Suchismita Ukil M.A.


which is in actual fact created by men and “that obscurity. 1 (Spring-Summer. is great is told to us by the male authorities and we have no space to challenge their assertions as only those with fine sensibilities can truly appreciate their greatness.g. like the world itself. is the work of men. where women artists have been criticised for having a ‘feminine’ aesthetic typifying the paintings presented by them as inferior art. She goes on to say that appreciating is the only leisure activity of the so-called ‘cultivated’. Valerie Solanas . first pub. the radical feminist. in her famous work SCUM (Society for Cutting Up Men) Manifesto. the sphere of domesticity. woman/nature which dominate many conceptions of sexual difference. By David Jary and Julia Jary. There has been substantial amount of literature prior to this. let her dabble in anything. one of the major tasks faced by the feminists was to restructure the representation of the female in the various art forms as unfavourable depiction and reading of art history might further the cultural hegemony which has already existed. Also. frantic attempt to groove in an ungroovy world. at the same time raising questions as to who or what makes an artist ‘great’ and trying to destroy the stereotypes associated with feminist art. indirectness. 23-26.” 2 --Simone de Beauvoir Griselda Pollock vociferously states that since the beginning of the women’s movement. For French feminist theorists (e. “Representation of the world. that that their inability to create leads them to spectate. Feminists and sociologists have challenged the stereotypes relating to 'femininity'. thus creating a divide in order to disguise his own insecurity. any art which challenges the set perceptions of history and tries to provide different explanations is again cast off. that “absorbing ‘culture’ is a desperate. 'feminine' is an arbitrary category given to woman's 1 th appearance or behaviour by patriarchy. The woman of genius does not exist. if there is such a thing as the feminine aesthetic and feminist imagery. evasiveness. The Second Sex (Harmondsworth: Penguin. 1983) pp. 1983. p. incomprehensibility. or the ‘second wave’ of feminism as an ideology. Vol. France. Kristeva). 2006 2 Simone de Beauvoir. with an emphasis upon the relegation of women to the private sphere. 'female identity' and the binary categories man/mind." th --A 19 century commentator Feminism as we know it today. Art and Ideology: Questions for Feminist Art Historians. The notion of free. 1999 4 Women. reverses the roles of the sexes projecting the man as an essentially weak individual who resorts to “symbolism and obscurity” to prove himself as superior to the ‘other’ (woman). whereas art by women is always accompanied with a feminine adjectival prefix. No. escape 1 Collins internet-linked dictionary of Sociology (Sociology Defined and Explained). Women artists have been deliberately kept 3 th away from the canon whereas a close scrutiny of the 20 century would provide us with enough examples of consistent and constant contribution by them. she is a man. Ed. ambiguity and boredom (present in their art) are marks of 5 depth and brilliance” . The historical (often masculine) study of femininity documents feminine identity linked to passivity. which they confuse with absolute truth. Griselda Pollock. Griselda Pollock (Woman’s Art Journal. 39-47) 5 SCUM Manifesto (London: The Matriarchy Study Group. including the reduction of sociocultural processes to biological givens. 175 3 Differencing The Canon: Feminist Desire and the Writing of Art’s Histories. developed in the late 1960s and soon found itself a strong base within every facet of the society including art. individual creativity has always been associated with the male. literature and politics. Cixious. 1972. This gender differentiation in turn has played a significant role in hailing the masculine art 4 and upholding it as ‘great’ or ‘serious’. She states that ‘Great Art’. They show it from their own point of view. When she does. Valerie Solanas.The Other: Re-discovering the Women Artists and the Concept of Feminism in Art "So long as a woman refrains from unsexing herself. In this essay. cooperation. we are going to look at the ‘women’ artists of the 20 century and try to ascertain whether it would be pertinent to term their art as ‘feminine’ or ‘feminist’ as well as challenge the notion or the myth of ‘great’ art. nurturing. 4. gentleness and relationship to motherhood. at the same time reducing the so-called feminine art as the ‘other’. first pub. 1968) pp. 1949).

