ca (OH)2 exists in the mill tailing and there is available silica. A very small amount of Ca (OH)2 was required to raise the pH to the target value. Better strength and fluidity is achieved by the addition of superplasticizer in cemented mill tailings, 17. 3. Laboratory Testing of Cemented Mill Tailings A number of laboratory tests were carried out to study the effect of material composition on the strength of cemented mill tailings backfills, including tests for specific gravity, particle size distribution, porosity, pH, Atterberg limits, permeability, uniaxial compressive strength, rheological test. The main objectives of developing the backfill laboratory testing were , first to identify a cost effective backfill mixture which will fulfill the desired strength and deformation behavior of cemented mill tailing backfill as a function of binder content and cure time in uniaxial, So that the mix characteristics will be adjusted in such a way that when underground opening is filled with this mixture, the filled structure will safely withstand strata loading, and will limit underground and surface movements; and second, to develop an understanding of the performance of cemented paste backfill when exposed to superplasticizer. 3

(i) Specimens The materials used in this paper are one of the Indian mines mill tailings, Portland cement, tap water, and superplasticizer. The basic properties of tailings are summarized in table-1. Figure-1 shows the particle size distribution of tailings, determined by sieve analysis. Table1: The basic properties of mill tailings Parameters Specific gravity PH in water Liquid limit (%) Plastic limit (%) Particle size distribution Silt (%) Fine sand (%) Medium sand (%) D10 D30 D50 D60 Cu Cc Permeability (cm/sec)

Value 2.67 7.89 ------12.22 86.82 0.96 71 125 140 150 2.11 1.47 410-3


% Passing


0.1 0.01

0.1 Grain Size D(mm)


Fig. 1: Grain size distribution of tailings

On the basis of basic physical properties, the tailings were nonplastic. A qualitative assessment of tailings mineralogy using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) indicated the mine tailings consists mainly of quartz (SiO2), followed by Albite (NaAlSi3O8), Calcium Peroxide (CaO2), Cordierite(Mg2Al4Si5O18), Potassium sulfate oxide(K2S2O5), sulfur (S7)and Sodium Manganese Silicate (Na2Mn6Si7O21). Chemical composition was determined by scanning electron microscope method given in Table 2.

Table 2: Chemical Composition of mill tailing (determined by SEM method) Chemical component Na2O MgO Al2O3 SiO2 SO3 K2O CaO TiO2 MnO2 Fe2O3 NiO ZnO (ii) Unconfined Compression Test The purpose of the uniaxial compression tests was to obtain unconfined compressive strengths (UCS) and moduli as a function of binder content and cure time. The different percentage of cement was sampled for each type of test: 3%, 6%, 10% and 20% by dry weight (Cement: mill tailing), in all, 60 samples were cured on laboratory at pulp density 80 % for 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days at temperature 300C. Other 24 samples were cured on laboratory for 28 days for different pulp density at 200C. Again 24 samples were cured on laboratory for 28 and 90 days for different composition of superplasticizer at 200C at pulp density 77%. The samples of 54 110 mm diameter by length were cast in wooden cylindrical molds (Fig.2). After allowing them to set for 48 hours, al1 of the sample were removed from the wooden molds and were waxed at both ends to prevent moisture loss due to evaporation and possible oxidation of the samples. % by weight 5.88 6.23 9.83 42.31 4.89 1.1 9.08 1.46 .34 17.43 .1 1.35 Element Na Mg Al Si S K Ca Ti Mn Fe Ni Zn % by weight 6.72 6.20 8.97 35.55 3.79 1.67 11.76 1.58 .47 21.29 .13 1.89

Fig.2 Sample preparation in the wood mold

Immediately before the testing, both ends of the samples initially were done parallel by polish. Samples length, diameter and weight of samples were measured. The sample was placed in the testing frame its stroke control rate was 0.315 mm/min and brought into contact with the load cell by adjusting the hydraulic ram. When the sample was failed load and deformation was noted. UCS was calculated with the Secant value of Youngs modulus at 50% peak stress. 4. Results and Discussion a. Effect of cement content and curing time on UCS and Youngs Modulus The unconfined Uniaxial Compressive Strength (UCS) is calculated as the mean value of the maximum stresses obtained during the testing of three samples of the same mill tailing and cement mixture. The secant values of Youngs Modulus are calculated at the point 5

