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Final Examination

Submitted by: FORAMEL A. SABIO


1. What is your assessment of the state of our Philippine environment particularly on the following bio-physical aspects: Coastal, Public Health, Agriculture, Water Resources, Forestry and Biodiversity (CHAWF)? The Philippines is rich in natural resources, however at present, these resources has been devastated. The damages caused to our natural resources have various effects to different biophysical aspects: A. Coastal In different parts of the country, mangroves have declined from 450,000 hectares in 1918 to less than 180,000 in 1980s. Vast areas where mangroves grew have been destroyed in order to be uses as fishponds, settlements and charcoal-making business. There are only four to five percent coral reefs which remain in perfect condition. Coral reefs are homes for fishes and other sea creatures, however, they were destroyed by dynamite fishing and other illegal means of fishing.

B. Public Health At present, severe pollution has covered the country, particularly in highly-urbanized cities. Vehicular and industrial emissions and unmanaged garbage are often the main pollutants. This is the reason why in urban cities, very high rates of lung diseases are recorded. Garbage are deposited in open dumpsites where poor people are settled. These open dumpsites are breeding ground of insects which cause diseases. During rainy season, these garbage are drained to rivers and seas, thus pollutes our water.


C. Agriculture In the agricultural aspect, the destruction of our environment has a major effect. The use of chemicals and fertilizers on the agricultural products has caused the lands to become acidic and less productive. Also, due to destruction of our forests, soil erosions occurred which vastly affect several farmlands.

D. Water Resources The destruction of our environment has also significantly affected our water resources. Groundwater levels have gone down by 5-10 meters for the last several decades in some areas due to over abstraction. A number of water resources used for public consumption had died down because of water pollutants. A considerable percentage of fish production has been lost due to polluted waters. These water pollutants came from our industries, houses and agricultural chemicals and fertilizers which drained off into rivers and seas.


E. Forestry Illegal logging and mining has denigrated a large portion of the Philippine forest resources. In effect, flash floods occurred just like what happened in Cagayan de Oro City wherein thousands of people died because there were no enough forest trees to hold the waters due to illegal logging. Mining, particularly open-pit mining, has also damaged our forests due to uprooting of hundred-old trees to find minerals underground. Although there is reforestations, but these solve the problem only minimally. And, reforestation is not enough, it should be rainforestation.

Environmental Impact of Mining in Rainforest

F. Biodiversity The Philippine is known as one of 18 mega-diversity countries in the world. It contains two-thirds of the earths biodiversity. However, at the present, the country is one of the hottest hot spots in destruction of animal habitat. 4

Several species of mammals and birds have become extinct on account of scarce of habitation. Their homes have been damage due to forest destruction and mining, in relation to mammals, and dynamite and other illegal means of fishing, in relation to sea animals. Aside from this, animals become extinct due to haunting.


2. Explain the general concept, principles and processes of Environmental Planning and Management including sub-areas like: a) Environmental Science, b) Environmental Planning, c) Environmental Management. a. Environmental Science

Environmental Science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical and biological sciences to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems. It provides an integrated, quantitative and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems. Environmental studies incorporate more of the social sciences for understanding human relationships, perceptions and policies towards the environment. (Wikipedia)

Environmental Science Process


Environmental science has four major components, which are as follows: 1. Atmospheric science It focuses on earths atmosphere, with an emphasis upon its interrelation to other systems. It includes the studies of meteorology, greenhouse gas phenomena, noise pollution and light pollution. Thus, the issue on global warming falls under this component. 2. Ecology It deals on interactions between organisms and their environment. It includes investigation on the relationship between a population of organisms and some physical characteristic of their environment, or the interaction between two populations of different organisms through symbiotic or competitive relationship. 3. Environmental chemistry It is the study of chemical alterations in the environment. 4. Geosciences It deals with environmental geology, environmental soil science, volcanic phenomena and evolution of the earths crust.


Environmental Planning

Environmental Planning is the process of facilitating decision making to carry out development with due consideration given to the natural environmental, social, political, economic and governance factors and provides a holistic frame work to achieve sustainable. outcomes. It offers a way to optimization of resources and stops the firm from fighting fires. Environmental Planning leads to preventive measures and anticipation of future environmental changes. Effective environmental planning also smoothens out implementation and minimizes environmental burden since many of the sources of environmental burden would be anticipated and addressed. The principles of environmental planning are as follows, to wit: 1. It is based on ecological theory and socialist economic laws, correctly handle the dialectical relationship between development construction and environmental protection. Taking economic construction as development strategy as a guidance. the center, taking economy and social

2. 3.

Provide reasonable and optimized environmental protection programs to achieve economic, social and environmental benefits together

The effects of environmental planning are the following, to wit: 1. Promote environment, economy and society in sustainable development.
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2. 3. 4. 5.

