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1 ii. Correct answer = 2 marks, wrong answer = 2 marks.

Time: 30 minutes.

1. What is Space Complexity of multiplying x and y binary strings using standard TM? Assume that |x| = m, |y| = n. Ans. The length of x and y are m and n, hence length of m n is m n. Thus maximum space occupied any time is m n, and space complexity is O(mn). 2. What is Time Complexity of recognizing L = {wR wwR |w {a, b} } on 3-tape TM? Write brief steps. Ans. Initial head positions are: h1 wR wwR , h2 BB, h3 BB 1. Copy x = wR wwR to tape2, and tape3.(Now heads are: wR wwR h1 , wR wwR h2 , wR wwR h3 ) No. of transitions=3w 2. For each 3-step L move of h1 , have the one step L move of h2 , and h3 , till h1 is extreme left. (Now heads are: h1 wR wwR , wR wh2 wR , wR wh3 wR )No. of transitions=3w 3. Compare: move h1 , R, h2 L, and h3 R, and compare. No. of transitions=w. if |wR wwR | = n = 3|w|, then time complexity= n + n + 1 n= 2 1 n = O(n). 3 3 3. Let G = ({S}, {a, b}, P, S) be a CFG where P is S aSb|SS| . Which of the following is true? (a) G is not ambiguous (b) There exists x, y L(G) such that xy L(G). / (c) There is deterministic PDA that accepts L(G) (d) We cannot nd deterministic PDA that accepts L(G). Ans: A is not correct because for same expression there are more than syntax trees. Because of transition, deterministic PDA is not possible. Hence (D). We may take derivations: S aSb aSSb aaSbaSbb aababb. Can we detemine this string using deterministic PDA? NO. 4. Given T M M with = {0, 1, B}, = {0, 1}, B is for end of string, and is: 1

q0 q1

Which of the following is true? (a) M cannot halt on any string (0 + 1)+ (c) M halts on any string ending in 00 Ans. A, B are both true. 5. Let N f and N p denote the classes of languages accepted by non-deterministic nite automata and non-deterministic push-down automata, respectively. Let D f and D p denote the classes of languages accepted by deterministic nite automata and deterministic push-down automata respectively. Which one of the following is TRUE? (a) D f N f and D p N p (b) D f N f and D p = N p (c) D f = N f and D p = N p (d) D f = N f and D p N p (b) M cannot halt on any string (00 + 1)+ (d) M halts on any string ending in 1

Ans. L(DFA) and L(NFA) are equal as they recognize the same language. Some languages which are recognized by NPDA but they cannot be recognized by DPDA. Thus, L(PDA) is proper subset of L(NPDA). Ans. (D). 6. Consider the languages: L1 = {an bn cm |n, m > 0} and L2 = {an bm cm |n, m > 0}. Which one of the following statements is FALSE? (a) L1 L2 is a context-free language (c) L1 and L2 are context-free languages Ans. C and D are false statements. 7. Consider the languages:L1 = {wwR |w {0, 1} }, L2 = {w#w|w {0, 1} }, where # is a special symbol, L3 = {ww|w {0, 1} }. Which one of the following is TRUE? (a) L1 is a deterministic CFL (c) L3 is a CFL, but not a deterministic CFL Ans. B: dterminimistic CFL. 8. Let L1 be a recursive language. Let L2 and L3 be languages that are recursively enumerable but not recursive. Which of the following statements is not necessarily true? (A) L2 L1 is recursively enumerable (C) L2 L1 is recursively enumerable Ans. C. (B) L1 L3 is recursively enumerable (D) L2 L1 is recursively enumerable (b) L2 is a deterministic CFL (d) L3 is a deterministic CFL (b) L1 L2 is a context-free language (d) L1 L2 is recursively enumerable

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