. one cannot absolutely agree with her as it is highly intransigent and tends to denigrate the male sex in order to prove her point. Even though Solanas’ work is an interesting read and provides food for thought. as opposed to radical feminism (initially atleast). Waiting for someone to come in Waiting for someone to hold me Waiting for someone to feed me Waiting for someone to change my diaper Waiting .the horror of a sterile. Waiting to scrawl. Waiting . to create a collaborative art installation in a house. to dance close Waiting to be beautiful Waiting for the secret Waiting for life to begin Waiting… . where actors were seen as having both the sex organs and ‘Birth Trilogy’. tie my shoes Waiting for Mommy to brush my hair Waiting for her to curl my hair Waiting to wear my frilly dress Waiting to be a pretty girl Waiting to grow up Waiting . Waiting for my breasts to develop Waiting to wear a bra Waiting to menstruate Waiting to read forbidden books Waiting to stop being clumsy Waiting to have a good figure Waiting for my first date Waiting to have a boyfriend Waiting to go to a party. where 21 art students from Feminist Art Program at the California Institute of the Arts (CalArts) turned a dilapidated house in Los Angeles into an art exhibit. Faith Wilding’s 15-minute monologue titled ‘Waiting’ as a part of 6 7 6 Ibid. the red splayed against the white walls creating a stark impression. . . . There were several noteworthy installations such as the ‘Bridal Staircase’ by Kathy Huberland. mindless existence. dress me. . like its counterpart. which depicted a white bathroom with a shelf full of feminine hygiene products and a trash can full of used feminine hygiene products. Waiting . to be asked to dance. And the feminist art or the feminist movement at large.” (Shulamith Firestone) Along the same lines as Solanas. . . is perhaps a landmark in revolutionising art and bringing about feminist art and imagery to the forefront. “The development of ‘female’ art is not to be viewed as reactionary. Judy Chicago’s ‘Menstruation Bathroom’. where performers crawled through a “birth canal” 7 tunnel made of the legs of other women. where a mannequin bride was placed on the stairs with her long bridal train leading to the kitchen and becoming progressively greyer and dingier along its length. Project Womanhouse. the male School of Virility. waiting to talk Waiting to be cuddled Waiting for someone to take me outside Waiting for someone to play with me Waiting for someone to take me outside Waiting for someone to read to me. was certainly not about that but about finding a balance along with creating a niche for women artists who had been marginalised for a long time now.” Her radical ideas become very evident when she claims that man being purely sexual and hollow and without the ability to give life cannot aptly depict life in any which way. . . Waiting . to walk. an art historian who was teaching at CalArts during that time. and performance acts such as ‘He and She’. . It was started in 1972 by Judy Chicago and Miriam Schapiro at the idea of Paula Harper.

. Right Waiting . the afterbirth Waiting to hold my baby Waiting for my baby to suck my milk Waiting for my baby to stop crying Waiting for my baby to sleep through the night Waiting for my breasts to dry up Waiting to get my figure back. to leave home Waiting to be myself . to stay out late Waiting to be a woman Waiting . to drink. touch me. Waiting to get married Waiting for my wedding day Waiting for my wedding night Waiting for sex Waiting for him to make the first move Waiting for him to excite me Waiting for him to give me pleasure Waiting for him to give me an orgasm Waiting . Waiting for my children to come home from school Waiting for them to grow up. Waiting for him to come home. . . . . to call me Waiting for him to ask me out Waiting for him to pay attention to me Waiting for him to fall in love with me Waiting for him to kiss me. Waiting for my great love Waiting for the perfect man Waiting for Mr. for the stretch marks to go away Waiting for some time to myself Waiting to be beautiful again Waiting for my child to go to school Waiting for life to begin again Waiting . to make out.Waiting to be somebody Waiting to wear makeup Waiting for my pimples to go away Waiting to wear lipstick. . . . . Waiting for my baby to come Waiting for my belly to swell Waiting for my breasts to fill with milk Waiting to feel my baby move Waiting for my legs to stop swelling Waiting for the first contractions Waiting for the contractions to end Waiting for the head to emerge Waiting for the first scream. to shave my legs Waiting to be pretty Waiting . to wear high heels and stockings Waiting to get dressed up. . Waiting for him to notice me. waiting to go all the way Waiting to smoke. . . touch my breasts Waiting for him to pass my house Waiting for him to tell me I’m beautiful Waiting for him to ask me to go steady Waiting to neck. to fill my time… Waiting .