corresponding to 50% of the compressive strength value. Different Uniaxial Compressive Strength (kPa) and Young Moduli (MPa) were obtained for different cement proportions and the curing time. Figure-3 shows the relationship between UCS and cement % and Fig.4 shows Youngs modulus and cement % respectively for different curing period. These figures clearly show the compressive strength and Youngs modulus of the fill increases with cement content and curing time as expected. Compressive strength and elasticity are relatively low for 3% cement in mill tailing, with a notable increase starting to occur for some mixes with a cement dosage higher than 6%. All samples gradually gained strength and elastic modulus up to 28 days of curing. These results agree with reports by Belem et al., 18. UCS increases nonlinearly with the cement dosage for the all cement mill tailing composition. Modulus values also follow the same trend, increasing nonlinearly with binder dosage for all cement mill tailing composition. The rate of increase in UCS and modulus values is higher in the initial 21 days compared to its increment after 21 days. High strength values were obtained in the samples containing high amount of cement. It can also be seen from figure 3 that cement has high strength gain in the corresponding sample at curing 28 days. Therefore, it can be concluded that longer curing period also plays an important role for increasing the strength and moduli of paste backfill.
7.00 6.00 5.00 for 3 days for 7 days for 14 days 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 3% 6% 10% 20% Cement % for 21 days for 28 days



Fig.3: Effect of Cement and Curing time on Uniaxial Compressive Strength

900 800

Young's Modulus (MPa)

700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 3% 6% 10% 20% Cement % for 3 days for 7 days for 14 days for 21 days for 28 days

Fig.4: Effect of Cement and curing time on Youngs Modulus b. Effect of Pulp Density on UCS Figure-5 shows the relationship between UCS and different pulp densities for 28 days curing period at 6% cement dry weight composition at 200C. Figure-6 shows the relationship between moduli and pulp density. When pulp density 83.3% is used then result of UCS of this sample after 28 days curing in laboratory was 566 kPa, which is 135% more compared with UCS of sample with pulp density 66.7%. Similarly, Youngs Modulus of pulp density 83.3% sample is 86% more as compared to that of the sample with 66% pulp density. It can therefore be inferred that the compressive strength and Youngs moduli of the backfill samples are related to the pulp density. It is also noticed from fig.5 that there is no more difference in strength values for the samples with pulp densities between 83.3% and 80 %. This may be due to the required amount of water to react with cement and develop bonds between tailing materials. The strength of the backfill decreases as the pulp density decreases mainly because of the subsequent increase in overall porosity caused by the water-filled voids. On drying these samples air voids are created which are likely to decrease the strength of samples. On the contrary, the higher the pulp density ratio the stronger due to greater cement particle interlocking with mill tailing and less air voids creation.

600 500

UCS (kPa)

400 300 200 100 0 83.3 80 77 74 71.4 66.7 Pulp density (%)

Fig.5: Effect of Pulp density on Uniaxial Compressive Strength

180 160 157.1 127.9 128.5 121 86.9 84.3

Young's Modulus (MPa)

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 83.3






Pulp density (%)

Fig.6: Effect of Pulp density on Youngs Modulus

c. Effect of Porosity The effect of cement addition on porosity is given in table 3 and effect of porosity on uniaxial compressive strength is given in figure-7. Porosity has decreased with addition of cement in mill tailing due to fineness of cement. So when we mix cement in mill tailing then void ratio of mill tailing decreased. So higher uniaxial compressive strength has found in lower porosity due to greater particle interlocking and the presence of more cement is available per unit volume of backfill. Table 3 Effect of Cement addition on Porosity and UCS Cement content in Porosity (n %) UCS(kPa) Mill tailing (%) 3 60 173.44 6 59.18367 635.25 10 58.69565 1702.8 20 55.5556 5159.3

6000 5000
UCS (kPa)