Put environmental protection activities into the plan of national economy and social development. Rationally allocate the emission reductions, constrain the behavior of polluters. Use minimum investment to achieve the best environmental benefits. The fundamental basis of achieving the management aim of environment.

The contents of environmental planning are the following: 1. The division of environmental function 2. The design and optimization of environmental planning scheme

The design procedure of environmental planning scheme

The technical methods of environmental planning are the following: 1. Systematic analytic method 2. Environmental planning decision-making method 2.a. Linear planning 2.b. Dynamic planning 2.c. Input-output analysis 2.d. Multiobjective planning Environmental planning is implemented in the following manner: 1. 2. 3. 4. Bring environmental plan into the overall planning Full implementation of environmental protection fund Prepare yearly environmental protection plans Implement the environmental protection goal management

c. Environmental Management Environmental management is the process by which environmental health is regulated. It is the process of taking steps and behaviors to have a positive effect on the environment and involves the wise use of activity and resources to have an impact on the world. The Environmental Management System (EMS) forms the core of any environmental management and planning program. It is a well structured and documented approach to respond to environmental challenges by focusing on environmental regulations and standards, and customer requirements. 8

EMS approach focus on effective ways to use such limited resources to produce environmentally conscious products and services. The popular approach to achieve this is to adopt a plan-do-check (study) - act (PDCA).

Environmental Management System Process Based on ISO 14001

1. Planning - involves defining specific goals for that organization to accomplish regarding the environment. 2. Doing - the company needs to take whatever steps are necessary to implement the processes laid out in the planning stage. 2. Checking - involves monitoring the environmental management plan, evaluating its effects and adjusting the procedures as necessary. 3. Acting - involves reviewing the plan after it is complete and looking at reports from activities conducted or talking to those who were directly involved to get feedback and adjust the plan accordingly. 9

3. Explain Assessment.









Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a process of decision-making which encourages productive and enjoyable harmony between man and his environment. Further, it helps implement a strategy of sustainable development, prevent adverse impact on the environment after the implementation of plans and construction projects, and promote coordinated development of the economy, society, and environment. Key Elements of EIA: 1. EIA must be undertaken early in the development of proposed projects, plans, and programs, and must be completed before a decision to proceed is made. 2. EIA must be an objective, impartial analytical process, not a way of promoting or selling a proposal to decision-makersit must use accepted scientific principles and methods. 3. EIA must analyze all reasonably foreseeable environmental impacts or effects of a proposed action effects may be short-term, long-term, direct, or indirect. 4. The process of EIA must be open to government officials at all levels, to potential stakeholders (those with direct interests in the proposed action), and to the public. 5. There must be an early, public scoping stage in EIA to consider alternatives and to help focus subsequent analysis on the more significant potential impacts rather than studying all possible environmental effectsthe goal is to reach a decision. 6. Government officials responsible for implementing EIA must encourage public participation in the process from the scoping stage forward. 7. In all EIA processes, effective mitigation measures must be identified and includedto avoid, minimize, or reduce the adverse effects of all potentially significant impacts. 8. EIA reports must include an Environmental Management System (EMS) or Action Plan to monitor the implementation phase of the project, plan, or program and provide for corrective actionssuch action plans must have assured fundings and be legally enforceable. Content of EIA Analysis: A. Physical components: Land Air Water Energy


B. Bio-Cultural components: Nature Culture People Access

Environmental Impact Assessment Process



4. What is the relevance of this Environmental Planning and Management subject in our current work and how will you apply this in your life, work and community? This subject is very relevant to my work since as a public employee I should be a role model in protecting and preserving our environment. Being in the Provincial Legal Office, I should see to it that environmental laws, ordinances and local executive orders relative to the protection and preservation of the environment are strictly implemented. Also, as member of the Provincial Gender and Development Team, I also see to it that activities concerning the environment such as recycling and proper waste management are part of the PGAD program. Now that we are in the process of drafting our Provincial Environment Code wherein I am also a member of the committee to draft thereof, I will be able to share my knowledge in this subject since I have now a wider understanding of the state of our environment. In our place in Davao del Sur, the main issue on environment is the open-pit mining in Kiblawan established by the Saguitarius Mines, Inc. (SMI). I have been against it because it will destroy our environment. Aside from destruction of the environment, the mining activity could also marginalize the Indigenous People living in the area. I help our community inform about the disadvantages of the mining so that they will be educated.

Sources: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Wikipedia Environmental Environmental Environmental Environmental

Planning by Prof. Reynaldo Navacilla Planning and Management by Prof. Reynaldo Navacilla Management by Prof. Reynaldo Navacilla Impact Assessment by Prof. Reynaldo Navacilla