reach for my hand. Waiting to lose weight Waiting for the first gray hair Waiting for menopause Waiting to grow wise Waiting . for letters Waiting for my friends to die Waiting for my husband to die Waiting . to ask me how I feel… Waiting for him to stop being crabby. Judy Chicago. to provoke them into a reaction. This project was fashioned in such a way so as to shock the spectators. . The Menstruation Bathroom. Waiting to get sick Waiting for things to get better Waiting for winter to end Waiting for the mirror to tell me that I’m old Waiting for a good bowel movement Waiting for the pain to go away Waiting for the struggle to end Waiting for release Waiting for morning Waiting for the end of the day Waiting for sleep Waiting… . kiss me good morning Waiting for fulfilment Waiting for the children to marry Waiting for something to happen Waiting . to get ugly Waiting for my flesh to sag Waiting for my breasts to shrivel up Waiting for a visit from my children. . . Womanhouse Waiting for excitement Waiting for him to tell me something interesting. . . .the performance is also of tremendous significance. Waiting for my body to break down.

came up with a list in one of their notices in 1989: 8 9 Carolee Schneemann. they were socially conditioned to depict life a certain way and remained in the sidelines while Renoir and Monet. pp. and functions of the human 11 and concludes that ‘the female. Women inspired most great works of art (if not being directly involved in the production). a spiralled coil ringed with the shape of desire and generative mysteries. from her website http://www. is the prey of the species. often called the grandmother of performance art. "I thought of the vagina in many ways-.html Shulamith Firestone.women are kept from 10 th achieving an authentic picture of their reality..physically. For a true female aesthetic to emerge it would take a complete denial of all cultural tradition.. attributes of both female and male sexual power. transformation. 1 (2) (1972).caroleeschneemann. ‘Is Female to Male as Nature is to Culture?’ from Feminist Studies. presenting only the male view. 1979. to a greater extent than the male. in which she pulls a scroll of paper out of her vagina. 5-31 .. 148-160 10 Ibid. is not convinced that devaluation of women at the hands of men is a result of biological determinism.And not just Womanhouse. an architectural referent. birth passage. who were also known for depicting scenes from the household did pretty well for themselves. She is famous for her performance act. while the men ‘sublimate’ theirs into work. and which could be easily manipulated by them. She postulates that this might have occurred due to the fact that women are closer to nature than men. I saw the vagina as a translucent chamber of which the serpent was an outward model: enlivened by its passage from the visible to the invisible. ‘artificially’) at most times and there is a general tendency for culture to subvert nature. Carolee Schneemann was producing such radical art for a long time before 1972. starting with unlearning whatever one has been taught to believe as the absolute truth. the men were homosexual. conceptually: as a sculptural form. Women failed to leave an indelible mark in the art scene in the past as they had to participate and compete in an all male culture on male terms while being pressurised to prove themselves without discarding their female roles. culture is so saturated with male bias that women almost never have a chance to see themselves culturally through their own eyes. The problem lay in the fact that they were trying to outdo men in a culture created by them. development. Interior Scroll. “The tool for representing. the very core of the history of art borne out of great men. This source of interior knowledge would be symbolized as the primary index unifying spirit and flesh in Goddess 8 worship. which has text written on it. Thus because cultural dicta are set by men. a cultural anthropologist. the sources of sacred knowledge. 1970). Ortner. first pub. Ortner. ‘(Male) Culture’ from The Dialectic of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution (London: The Women’s Press. The psychical organisation orders the women to channel all their emotional energy on men." Marina pp. “De Beauvoir reviews the physiological structure. thus becoming the muse. performers and film makers who fight discrimination". Sherry B. for objectifying one’s experience in order to deal with it. a feminist New York based group founded in 1985 by unnamed women "artists.” Berthe Morisot and Mary Cassatt from the 19 century Impressionist School portrayed what could be called female subject matter and were thus categorised as minor painters as they had a ‘lifted’ a set of traditions which were not their own. ecstasy. they tend to assert their creativity externally. in whose creation they had no role to play. the latter being identified with culture (lacking natural creative functions. is another such example.’” Guerrilla Girls.. writers. says Shulamith Firestone. 11 Sherry B. And so the female nudes (the opposite sex stimulated men) became a regular and where male 9 nudes reached a high point. all the while reading from it to the audience.

but it does manage to capture the essence of discrimination and marginalisation faced by the women artists at the hands of the critics around that time and even before. using Ingres’ Odalisque. Another poster. by the Guerrilla Girls which gained popularity worldwide: .The above publication is very obviously a satire.