4000 3000 2000 1000 0 55 56 57 58 Porosity (%) 59 60 1702.8 635.25 173.44 61

Fig.7: Effect of Porosity on UCS for curing 3 days d. Effect of Super Plasticizer The results of all the UCS tests due to variation of superplasticizer are summarized in table 4 and Fig.8 and 9 for the different percentages of composition after 28 and 90 days of curing. Fig.8 and 9 show the variation in the UCS and Youngs Moduli with the variation of composition of paste backfill with superplasticizer for 28 and 90 days curing. Graph 7 shows the maximum compressive strength 654.26 kPa (just double) of the composition MT: C: SP containing 94:6:.2 ratios as compression to compressive strength 313.64 kPa of composition MT: C: SP containing 94:6:0 ratios (control binder) respectively for 28 days curing. Compressive strength of another binder in which MT: C: SP containing 96:4:.2 ratios are also 74% more strength as compression to that control binder. But effect of superplasticizer is not good in binder which contains MT: C: SP containing 97:3:.3 ratios. Compressive strength 130.16 kPa of this binder is less than half value of compressive strength of control binder. Graph 8 shows Youngs modulus 214.19 MPa of binder which contains MT: C: SP containing 94:6:.2 ratios are also 70 % more than that of the Youngs modulus of control binder. This type of increment in compressive strength and stiffness has happened due to renders a lower porosity hardened material and increased the rate of cement hydration in well dispersed cement so that between cement mill tailing better particle packing and denser structure upon hardening in pastes contains admixture superplasticizer. 8

Fig.8 and 9 clearly show the variation of curing time on its strength and moduli. Increment on strength due to curing varies from 50- 100% for different composition. This has happened may be due to long term hydration between cement and mill tailing. The cement paste backfill mixture MT: C: SP containing 94:6:.2 developed the highest unconfined compressive strength over a 90 days curing period and showed the maximum stiffness development as compared to with other those of paste backfill specimens without admixture. But the cement paste backfill mixture MT: C: SP containing 96:4:.2 also developed the required unconfined compressive strength over a 90 days curing period and showed the maximum stiffness development as compared to with other those of paste backfill specimens without admixture. So for economical purpose this composition is also best. Table 4: Effect of SP on Compressive strength and Youngs Modulus for 28 and 90 days curing 28 days curing time UCS(kPa) Young's Modulus(MPa) 654.26 214.2 545.91 165.36 313.64 124.84 130.16 150.90 90 days curing time 938.9 892.1 586.1 331.87 234.0 198.6 170.2 97.3

Composition 94:6:.2 96:4:.2 94:6:0 97:3:.3 94:6:.2 96:4:.2 94:6:0 97:3:.3

1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0



654.3 545.9 586.1 for 28 days 313.6 331.9 130.2 for 90 days

UCS (kPa)





Composition (MT:C:SP)

Fig. 8: Effect of Super plasticizer on UCS for different curing days

Young's Modulus (MPa)

234 214.2

198.6 165.36 170.2 150.9 124.84 97.3 for 28 days for 90 days

200 150 100 50 0 94:6:.2




Composition (MT:C:SP)

Fig. 9: Effect of super plasticizer on Youngs Modulus for different curing days (i). Rheological test Experimental Procedure

Cylindrical mould was used for determination of slump value due to many advantages over the cone slump test, 19. There is no required standard for the cylinder test. Cylinder was made by PVS with the length 115 mm and diameter 102 mm. The both side of the cylinder was opened so that slumped material is 100% consistent during lifting. And filling with sample time used one strong smooth steal plate on top of cylinder. The cylinder was filled with sample, and the cylinder lifted slowly and evenly. The change in height between the cylinder and deformed material was measured (fig.10). The midpoint of the slumped material was taken as the representative height. Heights were measured with a scale. Density and concentration were measured at the time of testing. Average value was finding of three tests for each. Cylindrical slump test (a) with superplasticizer (b) without superplasticizer

Fig. 10: Slump test of backfill with superplasticizer Results obtained from the test are: Yield stress of backfills without superplasticizer = 493 Pa Slump height = 25.6 mm Yield stress of backfills with superplasticizer =338 Pa Slump height = 41.51 mm The results of the slump tests performed with 6% (dry weight %) cements with 0.2% superplasticizer and without superplasticizer (Fig.11). It has seen that there is very much 10

difference (155 Pa) on the yield value and also much difference between slump height (15.91mm) between both while water 23% in solution present in both condition. So here fluidity increased with superplasticizer.

