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The Nature of Planned Change

lIntroduction lTheories

of Planned Change:

lLewins Change

Model Research Model lContemporary Action Research Model

lComparison lGeneral

of Models Model of Planned Change

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What are change models? Conceptualisations of organisation change

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How change can be implemented Activities that must occur Temporal processes

Mental models used by Conslutants and change agents

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Diagnosis Intervention planning

Lewins Force Field Analysis

Current Condition Desired Condition

Driving Forces

Restraining Forces

Force Field Analysis: Illustration

Desired Condition Learning effectiveness = 80% in the course

Current Condition Learning effectiveness = 50% in the course

Driving Forces Restraining Forces

Action Plan


Poor time management Action plan put in Place for two weeks: Excessive workload Better time management Busy social life



Lewins Change Model

Unfreezing Movement


Action Research Model

Problem Identification Consultation with a behavioral scientist Data gathering & preliminary diagnosis Feedback to Client Joint diagnosis

Joint action planning

Action Data gathering after action

Contemporary Approaches to Planned Change

Choose Positive Subjects Develop a Vision with Broad Participation

Collect Positive Stories with Broad Participation Examine Data and Develop Possibility Propositions

Develop Action Plans


General Model of Planned Change

Entering and Contracting Diagnosing Planning and Implementing Change
Evaluating and Institutionalizing Change

Comparison of Planned Change Models


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Change preceded by diagnosis or preparation Apply behavioral science knowledge Stress involvement of organization members Recognize the role of a consultant General vs. specific activities Centrality of consultant role

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Force-field Analysis Exercise

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Individual Exercise: Step 1. Identify your level of job performance (in a current jo b or previous job) (use %). Specify the level you wish to reach (use %). Step 2. Identify the `driving forces, that are pushing for hig her levels of performance. Specify the strength of each on a five point scale (5=very strong, 1=very weak) Step 3. Identify the `restraining forces that are helping to maintain the status quo. Specify the strength of each. Step 4. Identify the forces you can alter to move you towards the desired goal Group Exercise: Step 5. Share your analysis with others in the group. Group wil l provide constructive feedback/suggestions. Action Plan: Where feasible, you may consider implementing at least one idea for improvement. Observe the difference over a length of time (6-12 months).

Small Group Discussion

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Application 2.1: Planned Change at Curtice Burns What triggered organizational change at CBF? Where did the initiative for change come from? What is its significance, if any? 2. Identify actions of OD consultants and relate these to anyone of the OD models in the chapter (chapter 2). 3. What were the positive outcomes reported ? In your opinion, to what extent can these positive outcomes be traced to the OD intervention?