all of political groups with an agenda almost always his masterpiece L’origine du mondeforbidden site of specularity and ultimate object of male desire. Linda Nochlin.” Rosa Bonheur. Nochlin asserts that if daintiness and a nuanced treatment of the medium along with the portrayal of domestic lifestyle be the parameters for ‘femininity’. 77-86 . then Rosa Bonheur’s Horse Fair was nothing but delicate and the Dutch Little Masters.the cunt. repressed or displaced in the classical scene of 13 castration anxiety. 1971 Linda Nochlin. it has also been constructed as the very source of artistic creation itself. ‘Courbet’s L’origine du monde: The Original without an Original’ from October. pp. Horse Fair 12 13 Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists. 37 (1985).The Guerrilla Girls might be propagandist. the point here being that the subject matter or even the style of painting should not be criteria for a quintessential ‘feminine’ style. Courbet was probably one of the first modernist artists to paint the “female sex organ. Chardin and the impressionists-Renoir and well as Cassatt and Morisot have been known to illustrate household and children. but they end up raising significant and valid questions such as why have the women artists been neglected by the art 12 historians and why have there been no great women artists in the past.

If there actually were large numbers of ‘hidden’ great women . The Maternal Kiss Nochlin further says that great art is never just the expression of the artist’s emotions on the canvas. for Willem de Kooning or Andy Warhol. Picasso or Matisse. free of conventions developed over years of practice and experimentation. with a particular style. Portrait of Claude Renoir Painting Mary Cassatt. or even in the very recent times. Delacroix or Cezanne. any more than there are black American equivalents for the same. it is more than that. In this sense. “there are no women equivalents for Michelangelo or Rembrandt.Pierre-Auguste Renoir.

Miriam Schapiro. Barbara Kruger. objectifying the female form giving sexual connotations to it. Carole Shepheard.. Eva Hesse. Jacqueline Fahey. women and blacks included. “one is not born a woman. As Simone de Beauvoir put it. Mary Cassatt. Frida Kahlo. Judy Chicago. passed from father to son.then what are the feminists fighting for?” Things remain oppressive for those who were not fortunate enough to be born white males. Georgia O’Keefe. Alice Neel. as for most of the initial ‘great’ artists art was just a profession of the lower social classes. That what was revolutionary was not its forms but its content. Angelica Kauffman. The entire brouhaha surrounding the Great Artist is all but a myth.” Some of the women artists. and using feminist imagery to challenge such gender stereotypes along with raising key political issues and exploring a female heritage. The notion of individual genius as something innate does not exist per se. and scholars such as Piaget have stressed upon the fact that ability or intelligence is built-up step by step from infancy onwards based on observation and the patterns of adaptation-accommodation. Guerrilla Girls. Rosa Bonheur. one becomes one. who might have dabbled in art but never took it up professionally. Remedios Varo. providing patronage instead. a revolutionary strategy. Faith Ringgold. whores or mythical creatures. It is probable that the amount of time devoted to social functions made it impossible for both the upper class men and women in general to take it up as a full-fledged profession. The absence of women from the art scene also holds true for the aristocracy.artists. Lee Krasner. Kathe Kollwitz. questioning the depiction of women by the great artists as virgins. nature and purity to women. passivity. Paula Modersohn-Becker. assigning traits such as vulnerability. who often go unmentioned are Artemisia Gentileschi. Robyn Kahukiwa.” (Lucy Lippard) A few examples of feminist art as follows: . Bridget Riley. Meret Oppenheim. but instead was a value system. a way of life….. Suzanne Valadon. Emily Karaka. Feminist art was “neither a style nor a movement. Berthe Morisot. Marisol. Feminist art emerged as a direct response to patriarchy and division of power and laws. Audrey Flack. Cindy Sherman.

1 (1971). 3 . Marjorie Kramer is of the view that there is no such thing as the ‘Anatomy is Destiny’ theory. One cannot help but notice the resemblance between the flower and the vagina in these images. She did a series on ‘Black Iris’. feminine sensibility has been slave sensibility. that women have some inherent feminine quality which encompasses all their works and constitutes a ‘feminine aesthetic’ such as vaginal images.The above three paintings are by Georgia O’ Keeffe.. ‘Some Thoughts On Feminist Art’..” What Kramer is trying to say is that there 14 Marjorie Kramer. p. Up to now. from Women and Art. “Henry Moore does holes as much as Georgia O’Keeffe and Bonnard’s work has a feminine 14 quality.