600 493
Yield Stress (Pa)

500 400 300 200 100 0 without SP with SP(.2%) 338

Fig. 11: Effect of superplasticizer on Yield Stress Setting Time Procedure

Setting time was determined by Vicat needle test (penetration test). Specimen for the Vicat needle test were cylindrical cup 70 mm in diameter and 40 mm high. After being filling with paste (pulp density 80%). The standard test method, the Vicat needle test, was used to determine the initial and final setting times hydraulic cement. The initial setting is the determined for the needle to reach a penetration depth 5mm in standard Vicat apparatus. The final setting takes place when the needle does not visibly penetrate into the paste i.e., the specimen has a solid structure. Table 5: Vicat needle test result Binder content 94:6 (MT:C) 94:6 (MT:C) Water(%) of total weight Setting time(min) Initial none SP.2% of dry weight 23 23% of total weight 65 45 Final 125 120


Table 5 shows the initial and final times of setting for paste in which one is without superplasticizer and other is with superplasticizer. The data indicates that initial time setting of paste with superplasticizer is less as compared to without superplasticizer paste. And final time setting of both pastes is about same while superplasticizer paste is wet as comparison to without paste. So for same slump value, time setting will be reduced in superplasticizer paste than without superplasticizer paste. (ii). Flow ability Test For flow behavior test, one galvanized iron sheet 120 cm length was used at inclination 20 0 degree as shown in figures 12-15. Figures 12-15 show the flow characteristics of backfill material. The result of the test performed with 4 different compositions. In first experiment for flow test, 0.2 % superplasticizer was used in MT: C contains 94:6 ratios binder. In 2nd experiment no superplasticizer was used for same combination. In 3rd experiment, 0.2% 11

superplasticizer was used in MT:C contains 96:4 ratios respectively. In 4th experiment, 0.3% superplasticizer was used in MT: C contains 97:3 ratios respectively. It has seen that there is significant difference on the fluidity of different composition. At 0.2% superplasticizer in Mill Tailing Cement (94:6 ratios) binder, the fluidity increased compared to the other composition. And in other composition some part of paste has flowed and some part has not flowed. Higher the fluidity in first case was observed due to electrostatic repulsion between particles, causing dispersion. In 3rd and 4th experiment an insufficient amount of cement may be available to react with main hydration (i.e. calcium silicate hydrates or C-S-H) to produce effective dispersion at later stage. Fine particle is also important role played with superplasticizer for fluidity purpose.

Fig.12: Flow characteristics of mill tailing when 0.2 % superplasticizer mixed with MT: Cement (94: 6)

Fig.13: Flow characteristics of mill tailing when no superplasticizer used in MT: Cement (94: 6)


Fig.14: Flow characteristics of mill tailing when 0.2 % superplasticizer mixed with MT: Cement (96: 4)

Fig.15: Flow characteristics of mill tailing when 0.3 % Superplasticizer mixed with MT: Cement (97: 3)

The rheological behaviour of two paste backfills characterized in this study was yield-pseudo plastic. The superplasticizer controls not only the rheological behaviour of paste backfill, but also their yield stress. Yield stress measurements in slump test method show reliable results for superplasticizer as comparison to non superplasticizer paste backfills. So Based on the results of this research, we can conclude that the use of superplasticizer in backfill material will be economical because this will not increase the strength but also aids in the rheological characteristics of paste backfill material. 5. Conclusions An effort is made in the present study to generate value on physical, chemical, mechanical and rheological characteristics of mill tailing samples. Mechanical and rheological characteristics of mill tailings were found with different percentage of cement, water and superplasticizer. Ninety different cemented backfill materials were tested to determine the influence of their composition on the unconfined compressive strength in laboratory. The studies lead to the following conclusions which may be of significance for the further research and for the practice of mine backfill using cemented paste backfill method. 13

Predominant oxides found in the mill tailing samples are SiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3, CaO, Na2O, MgO, SO3, and TiO2. The sums of these oxides were above 90%. The presence of CaO at 9 % in the mill tailing samples indicates the good pozzolanic characteristic of mill tailings. Generally mill tailings contain sulfate concentration. pH was found to be at 7.89 in this sample and by SEM very less sulfur concentration has been observed and XRD reports was not indicate of ferrous sulphide. So it is also good for strength purpose. Because sulfate concentration decreased strength after 90 days. Due to this cause dilution problem will be decreased. Particle size distribution show that the percent of fine sand is 86.82%, for paste backfill purpose and minimum15% of below size 20m mill tailing will be required. Coefficient of permeability of mill tailing is 4.0810-3 cm/sec, which is very less and after cement, addition its value again will be decreased. So it is not good for drainage in hydraulic backfill purpose without any flocculent. This is good for paste backfill purpose. After addition of cement and fine particle permeability will be decreased. The material composition strongly influenced the strength of cemented backfill. Pulp density is a critical determining factor in the strength of cemented backfill. Increase in its value significantly increased the backfill strength. Increased cement content increased the backfill strength. Superplasticizer also play good impact for increment on its strength with cement, Slump heights obtained from the slump cylinder experiments is observed to increase and decrease yield stress with mixing of superplasticizer in binder. So its flow ability increased with mixing of superplasticizer. Setting time has also not increased with superplasticizer. Due to these good properties of superplasticizer, it may play a vital role in paste backfill.