‘How Can We Create our Beauty?’. It had to be something you couldn’t buy from a man but could only get from a woman. have been reduced to tools for procreation and this anguish is portrayed though images of ‘labour’ of childbirth and the trials and tribulations of mothering. delicacy and so on and so forth. ‘Negotiating the Feminist Divide’. and/or (d) be unwilling to experience reality as if he were a woman. (b) expect ideas which he can apprehend intellectually. ‘For A Truly Feminist Art’. the woman artist tends to directly associate with emotions which shows very blatantly in her works. The two main kinds of feminist painting are conscious and unconscious. In order to make it into a man’s world. pp. Also. thus often not wanting to associate with the female which is treated as an object. portraits. Feminist art is very distinctly different from feminine sensibility. art which comes directly out of a feminist such as this could not be degenerate. from the women’s always a need for good art and it should be produced irrespective of the artist’s gender.” Now. She does not strive for a bigger piece of the male-defined pie. has to be socially legible. reactionary. Often it is 18 considered negative but from the women’s point of view it is quite positive. who have been bestowed with the gift of giving life. Such art does not exploit women or portray them to be some sort of weak/man-eating monsters/objects of only sexual desire. the purpose is solved and is just as great as any other works by the masters. Critics of feminist art have stated that it is opportunist. Martin (London: Routledge. it could be disturbing and haunting. 24-25 Pat Mainardi. “So if a woman’s work is deeply involved with her feelings as a female it is likely that a man will: (a) approach it in the same way as he does the work of a man. She understands the implications of sisterhood and Marxism. (c) disregard as unreal or invalid ideas that do not 15 conform to his conception of reality. Feminist art cannot be in quintessence abstract. gentleness. Unconscious feminist art could be male nudes. feminist artists tend to annihilate themselves. and is often misconstrued by the male in the society who tends to judge it on the parameters set out by him. for example. 2. In order to truly and absolutely liberate 19 themselves and attain closure. ‘A Feminine Sensibility?’. pp. from Je. 107-111 (originally published in France in 1990) 19 Ibid. “an act of truthfulness. women. vulnerability. It shouldn’t challenge too many of the market’s standards at once but should be similar to what men are doing and collectors want. it has to convey some sort of progressive truth. 24 (1989). 23-25 . has been projected beautifully by men and women artists. 16 4. scenes from the domestic life (kitchen) whereas conscious feminist art is borne out of one’s own experience and essentially feminist aesthetic comes out of female consciousness. pp.” Publically showcasing pain and suffering has a therapeutic effect. nous: Towards a Culture of Difference. self-portraits. from Feminist Art Journal. 3.” Judith Stein counters Mainardi’s claims of feminist art being a regressive thing by differentiating between a ‘liberated’ woman and feminist. 4. just like everything else in the artworld. Female aesthetic should be based on form. where both the sexes have been more or less in agreement. Also. from Heresies. As is stated over and over again by feminist art historians and theoreticians. Art need not be beautiful. “The feminist iconography of the body often tells us less about essential experiences of being female than about how patriarchy has 20 mapped and controlled the female body and used it as an object of exchange between men. rooted in biological determinism. one fails to understand why the feminist imageries of rape. childbirth and cunt paintings are looked down upon. Landscape. 25 17 Judith Stein. from The Big News. 20 Whitney Chadwick. and instead of being progressive it is propagandist sharing its ideologies with the political movement of which it is a part. Women have got to have something to sell.” 15 16 Judy Chicago. trans. but 17 rather towards a society where not only all women. 1 (9) (1972). ‘Woman As Artist’. from Everywoman. tu. A. 2 (7) (1972). not on content. 3 18 Luce Irigaray.” The all-man is generally conditioned to be afraid of the purported feminine feelings and thus there is a common disdain for anything remotely linked with feelings of softness. p. The former would compete in a man’s world on his terms and try to create a niche for herself whereas the “feminist sees herself as a part of the broader movement. 1 (1) (1972). As long as it leaves an impact on one’s consciousness and is memorable. As Pat Mainardi very bluntly put it: “1. the woman artist is liable to prove that she’s as good as a man. but all people are able to define their own existences. 1993) pp.

female subjectivity. ignoring or minimising her interrogation of sexuality. This is hinted at with the face of the mother being covered by a white cloth. ‘Frida Kahlo: Marginalization and the Critical Female Subject’ from Third Text. It very aptly depicts how painful it is to give life someone. a central theme around which a large part of the feminist movement revolved. 2140 23 Ibid. 37-42 22 Joan Borsa. “Critical responses tend to gloss over Kahlo’s complex reworking of the personal. sexual difference. It is most probable that in this particular painting. published in 1983. pp. Another. titled Frida.“by the end of the book it has been established that Frida Kahlo’s life revolved around love. more personal aspect of it could be the fact that Kahlo longed to have children all her life but could not and her yearning came out through her paintings. ‘Evolution of a Feminist Consciousness’. 1 (SpringSummer 1986) pp. 7 No. marginality. tended to overtly romanticise her life. It could also be that the painter could not or did not wish to directly show the pain on her face and thus decided to cover it.” This is Frida Kahlo representing child birth. . the mother died while giving birth.“Surrealism offered many women their first glimpse of a world in which creative activity and liberation from 21 family-imposed social expectations might coexist. the biographer of Kahlo. 12 (1990).” Hayden Herrera. Woman’s Art Journal. Kahlo is a classic example of marginalisation in terms of location and gender and she worked marvellously well given the circumstances she was presented with.” Her works questions marginal contexts and representations of the body and sexuality and 21 Whitney Chadwick. marriage and pain. 22 cultural identity. Vol. politics and power. in short a traditional feminine sphere has been 23 presented.

1971 Women. 1985) pp. The women artists who have been discussed above such as Keeffe and Kahlo are feminists with a distinct feminine/female aesthetic (refer to p. who partook in the formation of culture which came to be dominated by them. 159 Silvia Bovenschen. Schapiro etc. Female artists were given the illusion of freedom of expression but in actuality were socially restricted to painting the domestic lifestyle. 2. trans. It is greater than that and the myths of a restricted masculine creativity and the inferiority of feminine art stretches beyond and into the ideological level in reproducing the hierarchy between the two sexes. Keeffe. Gisela Ecker. by Hilary Robinson. “It would take a denial of all cultural tradition for women to produce a ‘true’ female art. 1 (Spring-Summer 1983).” It is not practically 25 possible to create a counter-culture as most of women artists worked within the larger masculine tradition and the aim of the feminist movement is not one of separatist at that. Vol. Chicago. from Feminist Aesthetics. 8). 1999 Articles: 1. ‘Is There A Feminine Aesthetic?’. The Dialectic of Sex (New York: The Woman’s Press. Griselda Pollock. Beth Weckmueller (London: The Women’s Press. pp.instead of glorifying and celebrating the feminine form she parodies and capsizes the way women have been presented. Ed. 2001 Differencing The Canon: Feminist Desire and the Writing of Art’s Histories. Also. But this has come to change over the past few decades with the second wave of feminist movement where the set notions were finally challenged and paintings of artists such as Kahlo. The myth of ‘great’ art has been destroyed. They had to compete in the male-game on male terms and were sidelined in most of cases. Art and Ideology: Questions For Feminist Art Historians by Griselda Pollock. that the theory of biological determinism does not hold true and has been discredited overall and has been replaced by the theory that women are closer to nature as opposed to men. 2. it was primarily a bunch of men professionally into painting for generations together. who is the norm. Judy Chicago and Miriam Schapiro spearheaded the movement in art with their project Womanhouse and since then there was no looking back. 24 References: 1. ed. who patted each other on their shoulders since they had nobody else to do it for them. Why Have There Been No GREAT Women Artists? by Linda Nochlin. were brought to the forefront. Feminist art is still an ongoing process but in many cases has given way to post-feminism. 39-47 24 25 Shulamith Firestone. Women by far and large were denigrated and labelled as machines for furthering the human race. This leaves most historians frustrated and with the only doable alternative of modifying the existing tradition to our own convenience. Feminism--Art Theory: An Anthology 1968-2000. In conclusion one would like to say that feminism in art theory cannot afford to just provide a perspective aiming to improve the structuring of art history. There are differing opinions but more or less feminists are agreed upon the fact that culturally woman is constructed as the other to the man. 4 No. Women’s Art Journal. 1970). p. 23-50 (originally published in Germany in 1976) .