So the use of paste backfill in place of hydraulic backfills will be correct choice for backfill operation. This shall not only enhance the performance of the backfill as a ground support system but also likely to reduce the dilution of muck, and thus may result in the full recovery of ore. 6. Reference 1 Barrett, J R., Coulthard, M A., and Dight, P. M., 1978. Determination of Fill Stability, Mining with Backfill, 12th Canadian Rock Mechanics Symposium, CIM Special Volume 19, Sudbury, Ontario, May, pp. 23-25. Petrolito, J., Andersion. R.M., and Pigdon, S. P., 2005 A review of binder materials used in stabilized backfills Cim bulletin. January- February 85. Amaratunga, L.M., Hein, G.G., and Yaschyshyn. D.N., 1997. Utilization of gold mill tailings as a secondry resource in the production of a high strength total tailings past fill. CIM bulletin, vol. 90, No.1012, pp. 83-88. Viles, R.F. Davis, R.T.H., and Boily, M.S., 1989. New material technologies applied in mining with backfill. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill Innovations in Mining Backfill Technology, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 95101. Hassani, F.P., quelled, J., and Hussein, M., 2001. Strength development in underground High- sulphate paste backfill operation. CIM Bulletin, vol. 90, No. 1050, pp. 57- 62. Archibald J.F; Chew J.L; and Lausch P; 1999. Use of ground waste glass and Normal Portland cement mixtures for improving slurry and paste backfill support performance. CIM bulletin, vol. 92, May, No.1030, pp. 74-80.

2 3

5 6


7 8 9 10


12 13 14 15 16 17 18


Slatter, p., 2006. Plant design for slurry handling. The Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Vo106, October, pp. 687-691. Moghaddam, A. S. and Hassani, F.P. 2007. Yield Stress Measurement of cemented paste backfill with the vane Method and slump tests. Minefill 2007. 2548. Chandra, S., Bjornstrom, J., 2002. Influence of superplasticizer type and dosage on the slump loss of Portland cement mortas. Cement and concrete research 32, pp. 1613-1619. Amaratunga, L.M., and Yaschyshyn. D.N., 1997. Development of a high modulus paste fill using fine gold mill tailings. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 15, pp. 205 219. Lamos, A.W. and Clark, I.H., (1989), The Influence of Material Composition and Sample geometry on the Strength of Cemented Backfill, Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill Innovations in Mining Backfill Technology, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 89-94. Perry, R.J. and Churcher, D.L., 1990. The application of high density paste backfill at dome mine. CIM bulletin, May, pp. 53-58. Mitchell. R.J. and Wong, B.C. 1982. Behaviour of cemented tailings sands. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. 19. No. 3, pp. 289-295. Benzaazoua, M., Fall, M., Belem, T., 2003. A Contribution to understanding the hardening process of cemented paste backfill. J. Miner. Eng. UK 17/2, pp. 141152. Kesimal, A., Yilmaz, E., and Ercikdi. B., 2004. Evaluation of paste backfill mixtures consisting of sulphide-rich mill tailings and varying cement contents. 34, pp. 1817-1822. Mitchell. R.J. Olsen. R.S. and Smith, J.D., 1982. Model studies on cemented tailings used in mine backfill. Canadian Geotechnical Journal., 19, pp. 14-28. Kumar, S., 2007. Influence of Cemented Mill Tailing as backfill Materials in Open Stopes. M.Tech thesis, IIT Kharagpur, pp.1-66. Belem T., Benzaazoua M., Bussire B., 2000 Mechanical behaviour of cemented paste backfill. In Geotechnical Engineering at the dawn of the 3rd millennium: Proceedings of the 53rd Canadian Geotechnical Conference and the 1st Joint IAH-CNC/CGS Conference (53rd: September 18-20,: Montral Canada). Leboeuf, D. (dir.) Richmond, Canada, Canadian Geotechnical Society, pp. 373-380. Clayton, S., Grice, E, T. G. and Boger, D. V., 2003. Analysis of the slump test for on-site yield stress measurement of mineral suspensions. International Journal of Mineral Processing, 70, pp. 2-21.